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loxdox : 
teinted by william clowes and sons, 




Bad beginning of the new year. Dangerous illness. Kindness of 
Arabs. Complete helplessness. Arrive at Tanganyika. The 
Doctor is conveyed in canoes. Kasanga Islet. Cochin-China 
fowls. Beaches Ujiji. Receives some stores. Plundering bands. 
Slow recovery. "Writes despatches. Refusal of Arabs to take 
letters. Thani bin Suellim. A den of slavers. Puzzling current 
in Lake Tanganyika. Letters sent oft* at last. Contemplates 
visiting the Manyuema. Arab depredations. Starts for new 
explorations in Manyuema, 12th July, 1869. Voyage on the 
Lake. Kabogo East. Crosses Tanganyika. Evil effects of last 
illness. Elephant hunter's superstition. Dugumbe. The Lua- 
laba reaches the Manyuema. Sons of Moenekuss. Sokos first 
beard of. Manyuema customs. Illness. 


Prepares to explore River Lualaba. Beauty of the Manyuema 
country. Irritation at conduct of Arabs. Dugumbe' s ravages. 
Hordes of traders arrive. Severe fever. Elephant trap. Sick- 
ness in camp. A good Samaritan. Reaches Mamohela and is 
prostrated. Beneficial effects of Nyumbo plant. Long illness. 
An elephant of three tusks. All men desert except Susi, Chuma, 
and Gardner. Starts with these to Lualaba. Arab assassinated 
by outraged Manyuema. Returns baftled to Mamohela. Long 
and dreadful suffering from ulcerated feet. Questionable canni- 
balism. Hears of four river sources close together. Resume of 
discoveries. Contemporary explorers. The soko. Description 
of its habits. Dr. Livingstone feels himself failing. Intrigues of 


a 2 

OCT 18 1362 




Footsteps of Moses. Geology of Manynema land. " A drop of com- 
fort." Continued sufferings. A stationary explorer. Conse- 
quences of trusting to theory. Nomenclature of Rivers and 
Lakes. Plunder and murder is Ujijian trading. Comes out of 
hut for first time after eighty days' illness. Arab cure for 
ulcerated sores. Rumour of letters. The loss of medicines a 
great trial now. The broken-hearted chief. Return of Arab 
ivory traders. Future plans. Thankfulness for Mr. Edward 
Young's Search Expedition. The Hornbilled Phoenix. Tedious 
delays. The bargain for the boy. Sends letters to Zanzibar. 
Exasperation of Manynema against Arabs. The "Sassassa bird." 
The disease "Safura." 59 


Degraded state of the Manyuema. Want of writing materials. Lion's 
fat a specific against tsetse. The Neggeri. Jottings about Merere. 
Various sizes of tusks. An epidemic. The strangest disease of 
all ! The New Year. Detention at Bambarre. Goitre. News 
of the cholera. Arrival of coast caravan. The parrot's-feather 
challenge. Murder of James. Men arrive as servants. They 
refuse to go north. Part at last with malcontents. Receives 
letters from Dr. Kirk and the Sultan. Doubts as to the Congo 
or Nile. Katomba presents a young soko. Forest scenery. 
Discrimination of the Manyuema. They " want to eat a white 
one." Horrible bloodshed by Ujiji traders. Heartsore and sick 
of blood. Approach Nyangwe. Reaches the Lualaba .. .. 85 


The Chitoka or market gathering. The broken watch. Improvises 
ink. Builds a new house at Nyangwe on the bank of the Lua- 
laba. Marketing. Cannibalism. Lake Kamalondo. Dreadful 
effect of slaving. News of country across the Lualaba. Tire- 
some frustration. The Bakuss. Feeble health. Busy scene at 
market. Unable to procure canoes. Disaster to Arab canoes. 
Rapids in Lualaba. Project for visiting Lake Lincoln and the 
Lomame. Offers large reward for canoes and men. The slave's 
mistress. Alarm of natives at market. Fiendish slaughter of 
women by Arabs. Heartrending scene. Death on land and in 
the river. Tagamoio's assassinations. Continued slaughter 
across the river. . Livingstone becomes desponding .. ..112 




Leaves for Ujiji. Dangerous journey through forest. The Man- 
yuema understand Livingstone's kindness. Zanzibar slaves. 
Kasongo's. Stalactite caves.. Consequences of eating parrots. 
111. Attacked in the forest. Providential deliverance. Another 
extraordinary escape. Taken for Mohamad Bogharib. Running 
the gauntlet for five hours. Loss of property. Reaches place of 
safety. 111. Mamohela. To the Luamo. Severe disappoint- 
ment. Recovers. Severe marching. Reaches XJjiji. Despon- 
dency. Opportune arrival of Mr. Stanley. Joy and thankful- 
ness of the old traveller. Determines to examine north end of 
Lake Tanganyika. They start. Reach the Lusize. No outlet. 
"Theoretical discovery" of the real outlet. Mr. Stanley ill. 
Returns to Ujiji. Leaves stores there. Departure for Unyan- 
yembe with Mr. Stanley. Abundance of game. Attacked by 
bees. Serious illness of Mr. Stanley. Thankfulness at reaching 
Unyanyembe .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 141 


Determines to continue his work. Proposed route. Refits. Rob- 
beries discovered. Mr. Stanley leaves. Parting messages. 
Mteza's people arrive. Ancient Geography. Tabora. Descrip- 
tion of the country. The Banyamwezi. A Baganda bargain. 
The population of Unyamyembe. The Mirambo war. Thoughts 
on Sir Samuel Baker's policy. The cat and the snake. Firm 
faith. Feathered neighbours. Mistaken notion concerning 
mothers. Prospects for missionaries. Halima. News of other 
travellers. Chuma is married .. .. .. .. .. 169 


Letters arrive at last. Sore intelligence. Death of an old friend. 
Observations on- the climate. Arab caution. Dearth of Mission- 
ary enterprise. The slave trade and its horrors. Progressive 
barbarism. Carping benevolence. Geology of Southern Africa. 
The fountain sources. African elephants. A venerable piece of 
artillery. Livingstone on Materialism. Bin Nassib. The Ba- 
ganda leave at last. Enlists a new follower . . . . . . 204 


Short years in Buganda. Boys' playthings in Africa. Reflections. 
Arrival of the men. Fervent thankfulness. An end of the weary 



waiting. Jacob Wainwright takes service under the Doctor. 
Preparations for the journey. Flagging and illness. Great heat. 
Approaches Lake Tanganyika. The borders of Fipa. Lej)ido- 
sirens and Vultures. Capes and islands of Lake Tanganyika. 
High mountains. Large Bay .. .. .. .. .. 220 


False guides. Very difficult travelling. Donkey dies of tsetse bites. 
The Kasonso family. A hospitable chief. The Eiver Lofu. The 
nutmeg tree. Famine. III. Arrives • at Chama's town. A 
difficulty. An immense snake. Account of Casembe's death. 
The flowers of the Babisa country. Reaches the Eiver Lopoposi. 
Arrives at Chitufikue's. Terrible marching. The Doctor is 
borne through the flooded country .. .. .. .. .. 244 


Entangled amongst the marshes of Bangweolo. Great privations. 
Obliged to return to Chitufikue's. At the chief's mercy. Agreeably 
surprised with the chief. Start once more. Very difficult march. 
Robbery exposed. Fresh attack of illness. Sends scouts out 
to find villages. Message to Chirubwe. An ant raid. Awaits 
news from Matipa. Distressing perplexity. The Bougas of 
Bangweolo. Constant rain above and flood below. 111. Susi 
and Chuma sent as envoys to Matipa. Reach Bangweolo. Ar- 
rive at Matipa's islet. Matipa's town. The donkey suffers in 
transit. Tries to go on to Kabinga's. Dr. Livingstone makes a 
demonstration. Solution of the transport difficulty. Susi and 
detachment sent to Kabinga's. Extraordinary extent of flood. 
Reaches Kabinga's. An upset. Crosses the Chambeze. The 
River Muanakazi. They separate into companies by land and 
water. A disconsolate lion. Singular caterpillars. Observations 
on fish. Coasting along the southern flood of Lake Bangweolo. 
Dangerous state of Dr. Livingstone.. .. .. .. .. 272 


Dr. Livingstone rapidly sinking. Last entries in his diary. Susi 
and Chuma's additional details. Great agony in his last illness. 
Carried across rivers and through flood. Inquiries for the Hill of 
the Four Rivers. Kalunganjovu's kindness. Crosses the Moh- 
lamo into the district of Ilala in great pain. Arrives at Chitambo's 
village. Chitambo comes to visit the dying traveller. The last 
night. Livingstone expires in the act of praying. The account 


of what the men saw. Remarks on his death. Council of the 
men. Leaders selected. The chief discovers that his guest is 
dead. Noble conduct of Chitambo. A separate village built by 
the men wherein to prepare the body for transport. The pre- 
paration of the corpse. Honour shown by the natives to 
Dr. Livingstone. Additional remarks on the cause of death. 
Interment of the heart at Chitambo's in Ilala of the Wabisa. An 
inscription and memorial sign-posts left to denote spot .. .. 29'J 


They begin the homeward march from Ilala. Illness of all the men. 
Deaths. Muanamazungu. The Luapula. The donkey killed by 
a lion. A disaster at N'kossu's. Native surgery. Approach 
Chawende's town. Inhospitable reception. An encounter. They 
take the town. Leave Chawende's. Reach Chiwaie's. Strike 
the old road. Wire drawing. Arrive at Kumbakumba's. John 
AVainwright disappears. Unsuccessful search. Reach Tanga- 
nyika. Leave the Lake. Cross the Lambalamfipa range. Im- 
mense herds of game. News of East-Coast Search Expedition. 
Confirmation of news. They reach Baula. Avant-couriers sent 
forwards to Unyanyembe. Chuma meets Lieut. Cameron. Start 
for the coast. Sad death of Dr. Dillon. Clever precautions. 
The body is effectually concealed. Girl killed by a snake. Arrival 
on the coast. Concluding remarks. .. .. .. .. 319 


Jfull-page Illustrations. 

Evkning. Ilala. 29th April, 1873 
Uguha Head-dresses 

Page 20 

3. Chuma and Susi. (From a Photograph by Maull & Co.) 

4. Manyuema Hunters killing Sokos .. 

5. Portrait of a Young Soko 

6. A dangerous Prize 

7. Facsimile of a Portion of Dr. Livingstone's Journal 

8. The Massacre of the Manyuema Women at Nyangwe 

9. The Manyuema Ambush 

10. "The Main Stream came up to Susi's Mouth" .. 

11. The Last Miles of Dr. Livingstone's Travels 

12. Fish Eagle on Hippopotamus Trap .. 

13. The Last Entry in Dr. Livingstone's Journals .. 

14. Temporary Village in which Dp. Livingstone's Body 

was prepared .. 













Smaller Illustrations. 

1. Lines of Green Scum on Lake Tang an 

2. Mode of Catching Ants .. 

3. Dr. Livingstone's Mosquito Curtain 

4. Matipa and his Wife 

5. An old Servant destroyed 

6. Kawendh Surgery.. 


. . „ 13 

„ 30 

„ 284 

„ 286 

„ 323 

• • 

„ 325 

Map of Conjectural Geography of Central Africa, from 

Dr. Livingstone's Notes .. .. .. •• at end. 




Bad beginning of the new year. Dangerous illness. Kindness of Arabs. 
Complete helplessness. Arrive at Tanganyika. The Doctor is con- 
veyed in canoes. Kasanga Islet. Cochin-China fowls. Reaches Ujiji. 
Receives some stores. Plundering hands. Slow recovery. Writes 
despatches. Refusal of Arabs to take letters. Thani bin Suellim. 
A den of slavers. Puzzling current in Lake Tanganyika. Letters 
sent off at last. Contemplates visiting the Manyuema. Arab depreda- 
tions. Starts for new explorations in Manyuema, 12th July, 1869. 
Voyage on the Lake. Kabogo East. Crosses Tanganyika. Evil 
effects of last illness. Elephant hunter's superstition. Dugumbe. 
The Lualaba reaches the Manyuema. Sons of Moenekuss. Sokos first 
heard of. Manyuema customs. Illness. 

[The new year opened badly enough, and from letters 
he wrote subsequently concerning the illness which now 
attacked him, we gather that it left evils behind, from 
which he never quite recovered. The following entries 
were made after he regained sufficient strength, but we see 
how short they necessarily were, and what labour it was 
to make the jottings which relate to his progress towards 
the western shore of Lake Tanganyika. He was not able 
at any time during this seizure to continue the minute 
maps of the country in his pocket-books, which for the first 
time fail here.] 

1st January, 1860. — I have been wet times without num- 
ber, but the wetting of yesterday was once too often : I felt 



very ill, but fearing that the Lofuko might flood, I resolved 
to cross it. Cold up to the waist, which made me worse, 
but I went on for 2h hours E. 

3rd January. — I marched one hour, but found I was too 
ill to go further. Moving is always good in fever ; now 
I had a pain in the chest, and rust of iron sputa: my 
lungs, my strongest part, were thus affected. We crossed 
a rill and built sheds, but I lost count of the days of the 
week and month after this. Very ill all over. 

About 1th January. — Cannot walk: Pneumonia of right 
lung, and I cough all day and all night : sputa rust of iron 
and bloody : distressing weakness. Ideas flow through the 
mind with great rapidity and vividness, in groups of twos 
and threes : if I look at any piece of wood, the bark seems 
covered over with figures and faces of men, and they remain, 
though I look away and turn to the same spot again. I saw 
myself lying dead in the way to Ujiji, and all the letters 
I expected there useless. When I think of my children 
and friends, the lines ring through my head perpetually : 

" I shall look into your faces, 
And listen to what you say, 
And be often very near you 
When you think I'm far away." 

Mohamad Bogharib came up, and I have got a cupper, 
who cupped my chest. 

8th and 9th January. — Mohamad Bogharib offered to 
carry me. I am so weak I can scarcely speak. We are 
in Marungu proper now — a pretty but steeply-undulating 
country. This is the first time in my life I have been 
carried in illness, but I cannot raise myself to the sitting 
posture. No food except a little gruel. Great distress in 
coughing all night long ; feet swelled and sore. I am carried 
four hours each day on a kitanda or frame, like a cot ; 
carried eight hours one day. Then sleep in a deep ravine. 
Next day six hours, over volcanic tufa ; very rough. We 


seein near the brim of Tanganyika. Sixteen days of illness. 
May be 23rcl of January ; it is oth of lunar month. Country 
very undulating ; it is perpetually up and down. Soil 
red, and rick knolls of every size and form. Trees few. 
Erytkrinas abound ; so do elephants. Carried eigkt kours 
yesterday to a chiefs village. Small sharp tkorns hurt the 
men's feet, and so does the roughness of the ground. Though 
there is so much slope, water does not run quickly off Ma- 
rungu. A compact mountain-range Hanks the undulating 
country through which we passed, and may stop the water 
flowing. Mohamad Bogharib is very kind to me in my 
extreme weakness ; but carriage is painful ; head down and 
feet up alternates with feet down and head up ; jolted up 
and down and sideways — changing shoulders involves a toss 
from one side to the other of the kitanda. The snn is 
vertical, blistering any part of the skin exposed, and I try 
to skelter my face and head as Avell as I can with a bunch 
of leaves, but it is dreadfully fatiguing in my weakness. 

I had a severe relapse after a very hot day. Mohamad 
gave me medicines ; one was a sharp purgative; the others 
intended for the cure of the cough. 

lith February, 1869. — Arrived at Tanganyika. Parra is 
the name of the land at the confluence of the River Lofuko : 
Syde bin Habib had two or three large canoes at this place, 
our beads were nearly done, so I sent to Syde to say that 
all the Arabs had served me except himself. Thani bin 
Suellim by his letter was anxious to send a canoe as soon 
as I reached the Lake, and the only service I wanted of 
Syde was to inform Thani, by one of his canoes, that I was 
here very ill, and if I did not get to Ujiji to get proper 
food and medicine I should die. Thani would send a canoe 
as soon as he knew of my arrival I was sure : he replied 
that he too would serve me : and sent some flour and two 
fowls : he would come in two days and see what he could 
do as to canoes. 

b 2 


15th February. — The cough and chest pain diminished, 
and I feel thankful ; my body is greatly emaciated. Syde 
came to-day, and is favourable to sending me up to Ujiji. 
Thanks to the Great Father in Heaven. 

2Aih February. — We had remarkably little rain these two 

25th February. — I extracted twenty Funyes, an insect 
like a maggot, whose eggs had been inserted on my 
having been put into an old house infested by them ; as 
they enlarge they stir about and impart a stinging sensa- 
tion ; if disturbed, the head is drawn in a little. AVhen a 
poultice is put on they seem obliged to come out, possibly 
from want of air : they can be pressed out, but the large 
pimple in which they live is painful ; they were chiefly in 
my limbs. 

2Qth February. — Embark, and sleep at Katonga after 
seven hours' paddling. 

27th February. — Went If hour to Bondo or Thembwe 
to buy food. Shore very rough, like shores near Caprera, 
but here all is covered with vegetation. We were to cross 
to Kabogo, a large mass of mountains on the eastern side, 
but the wind was too high. 

28th February. — Syde sent food back to his slaves. 

2nd March, 1869. — Waves still high, so we got off only 
on 3rd at lh. 30m. a.m. 6J hours, and came to M. Bog- 
harib, who cooked bountifully. 

6th March. — 5 p.m. Off to Toloka Bay — three hours ; 
left at 6 a.m., and came, in four hours, to Uguha, which is 
on the west side of Tanganyika. 

7th March. — Left at G p.m., and went on till two canoes 
ran on rocks in the way to Kasanga islet. Bounded a point 
of land, and made for Kasanga with a storm in our teeth ; 
fourteen hours in all. We were received by a young Arab 
Muscat, who dined us sumptuously at noon : there are 
seventeen islets in the Kasanga group. 

1869.] VOYAGE TO UJIJI. 5 

8^ March. — On Kasanga islet. Cochin-China fowls* 
and Muscovy ducks appear, and plenty of a small milkless 
breed of goats. Tanganyika lias many deep bays running in 
four or five miles ; they are choked up with aquatic vegeta- 
tion, through which canoes can scarcely be propelled. "When 
the bay has a small rivulet at its head, the water in the bay 
is decidedly brackish, though the rivulet be fresh, it made 
the Zanzibar people remark on the Lake water, " It is like 
that we get near the sea-shore — a little salt;" but as soon 
as we get out of the shut-in bay or lagoon into the Lake 
proper the water is quite sweet, and shows that a current 
flows through the middle of the Lake lengthways. 

Patience was never more needed than now : I am near 
Ujiji, but the slaves who paddle are tired, and no wonder ; 
they keep up a roaring song all through their work, night 
and day. I expect to get medicine, food, and milk at Ujiji, 
but dawdle and do nothing. I have a good appetite, and 
sleep well ; these are the favourable symptoms ; but am 
dreadfully thin, bowels irregular, and I have no medicine. 
Sputa increases ; hope to hold out to Ujiji. Cough worse. 
Hope to go to-morrow. 

9th March. — The Whydah birds have at present light 
breasts and dark necks. Zahor is the name of our young- 
Arab host. 

11th March. — Go over to Kibize islet, lh hour from 
Kasanga. Great care is taken not to encounter foul weather; 
we go a little way, then wait for fair wind in crossing to 
east side of Lake. 

12th March. — People of Kibize dress like those in Run, 
with cloth made of the Muabe or wild-date leaves ; the 

* On snowing Chuma and Snsi some immense Cochin-China fowls at a 
poultry show, they said that they were not larger than those which they 
saw when with Dr. Livingstone on these islands. Muscovy ducks abound 
throughout Central Africa. — Ed. 


same is used in Madagascar for the " lamba." * Their hair is- 
collected up to the top of the head. 

From Kibize islet to Kabogo Eiver on east side of Lake 
ten hours ; sleep there. Syde slipped past us at night, but 
we made up to him in four hours next morning. 

loth March. — At Eombole ; we sleep, then on. 

[At last he reached the great Arab settlement at Ujiji, on 
the eastern shore of Tanganyika. It was his first visit, but 
he had arranged that supplies should be forwarded thither 
by caravans bound inland from Zanzibar. 3fost unfortu- 
nately his goods were made away with in all directions — not 
only on this, but on several other occasions. The disap- 
pointment to a man shattered in health, and craving for 
letters and stores, must have been severe indeed.] 

lWi March. — Go past Malagarazi Eiver, and reach Ujiji 
in 3J hours. Found Haji Thani's agent in charge of my 
remaining goods. Medicines, wine, and cheese had been left 
at Unyanyembe, thirteen days east of this. Milk not to be 
had, as the cows had not calved, but a present of Assam 
tea from Mr. Black, the Inspector of the Peninsular and 
Oriental Company's affairs, had come from Calcutta, besides 
my own coffee and a little sugar. I bought butter; two 
large pots are sold for two fathoms of blue calico, and 
four-year-old flour, with which we made bread. I found 
srreat benefit from the tea and coffee, and still more from 
flannel to the skin. 

loth March. — Took account of all the goods left by the 
plunderer ; sixty-two out of eighty pieces of cloth (each of 
twenty-four yards) were stolen, and most of my best beads. 
The road to Unyeinbet is blocked up by a Mazitu or 

* The natural dress of the Malagash. 

t The same as Unyanyembe, the half-way settlement on the great 
caravan road from the coast to the interior. 


"Watuta war, so I must wait till the Governor there gets 
an opportunity to send them. The Musa sent with the 
buffaloes is a genuine specimen of the ill-conditioned, 
English-hating Arab. I was accosted on arriving by, " You 
must give me five dollars a month for all my time ;" this 
though he had brought nothing — the buffaloes all died — 
and did nothing but receive stolen goods. I tried to make 
use of him to go a mile every second day for milk, but he 
shammed sickness so often on that day I had to get another 
to go ; then he made a regular practice of coming into my 
house, watching what my two attendants were doing, and 
going about the village with distorted statements against 

I clothed him, but he tried to make bad blood between 
the respectable Arab who supplied me with milk and my- 
self, telling him that I abused him, and then he would come 
back, saying that he abused me ! I can account for his 
conduct only by attributing it to that which we call ill- 
conditioned : I had to expel him from the house. 

I repaired a house to keep out the rain, and on the 23rd 
moved into it. I gave our Kasanga host a cloth and 
blanket ; he is ill of pneumonia of both lungs. 

28th March. — Flannel to the skin and tea very beneficial 
in the cure of my disease ; my cough has ceased, and I walk 
half a mile. I am writing letters for home. 

8th April, 1869. — Visited Moene Mokaia, who sent me two 
fowls and rice ; gave him two cloths. He added a sheep. 

13th April. — Employed Suleynian to write notes to Go- 
vernor of Unyembe, Syde bin Salem Burashid, to make 
inquiries about the theft of my goods, as I meant to apply 
to Syed Majid, and wished to speak truly about his man 
Musa bin Salum, the chief depredator. 

Wrote also to Thani for boat and crew to go down 

Syde bin Habib refused to allow his men to carry my 


letters to the coast ; as lie suspected that I would write 
about his doings in Rua. 

21th April. — Syde had three canoes smashed in coming 
up past Thembwe ; the wind and waves drove them on the 
rocks, and two were totally destroyed : they are heavy un- 
manageable craft, and at the mercy of any storm if they 
cannot get into a shut bay, behind the reeds and aquatic 
vegetation. One of the wrecks is said to have been worth 
200 dollars (40?.). 

The season called Masika commenced this month with 
the usual rolling thunder, and more rain than in the 
month preceding. 

I have been busy writing letters home, and finished forty- 
two, which in some measure will make up for my long 
silence. The Ujijians are unwilling to carry my letters, 
because, they say, Seyed Majid will order the bearer to 
return with others : he may say, " You know where he is, 
go back to him," but I suspect they fear my exposure of 
their ways more than anything else.* 

l&h May, 1869. — Thani bin Suellim sent me a note 
yesterday to say that he would be here in two days, or say 
three ; he seems the most active of the Ujijians, and I 
trust will help me to get a canoe and men. 

The malachite at Katanga is loosened by fire, then dug 
out of four hills : four manehs of the ore yield one maneh 
of copper, but those who cultivate the soil get more wealth 
than those who mine the copper. 

[No change of purpose was allowed to grow out of sick- 
ness and disappointment. Here and there, as in the words 
written on the next day, we find Livingstone again with 
his back turned to the coast and gazing towards the land 
of the Manyuema and the great rivers reported there.] 

* These letters must have been destroyed purposely by the Arabs, for 
they never arrived at Zanzibar. — Ed. 


17th May. — Syde bin Habib arrived to-day with his cargo 
of copper and slaves. I have to change house again, and 
wish I were away, now that I am getting stronger. Attend- 
ants arrive from Parra or Mparra. 

[The old slave-dealer, whom he met at Casembe's, and 
who seems to have been set at liberty through Livingstone's 
instrumentality, arrives at Ujiji at last.] 

18th Mai/. — Mohamad bin Saleh arrived to-day. He left 
this when comparatively young, and is now well advanced 
in years. 

The Bakatala at Lualaba West killed Salem bin Habib. 
Mem. — Keep clear of them. Makwamba is one of the chiefs 
of the rock-dwellers, Ngulu is another, and Masika-Kitobwe 
on to Baluba. Sef attached Kilolo N'tambwe. 

lWi May. — The emancipation of our West-Indian slaves 
was the work of but a small number of the people of 
England — the philanthropists and all the more advanced 
thinkers of the age. Numerically they were a very small 
minority of the population, and powerful only from the 
superior abilities of the leading men, and from having 
the right, the true, and just on their side. Of the rest of 
the population an immense number were the indifferent, who 
had no sympathies to spare for any beyond their own fire- 
side circles. In the course of time sensation writers came 
up on the surface of society, and by way of originality they 
condemned almost every measure and person of the past. 
" Emancipation was a mistake ; " and these fast writers drew 
along with them a large body, who would fain be slave- 
holders themselves. We must never lose sight of the fact 
that though the majority perhaps are on the side of freedom, 
large numbers of Englishmen are not slaveholders only be- 
cause the law forbids the practice. In this proclivity we 
see a great part of the reason of the frantic sympathy of 
thousands with the rebels in the great Black war in America. 


It is true that we do sympathize with brave men, though 
we may not approve of the objects for which they fight. 
We admired Stonewall Jackson as a modern type of Crom- 
well's Ironsides; and we praised Lee for his generalship, 
which, after all, was chiefly conspicuous by the absence of 
commanding abilities in his opponents, but, unquestion- 
ably, there existed besides an eager desire that slaveocracy 
might prosper, and the Negro go to the Avail. The would-be 
slaveholders showed their leanings unmistakably in re- 
ference to the Jamaica outbreak ; and many a would-be 
Colonel Hobbs, in lack of revolvers, dipped his pen in gall 
and railed against all Niggers who could not be made slaves. 
We wonder what they thought of their hero, Avhen informed 
that, for very shame at what he had done and written, he 
had rushed unbidden out of the world. 

26th May. — Thani bin Suellim came from Unyanyembe 
on the 20th. He is a slave who has risen to freedom and 
influence ; he has a disagreeable outward squint of the 
right eye, teeth protruding from the averted lips, is light- 
coloured, and of the nervous type of African. He brought 
two light boxes from Unyembe, and charged six fathoms for 
one and eight fathoms for the other, though the carriage of 
both had been paid for at Zanzibar. AVhen I paid him he 
tried to steal, and succeeded with one cloth by slipping it 
into the hands of a slave. I gave him two cloths and a 
double blanket as a present. He discovered afterwards 
Avhat he knew before, that all had been injured by the wet 
on the way here, and sent two back openly, which all saw 
to be an insult. He asked a little coffee, and I gave a 
plateful ; and he even sent again for more coffee after I had 
seen reason to resent his sending back my present. I 
replied, " He won't send coffee back, for I shall give him 
none." In revenge he sends round to warn all the Ujijians 
against taking my letters to the coast ; this is in ac- 
cordance with their previous conduct, for, like the Kihva 

1869.] A DEN OF MURDEEEES. 11 

people on the road to Nyassa, they have refused to carry 
ray correspondence. 

This is a den of the worst kind of slave-traders ; those 
-whom I met in Urungu and Itawa were gentlemen slavers : 
the Ujiji slavers, like the Kilwa and Portuguese, are the 
vilest of the vile. It is not a trade, but a system of con- 
secutive murders; they go to plunder and kidnap, and 
every trading trip is nothing but a foray. Moene Mokaia,. 
the headman of this place, sent canoes through to Nzige, 
and his people, feeling their prowess among men ignorant 
of guns, made a regular assault but were repulsed, and the 
whole, twenty in number, were killed. Moene Mokaia is 
now negotiating with Syde bin Habib to go and revenge 
this, for so much ivory, and all he can get besides. Syde, 
by trying to revenge the death of Salem bin Habib, his 
brother, on the Bakatala, has blocked up one part of the 
country against me, and will probably block Nzige, for 
I cannot get a message sent to Chowambe by anyone,, 
and may have to go to Karagwe on foot, and then from 
Rumanyika down to this water. 

[In reference to the above we may add that there is a 
vocabulary of Masai words at the end of a memorandum- 
book. Livingstone compiled this with the idea that it 
would prove useful on his way towards the coast, should 
he eventually pass through the Masai country. No doubt 
some of the Arabs or their slaves knew the language, and 
assisted him at his work.] 

29th May. — Many people went off to Unyembe, and their 
houses were untenanted ; I wished one, as I was in a lean- 
to of Zahor's, but the two headmen tried to secure the 
rent for themselves, and were defeated by Mohamad bin 
Salek. I took my packet of letters to Thani, and gave two 
cloths and four bunches of beads to the man who was to 
take them to Unyanyembe; an hour afterwards, letters,. 


cloths, and beads were returned : Tbani said he was afraid of 
English letters ; he did not know what was inside. I had 
sewed them up in a piece of canvas, that was suspicious, and 
he would call all the great men of Ujiji and ask them if it 
would be safe to take them ; if they assented he would call 
for the letters, if not he would not send them. I told 
Mohamad bin Saleh, and he said to Thani that he and I 
were men of the Government, and orders had come from 
Syed Majid to treat me with all respect : was this conduct 
respectful ? Thani then sent for the packet, but whether it 
will reach Zanzibar I am doubtful. I gave the rent to the 
owner of the house and went into it on 31st May. They 
are nearly all miserable Suaheli at Ujiji, and have neither 
the manners nor the sense of Arabs. 

[We see in the next few lines how satisfied Livingstone 
was concerning the current in the Lake : he almost wishes 
to call Tanganyika a river. Here then is a problem left 
for the future explorer to determine. Although the Doctor 
proved by experiments during his lengthy stay at Ujiji that 
the set is towards the north, his two men get over the diffi- 
culty thus : " If you blow upon the surface of a basin of 
water on one side, you will cause the water at last to revolve 
round and round ; so with Tanganyika, the prevailing winds 
produce a similar circulation." They feel certain there is 
no outlet, because at one time or another they virtually com- 
pleted the survey of the coast line and listened to native 
testimony besides. How the phenomenon of sweet water is 
to be accounted for we do not pretend to say. The reader 
will see further on that Livingstone grapples with the diffi- 
culty which this Lake affords, and propounds an exceedingly 
clever theory.] 

Tanganyika has encroached on the Ujiji side upwards of a 
mile, and the bank, which was in the memory of men now 
living, garden ground, is covered with about two fathoms of 


water : iu this Tanganyika resembles most other rivers in 
this country, as the Upper Zambesi for instance, which in 
the Barotse country has been wearing eastwards for the last 
thirty years : this Lake, or river, has worn eastwards too. 

1st June, 1869. — I am thankful to feel getting strong 
again, and wish to go down Tanganyika, but cannot get 
men : two months must elapse ere we can face the long- 
grass and superabundant water in the way to Manyuema. 

The green scum which forms on still water in this country 
is of vegetable origin — confervas. When the rains fall they 
swell the lagoons, and the scum is swept 
into the Lake ; here it is borne along 
by the current from south to north, and " l 4^H^'"sN 
arranged in long lines, which bend from ^\^h^ 

side to side as the water flows, but always Li f s of Green Scam - 
N.N.W. or N.N.E., and not driven, as here, by the winds, as 
plants floating above the level of the water would be. 

Itli June. — It is remarkable that all the Ujiji Arabs who 
have any opinion on the subject, believe that all the water 
in the north, and all the water in the south, too, flows into 
Tanganyika, but where it then goes they have no con- 
jecture. They assert, as a matter of fact, that Tanganyika, 
Usige water, and Loanda, are one and the same piece of 

Thani, on being applied to for men and a canoe to take 
me down this line of drainage, consented, but let me know 
that his people would go no further than Uvira, and then 
return. He subsequently said Usige, but I wished to know 
what I was to do when left at the very point where I 
should be most in need. He replied, in his silly way, " My 
people are afraid ; they won't go further ; get country 
people," &c. Moeneghere sent men to Loanda to force a 
passage through, but his people were repulsed and twenty 

Three men came yesterday from Mokamba, the greatest 


chief iu U sige", with four tusks as a present to his friend 
Moeneghere, and asking for canoes to be sent down to the 
end of Urundi country to bring butter and other things, 
which the three men could not bring : this seems an open- 
ing, for Mokamba being Moeneghere's friend I shall prefer 
paying Moeneghere for a canoe to being dependent on 
Thani's skulkers. If the way beyond Mokamba is blocked 
up by the fatal skirmish referred to, I can go from Mokamba 
to Eumanyika, three or four or more days distant, and get 
guides from him to lead me back to the main river beyond 
Loanda, and by this plan only three days of the stream will 
be passed over unvisited. Thani would evidently like to re- 
ceive the payment, but without securing to me the object for 
which I pay. He is a poor thing, a slaveling : Syed Majid, 
Sheikh Suleiman, and Koroje, have all written to him, 
urging an assisting deportment in vain : I never see him but 
he begs something, and gives nothing, I suppose he expects 
me to beg from him. I shall be guided by Moeneghere. 

I cannot find anyone who knows where the outflow of the 
unvisited Lake S.W. of this goes ; some think that it goes 
to the Western Ocean, or, I should say, the Congo. Mohamad 
Bogharib goes in a month to Manyuema, but if matters turn 
•out as I wish, I may explore this Tanganyika line first; 
One who has been in Manyuema three times, and was of the 
first party that ever went there, says that the Manyuenia are 
not cannibals, but a tribe west of them eats some parts of 
the bodies of those slain in war. Some people south of 
Moenekuss,* chief of Manyuema, build strong clay houses. 

22nd June. — After listening to a great deal of talk I have 
come to the conclusion that I had better not go with Moene- 
ghere's people to Mokamba. I see that it is to be a mulcting, 

* It is curious that this name occurs amongst the Zulu trihes south of 
the Zambesi, and, as it has no vowel at the end, appears to he of altogether 
foreign origin. — Ed. 

1869.] FUTURE PLANS. 15 

as in Speke's case : I am to give largely, though I am not 
thereby assured of getting down the river. They say, " You 
must give much, because you are a great man : Mokamba 
will say so " — though Mokamba knows nothing about me ! 
It is uncertain whether I can get down through by 
Loanda, and great risk would be run in going to those 
who cut off the party of Moeneghere, so I have come to the 
conclusion that it will be better for me to go to Manyuema 
about a fortnight hence, and, if possible, trace down the 
Avestern arm of the Kile to the north — if this arm is indeed 
that of the Nile, and not of the Congo. Nobody here 
knows anything about it, or, indeed, about the eastern or 
Tanganyika line either; they all confess that they have 
but one question in their minds in going anywhere, they 
ask for ivory and for nothing else, and each trip ends as a 
foray. Moeneghere's last trip ended disastrously, twenty-six 
of his men being cut off; in extenuation he says that it 
was not his war but Mokamba's : he wished to be allowed 
to go down through Loanda, and as the people in front of 
Mokamba and Usige own his supremacy, he said, " Send 
your force with mine and let us open the way," so they went 
on land and were killed. An attempt was made to induce 
Syde bin Habib to clear the way, and be paid in ivory, but 
Syde likes to battle with those who will soon run away and 
leave the spoil to him. 

The Manyuema are said to be friendly where they have 
not been attacked by Arabs : a great chief is reported as 
living on a large river flowing northwards, I hope to make 
my way to him, and I feel exhilarated at the thought of 
getting among people not spoiled by contact with Arab 
traders. I would not hesitate to run the risk of getting 
through Loanda, the continuation of Usige beyond Mo- 
kamba's, had blood not been shed so very recently there ; 
but it would at present be a great danger, and to explore 
some sixty miles of the Tanganyika line only. If I return 


liitlier from Manyuema my goods and fresh men from Zan- 
zibar will have arrived, and I shall be better able to judge 
as to the course to be pursued after that. Mokamba is about 
twenty miles beyond Uvira; the scene of Moeneghere's 
defeat is ten miles beyond Mokamba ; so the unexplored 
part cannot be over sixty miles, say thirty if we take 
Baker's estimate of the southing of his water to be near 
the truth. 

ISaleni or Palamotto told me that he was sent for by a 
headman near to this to fight his brother for him : he went 
and demanded prepayment ; then the brother sent him three 
tusks to refrain : Salem took them and came home. The 
Africans have had hard measures meted out to them in the 
world's history ! 

28th June. — The current in Tanganyika is well marked 
when the lighter-coloured water of a river flows in and 
does not at once mix- — the Luishe at TJjiji is a good example, 
and it shows by large light greenish patches on the sur- 
face a current of nearly a mile an hour north. It begins 
to flow about February, and continues running north till 
November or December. Evaporation on 300 miles of the 
south is then at its strongest, and water begins to flow gently 
south till arrested by the flood of the great rains there, 
which takes place in February and March. There is, it 
seems, a reflux for about three months in each year, flow and 
reflow being the effect of the rains and evaporation on a 
lacustrine river of some three hundred miles in length lying 
south of the equator. The flow northwards I have myself 
observed, that again southwards rests on native testimony, 
and it was elicited from the Arabs by pointing out the 
northern current: they attributed the southern current to 
the effect of the wind, which they say then blows south. 
Being cooled" by the rains, it comes south into the hot 
valley of this great Biverein Lake, or lacustrine river. 

In going to Moenekuss, the paramount chief of the Man- 


yuema, forty days are required. The headmen of trading 
parties remain with this chief (who is said by all to be a 
very good man), and send their people out in all directions 
to trade. Moenemogaia says that in going due north from 
Moenekuss they come to a large river, the Eobumba, which 
flows into and is the Luama, and that this again joins the 
Lualaba, which retains its name after flowing with the Lufira 
and Lofu into the still unvisited Lake S.S.W. of this : it 
goes thence due north, probably into 3Ir. Baker's part of the 
eastern branch of the Nile. When I have gone as far north 
along Lualaba as I can this year, I shall be able to judge 
as to the course I ought to take after receiving my goods 
and men from Zanzibar, and may the Highest direct me, so 
that I may finish creditably the work I have undertaken. I 
propose to start for Manyuema on the 3rd July. 

The dagala or nsipe, a small fish caught in great numbers 
in every flowing water, and very like whitebait, is said to 
emit its eggs by the mouth, and these immediately burst 
and the young fish manages for itself. The dagala never 
becomes larger than two or three inches in length. Some, 
putrefied, are bitter, as if the bile were in them in a good 
quantity. I have eaten them in Lunda of a pungent bitter 
taste, probably arising from the food on which the fish feeds. 
31en say that they have seen the eggs kept in the sides of 
the mouth till ready to go off as independent fishes. The 
nghede-dege, a species of perch, and another, the ndusi, are 
said to do the same. The Arabs imagine that fish in general 
fall from the skies, but they except the shark, because they 
can see the young when it is cut open. 

10th July, 1869. — After a great deal of delay and trouble 
about a canoe, we got one from Habee for ten dotis or forty 
yards of calico, and a doti or four yards to each of nine 
paddlers to bring the vessel back. Thani and Zahor blamed 
me for not taking their canoes for nothing ; but they took 
good care not to give them, but made vague offers, which 

VOL. II. c 


meant, " We want much higher pay for our dhows than Arabs 
generally get :" they showed such an intention to fleece me 
that I was glad to get out of their power, and save the few- 
goods I had. I went a few miles, when two strangers I had 
allowed to embark (from being under obligations to their 
masters), worked against each other : so I had to let one 
land, and but for his master would have dismissed the 
other: I had to send an apology to the landed man's master 
for politeness' sake. 

[It is necessary to say a few words here, so unostenta- 
tiously does Livingstone introduce this new series of ex- 
plorations to the reader. The Manyuema country, for which 
he set out on the 12th of July, 1869, was hitherto unknown. 
As we follow him we shall see that in almost every respect 
both the face of the country and the people differ from other 
regions lying nearer to the East Coast. It appears that the 
Arabs had an inkling of the vast quantities of ivory which 
might be procured there, and Livingstone went into the 
new field with the foremost of those hordes of Ujijian traders 
who, in all probability, will eventually destroy tribe after 
tribe by slave-trading and pillage, as they have done in so 
many other regions.] 

Off at 6 a.m., and passed the mouth of the Luishe, in 
Kibwe Bay ; 3£ hours took us to Kombola or Lombola, where 
all the building wood of Ujiji is cut. 

12th July. — Left at 1.30 a.m., and pulled 7^ hours to 
the left bank of the Malagarasi River. We cannot go by 
day, because about 11 a.m. a south-west wind commences to 
blow, which the heavy canoes cannot face; it often begins 
earlier or later, according to the phases of the moon. An 
east wind blows from sunrise till 10 or 11 a.m., and the south- 
west begins. The Malagarasi is of considerable size at its 
confluence, and has a large islet covered with eschinomena, 
or pith hat material, growing in its way. 


Were it not for the current Tanganyika would be covered 
with green scum now rolling away in miles of length and 
breadth to the north ; it would also be salt like its shut-in 
bays. The water has now fallen two feet perpendicularly. It 
took us twelve hours to ascend to the Malagarasi Biver from 
Ujiji, and only seven to go down that distance. Prodigious 
quantities of conferva} pass us day and night in slow majestic 
flow. It is called Shuare. But for the current Tanganyika 
would be covered with " Tikatika" too, like Victoria Nyanza. 

loth July. — Off at 3.15 a.m., and in five hours reached 
Kabogo Biver; from this point the crossing is always 
accomplished : it is about thirty miles broad. Tried to get 
off at 6 p.m., but after two miles the south wind blew, 
and as it is a dangerous wind and the usual one in storms, 
the men insisted on coming back, for the wind, having 
free scope along the entire southern length of Tan- 
ganyika, raises waves perilous to their heavy craft; after 
this the clouds cleared all away, and the wind died off 
too; the full moon shone brightly, and this is usually 
accompanied by calm Aveather here. Storms occur at new 
moon most frequently. 

14:th July. — Sounded in dark water opposite the high 
mountain Kabogo, 326 fathoms, but my line broke in coming 
up, and we did not see the armed end of the sounding lead 
with sand or mud on it : this is 1965 feet. 

People awaking in fright utter most unearthly yells, and 
they are joined in them by all who sleep near. The first 
imagines himself seized by a wild beast, the rest roar because 
they hear him doing it : this indicates the extreme of help- 
less terror. 

loth July. — After pulling all night we arrived at some 
islands and cooked breakfast, then we went on to Kasenge 
islet on their south, and came up to Mohamad Bogharib, who 
had come from Tongwe, and intended to go to Manyuema. 
We cross over to the mainland, that is, to the western shore 

c 2 


of the Lake, about 300 yards off, to begin our journey on. 
the 21st. Lunars on 20th. Delay to prepare food for 
journey. Lunars again 22nd. 

A strong wind from the East to-day. A current sweeps- 
round this islet Kisenge from N.E. to S.E., and carries trees- 
and duckweed at more than a mile an hour in spite of the 
breeze blowing across it to the West. The wind blowing 
along the Lake either way raises up water, and in a calm it 
returns off the shore. Sometimes it causes the current to 
go southwards. Tanganyika narrows at Uvira or Yira, and 
goes out of sight among the mountains there ; then it appears 
as a waterfall into the Lake of Quando seen by Banyamwezi. 

23nZ July. — I gave a cloth to be kept for Kasanga, the 
chief of Kasenge, who has gone to fight with the people of 

1st August, 1869. — Mohamad killed a kid as a sort of 
sacrifice, and they pray to Hadrajee before eating it. The 
cookery is of their very best, and I always get a share ; I 
tell them that I like the cookery, but not the prayers, and 
it is taken in good part. 

2nd August. — We embarked from the islet and got over 
to the mainland, and slept in a hooked-thorn copse, with a 
species of black pepper plant, which we found near the top 
of Mount Zomba, in the Manganja country,* in our vicinity ; 
it shows humidity of climate. 

3rd August. — Marched 3^ hours south, along Tanganyika, 
in a very undulating country ; very fatiguing in my weak- 
ness. Passed many screw-palms, and slept at Lobamba 

4:th August. — A relative of Kasanga engaged to act as our 
guide, so we remained waiting for him, and employed a 
Banyamwezi smith to make copper balls with some bars of 
that metal presented by Syde bin Habib. A lamb was 

* In 1859. 

. I 



stolen, and all declared that the deed must have been done 
by Banyamwezi. " At Guha people never steal," and I 
believe this is true. 

7 th August. — The guide having- arrived, we marched 2£ 
hours west and crossed the River Logumba, about forty yards 
broad and knee deep, with a rapid current between deep cut 
banks ; it rises in the western Kabogo range, and flows 
.about S.W. into Tanganyika. Much dura or Holcus sorghum 
as cultivated on the rich alluvial soil on its banks by the 
<Guha people. 

8th August. — West through open forest ; very undulating, 
and the path full of angular fragments of quartz. We see 
mountains in the distance. 

dth-lOth August. — Westwards to Makhato's village, and 
met a company of natives beating a drum as they came 
near ; this is the peace signal ; if war is meant the attack 
is quiet and stealthy. There are plenty of Masuko trees 
laden with fruit, but unripe. It is cold at night, but dry, 
and the people sleep with only a fence at their heads, but I 
have a shed built at every camp as a protection for the 
loads, and sleep in it. 

Any ascent, though gentle, makes me blow since the 
attack of pneumonia ; if it is inclined to an angle of 45°, 
100 or 150 yards make me stop to pant in distress. 

11th August. — Came to a village of Ba Kua, surrounded 
by hills of some 200 feet above the plain ; trees sparse. 

12^-13^ August. — At villages of Mekheto. Guha 
people. Remain to buy and prepare food, and because many 
.are sick. 

16th August. — West and by north through much forest 
and reach Kalalibebe ; buffalo killed. 

17th August. — To a high mountain, Golu or Gulu, and 
sleep at its base. 

18th August. — Cross two rills flowing into River Mgoluye. 
Kagoya and Moishe flow into Lobumba. 


19th August. — To the River Lobumba, forty-five yards 
wide, thigh deej), and rapid current. Logumba and Lobumba 
are both from Kabogo Mounts : one goes into Tanganyika, 
and the other, or Lobumba, into and is the Luamo : prawns 
are found in this river. The country east of the Lobumba is 
called Lobanda, that west of it, Kitwa. 

21st August. — Went on to the River Loungwa, which has 
worn for itself a rut in new red sandstone twenty feet deep, 
and only three or four feet wide at the lips. 

25th August. — We rest because all are tired ; travelling 
at this season is excessively fatiguing. It is very hot at 
even 10 a.m., and 2\ or 3 hours tires the strongest — carriers 
especially so : during the rains five hours would not have 
fatigued so much as three do now. We are now on the same 
level as Tanganyika. The dense mass of black smoke rising 
from the burning grass and reeds on the Lobumba, or 
Robumba, obscures the sun, and very sensibly lowers the 
temperature of the sultriest day ; it looks like the smoke 
in Martin's pictures. The Manyuema arrows here are very 
small, and made of strong grass stalks, but poisoned, the 
large ones, for 'elephants and buffaloes, are poisoned also. 

31st August. — Course N.W. among Palmyras and Hyphene 
Palms, and many villages swarming with people. Crossed 
Kibila, a hot fountain about 120°, to sleep at Kolokolo 
River, five yards wide, and knee deep : midway we passed 
the River Kanzazala. On asking the name of a mountain on 
our right I got three names for it — Kaloba, Chingedi, and 
Kihomba, a fair specimen of the superabundance of names 
in this country ! 

1st September, 1869. — West in flat forest, then cross 
Kishila River, and go on to Sonde's villages. The Katamba 
is a fine rivulet. Kunde is an old man without dignity or 
honour : he came to beg, but offered nothing. 

2nd September. — We remained at Katamba to hunt buffa- 
loes and rest, as I am still weak. A young elephant was 

1869.] HINTS TO HUNTERS. 23 

killed, and I got the heart: the Arabs do not eat it, but 
that part is nice if well cooked. 

A Lmida slave, for whom I interceded to be freed of the 
yoke, ran away, and as he is near the Barna, his country- 
men, he will be hidden. He told his plan to our guide, and 
asked to accompany him back to Tanganyika, but he is 
eager to deliver him up for a reward : all are eager to press 
each other down in the mire into which they are already 

5th September. — Kunde's people refused the tusks of an 
elephant killed by our hunter, asserting that they had 
killed it themselves with a hoe : they have no honour here, 
as some have elsewhere. 

1th September. — W. and N.W., through forest and im- 
mense fields of cassava, some three years old, with roots as 
thick as a stout man's leg. 

8th September. — Across five rivers and through many 
villages. The country is covered with ferns and gingers, 
and miles and miles of cassava. On to village of Karun- 

9th September. — Eest again to shoot meat, as elephants 
and buffaloes are very abundant : the Suaheli think that 
adultery is an obstacle to success in killing this animal : 
no harm can happen to him who is faithful to his wife, 
and has the proper charms inserted under the skin of his 

10th September. — North and north-west, over four rivers, 
and past the village of Makala, to near that of Pyana-mo- 

12th September. — We had wandered, and now came back 
to our path on hilly ground. The days are sultry and 
smoking. We came to some villages of Pyana-niosinde ; 
the population prodigiously large. A sword was left at the 
camp, and at once picked up; though the man was traced 
to a village it was refused, till he accidentally cut his foot 


with it, and became afraid that worse -would follow, else- 
where it would have been given up at once : Pyana-mosinde 
came out and talked very sensibly. 

loth September. — Along towards the Moloni or Mononi ; 
cross seven rills. The people seized three slaves who 
lagged behind, but hearing a gun fired at guinea-fowls let 
them go. Route N. 

14:th September. — Up and down hills perpetually. We 
went down into some deep dells, filled with gigantic trees, 
and I measured one twenty feet in circumference, and sixty 
or seventy feet high to the first branches; others seemed 
fit to be ship's spars. Large lichens covered many and 
numerous new plants appeared on the ground. 

15^ September. — Got clear of the mountains after lh hour, 
and then the vast valley of Mamba opened out before 
us ; very beautiful, and much of it cleared of trees. Met 
Dugumbe carrying 18,000 lbs. of ivory, purchased in 
this new field very cheaply, because no traders had ever 
gone into the country beyond Bambarre, or Moenekuss's 
district before. We were now in the large bend of the 
Lualaba, which is here much larger than at Mpweto's, near 
Moero Lake. Eiver Kesingwe. 

16th September. — To Kasaugangazi's. We now came to 
the first palm-oil trees (Elais Guineensis) in our way since 
we left Tanganyika. They had evidently been planted at 
villages. Light-grey parrots, with red tails, also became 
common, whose name, Kuss or Koos, gives the chief his name, 
Moenekuss (" Lord of the Parrot ") ; but the Manyuema pro- 
nunciation is Monanjoose. Much reedy grass, fully half an 
inch in diameter in the stalk on our route, and over the 
top of the range Moloni, which we ascended : the valleys 
are impassable. 

11th September. — Remain to buy food at Kasanga's, and 
rest the carriers. The country is full of palm-oil palms, and 
very beautiful. Our people are all afraid to go out of sight 


of the camp for necessary purposes, lest the Manynema 
should kill them. Here was the barrier to traders going 
north, for the very people among whom we now are, murdered 
anyone carrying a tusk, till last year, when Moene-mokaia, 
or Katomba, got into friendship with Moenekuss, who pro- 
tected his people, and always behaved in a generous sen- 
sible manner. Dilongo, now a chief here, came to visit us : 
his elder brother died, and he was elected ; he does not 
wash in consequence, and is very dirty. 

Two buffaloes were killed yesterday. The people have 
their bodies tattooed with new and full moons, stars, croco- 
diles, and Egyptian gardens. 

19th September. — We crossed several rivulets three yards 
to twelve yards, and calf deep. The mountain where we 
camped is called Sangomelambe. 

20th September. — Up to a broad range of high mountains 
of light grey granite ; there are deep dells on the top filled 
with gigantic trees, and having running rills in them. Some 
trees appear with enormous roots, buttresses in fact like 
mangroves in the coast swamps, six feet high at the trunk 
and flattened from side to side to about three inches in 
diameter. There are many villages dotted over the slopes 
which we climbed ; one had been destroyed, and revealed 
the hard clay walls and square forms of Manynema houses. 
Our path lay partly along a ridge, with a deep valley on 
each side : one on the left had a valley filled with primeval 
forests, into which elephants when wounded escape com- 
pletely. The forest was a dense mass, without a bit of 
ground to be seen except a patch on the S.W., the bottom 
of this great valley was 2000 feet below us, then ranges of 
mountains with villages on their bases rose as far as they 
could reach. On our right there was another deep but 
narrow gorge, and mountains much higher than on our 
ridge close adjacent. Our ridge looked like a glacier, 
and it wound from side to side, and took us to the edjre 


of deep precipices, first on the right, then on the left, 
till down below we came to the villages of Chief Monan- 
denda. The houses here are all well filled with firewood on 
shelves, and each has a bed on a raised platform in an inner 

The paths are very skilfully placed on the tops of the 
ridges of hills, and all gullies are avoided. If the highest 
level were not in general made the ground for passing 
through the country the distances would at least be doubled, 
and the fatigue greatly increased. The paths seem to have 
been used for ages : they are worn deep on the heights ; 
and in hollows a little mound rises on each side, formed by 
the feet tossing a little soil on one side. 

21st Sejrfember. — Cross five or six rivulets, and as many 
villages, some burned and deserted, or inhabited. Very 
many people come running to see the strangers. Gigantic 
trees all about the villages. Arrive at Bambarre or Moe- 

About eighty hours of actual travelling, say at 2' per 
hour = say 160' or 140'. Westing from 3rd August to 
21st September. My strength increased as I persevered. 
From Tanganyika west bank say = 

29° 30' east - 140' = 2° 20,' 
2 20 

27° 10' Long, 
chief village of Moenekuss. 

Observations show a little lower altitude than Tanganyika. 

22nd September. — Moenekuss died lately, and left his two 
sons to fill his place. Moenembagg is the elder of the 
two, and the most sensible, and the spokesman on all im- 
portant occasions, but his younger brother, Moenemgoi, is 
the chief, the centre of authority. They showed symptoms 
of suspicion, and Mohamad performed the ceremony of 


mixing blood, which is simply making- a small incision on 
the forearm of each person, and then mixing the bloods, 
and making declarations of friendship. Moenembagg said, 
" Your people must not steal, we never do," which is true : 
blood in a small quantity was then conveyed from one to 
the other by a fig-leaf. " No stealing of fowls or of men," 
said the chief : " Catch the thief and bring him to me, 
one who steals a person is a pig," said Mohamad. Stealing, 
however, began on our side, a slave purloining a fowl, so 
they had good reason to enjoin honesty on us ! They think 
that we have come to kill them : we light on them as if 
from another world : no letters come to tell who we are, or 
what we want. We cannot conceive their state of isolation 
and heedlessness, with nothing to trust to but their charms 
and idols — both being bits of wood. I got a large beetle 
hung up before an idol in the idol house of a deserted and 
burned village; the guardian was there, but the village 

I presented the two brothers with two table cloths, four 
bunches of beads, and one string of neck-beads ; they were 
well satisfied. 

A wood here when burned emits a horrid faecal smell, and 
one would think the camp polluted if one fire was made of 
it. I had a house built for me because the village huts 
are inconvenient, low in roof, and low doorways ; the men 
build them, and help to cultivate the soil, but the women 
have to keep them well filled with firewood and supplied 
with water. They carry the wood, and almost everything 
else in large baskets, hung to the shoulders, like the 
Edinburgh fishwives. A man made a long loud prayer to 
Mulungu last night after dark for rain. 

The sons of Moenekuss have but little of their father's 
power, but they try to behave to strangers as he did. All 
our people are in terror of the Manyema, or Alanyueina, man- 


eating fame : a woman's child had crept into a quiet corner 
of the hut to eat a banana — she could not find him, and 
at once concluded that the Manyuema had kidnapped him 
to eat him, and with a yell she ran through the camp and 
screamed at the top of her shrill voice, " Oh, the Manyuema 
have stolen my child to make meat of him ! Oh, my child 
eaten — oh, oh ! " 

26th-28th September. — A Lnnda slave-girl was sent off to 
"be sold for a tusk, but the Manyuema don't want slaves, as 
we were told in Lunda, for they are generally thieves, and 
otherwise bad characters. It is now clouded over and pre- 
paring for rain, when sun comes overhead. Small-pox comes 
every three or four years, and kills many of the people. 
A soko alive was believed to be a good charm for rain ; so 
one was caught, and the captor had the ends of two fingers 
and toes bitten off. The soko or gorillah always tries to 
bite off these parts, and has been known to overpower a 
young man and leave him without the ends of fingers and 
toes. I saw the nest of one : it is a poor contrivance ; no 
more architectural skill shown than in the nest of Our 
Cushat dove. 

2S)th September. — I visited a hot fountain, an hour west 
•of our camp, which has five eyes, temperature 150°, slightly 
saline taste, and steam issues constantly. It is called 
Kasugwe Colambu. Earthquakes are well known, and to 
"the Manyuema they seem to come from the east to west ; 
pots rattle and fowls cackle on these occasions. 

2nd October, 1869. — A rhinoceros was shot, and party sent 
off to the River Luamo to buy ivory. 

5th October. — An elephant was killed, and the entire 
population went off to get meat, which was given freely at 
first, but after it was known how eagerly the Manyuema 
sought it, six or eight goats were demanded for a carcase 
and given. 


$th October. — The rite of circumcision is general among 
all the Manyuema ; it is performed on the young. If a 
headman's son is to be operated on, it is tried on a slave 
first ; certain times of the year are unpropitious, as during- 
a drought for instance ; but having by this experiment 
ascertained the proper time, they go into the forest, beat 
drums, and feast as elsewhere : contrary to all African 
custom they are not ashamed to speak about the rite, even 
before women. 

Two very fine young men came to visit me to-day. After 
putting several preparatory inquiries as to where our country 
lay, &c., they asked whether people died with us, and where 
they went to after death. " Who kills them ?" " Have you 
no charm (Buanga) against death?" It is not necessary 
to answer such questions save in a land never visited by 
strangers. Both had the " organs of intelligence " largely 
developed. I told them that we prayed to the Great Father, 
" Mulungu," and He hears us all ; they thought this to be 

14th October. — An elephant killed was of the small 
variety, and only 5 feet 8 inches high at the withers. 
The forefoot was in circumference 3 feet 9 inches, which 
doubled gives 7 feet 6 inches ; this shows a deviation from 
the usual rule " twice round the forefoot = the height of 
the animal." Heart 1J foot long, tusks 6 feet 8 inches 
in length. 

15^ October. — Fever better, and thankful. Very cold and 

18th October. — Our Hassani returned from Moene Ki- 
rumbo's ; then one of Dugumbe's party (also called Hassani) 
seized ten goats and ten slaves before leaving, though great 
kindness had been shown : this is genuine Suaheli or 
Nigger-Moslem tactics — four of his people were killed in 



[Chap. I. 

A whole regiment of Soldier ants in my hut were 
put into a panic by a detachment of Driver ants called 
Sirufu. The Chungu or Llack soldiers rushed out with their 
eggs and young, putting them down and running for more. 
A dozen Sirafu pitched on one Chungu and killed him. The 
Chungu made new quarters for themselves. When the 

Catching Ants. 

white ants cast off their colony of winged emigrants a canopy 
is erected like an umbrella over the anthill. As soon as 
the ants fly against the roof they tumble down in a shower 
and their wings instantly become detached from their bodies. 
They are then helpless, and are swept up in baskets to be 
fried, when they make a very palatable food. 

1869.] UNLUCKY DAYS. 01 

24ih-r25th October. — Making copper rings, as these are 
highly prized by Manyuema. Mohamad's Tembe fell. It 
had been begun on an unlucky day, the 26th of the moon ; 
and on another occasion on the same day, he had fifty slaves 
swept away by a sudden flood of a dry river in the Obena 
country: they are great observers of lucky and unlucky 

( 32 ) 


Prepares to explore River Lualaba. Beauty of the Manyuema country. 
Irritation at conduct of Arabs. Dugumbe's ravages. Hordes of 
traders arrive. Severe fever. Elephant trap. Sickness in camp. A 
good Samaritan. Reaches Mamohela and is prostrated. Beneficial 
effects of Nyumbo plant. Long illness. An elephant of three tusks. 
All men desert except Susi, Chuma, and Gardner. Starts with these 
to Lualaba. Arab assassinated by outraged Manyuema. Returns 
baffled to Mamohela. Long and dreadful suffering from ulcerated 
feet. Questionable cannibalism. Hears of four river sources close 
together. Resume of discoveries. Contemporary explorers. The 
soko. Description of its habits. Dr. Livingstone feels himself 
failing. Intrigues of deserters. 

1st November, 1869. — Being now well rested, I resolved to 
go west to Lualaba and buy a canoe for its exploration. 
Our course was west and south-west, through a country sur- 
passingly beautiful, mountainous, and villages perched on 
the talus of each great mass for the sake of quick drainage. 
The streets often run east and west, in order that the bright 
blazing sun may lick up the moisture quickly from off them. 
The dwelling houses are generally in line, with public meet- 
ing houses at each end, opposite the middle of the street, 
the roofs are low, but well thatched with a leaf resembling- 
the banana leaf, but more tough ; it seems from its fruit to 
be a species of Euphorbia. The leaf-stack has a notch made 
in it of two or three inches lengthways, and this hooks on 
to the rafters, which are often of the leaf-stalks of palms, 
split up so as to be thin ; the water runs quickly off this 
roof, and the walls, which are of well-beaten clay, are 


screened from the weather. Inside, the dwellings are clean 
and comfortable, and before the Arabs came bugs were un- 
known — as I have before observed, one may know where 
these people have come by the presence or absence of these 
nasty vermin : the human tick, which infests all Arab and 
Suaheli houses, is to the Manyuema unknown. 

In some cases, where the south-east rains are abundant, 
the Manyuema place the back side of the houses to this 
quarter, and prolong the low roof down, so that the rain 
does not reach the walls. These clay walls stand for ages, 
and men often return to the villages they left in infancy 
and build again the portions that many rains have washed 
away. The country generally is of clayey soil, and suitable 
for building. Each housewife has from twenty-five to thirty 
earthen pots slung to the ceiling by very neat cord-swingino- 
tressels ; and often as many neatly made baskets hung up in 
the same fashion, and much firewood. 

5th November. — In going we crossed the Kiver Luela, of 
twenty yards in width, five times, in a dense dripping forest. 
The men of one village always refused to accompany us to 
the next set of hamlets, " They were at war, and afraid of 
being killed and eaten." They often came five or six miles 
through the forests that separate the districts, but when we 
drew near to the cleared spaces cultivated by their enemies 
they parted civilly, and invited us to come the same way 
back, and they would sell us all the food we required. 

The Manyuema country is all surpassingly beautiful. Palms 
crown the highest heights of the mountains, and their grace- 
fully bended fronds wave beautifully in the wind ; and the 
forests, usually about five miles broad, between groups of 
villages, are indescribable. Climbers of cable size in great 
numbers are hung among the gigantic trees, many unknown 
wild fruits abound, some the size of a child's head, and 
strange birds and monkeys are everywhere. The soil is 
excessively rich, and the people, although isolated by old 

VOL. IT. I) 


feuds that are never settled, cultivate largely. They have 
selected a kind of maize that bends its fruit-stalk round into 
a hook, and hedges some eighteen feet high are made by 
inserting poles, which sprout like Eobinson Crusoe's hedge, 
and never decay. Lines of climbing plants are tied so as to 
go along from pole to pole, and the maize cobs are suspended 
to these by their own hooked fruit-stalk. As the corn cob is 
forming, the hook is turned round, so that the fruit-leaves 
of it hang down and form a thatch for the grain beneath, 
or inside it. This upright granary forms a solid-looking 
wall round the villages, and the people are not stingy, but 
take down maize and hand it to the men freely. 

The Avomen are very naked. They bring loads of provi- 
sions to sell, through the rain, and are eager traders for 
beads. Plantains, cassava, and maize, are the chief food. 
The first rains had now begun, and the white ants took the 
hint to swarm and colonize. 

6th, 7th, and 8th November. — We came to many large 
villages, and were variously treated; one headman pre- 
sented me with a parrot, and on my declining it, gave it to 
one of my people ; some ordered us off, but were coaxed 
to allow us to remain over night. They have no restraint ; 
some came and pushed off the door of my hut with a stick 
while I was resting, as we should do with a wild-beast 

Though reasonably willing to gratify curiosity, it becomes 
tiresome to be the victim of unlimited staring by the ugly, 
as well as by the good-looking. I can bear the women, 
but ugly males are uninteresting, and it is as much as I 
can stand when a crowd will follow me Avherever I move. 
They have heard of Dugumbe Hassani's deeds, and are 
evidently suspicious of our intentions : they say, " If you 
have food at home, why come so far and spend your beads 
to buy it here?" If it is replied, on the strength of some 
of Mohamad's people being present, " We want to buy ivory 

1869.] WORTHLESS MEN". 35 

too;" not knowing its value they think that this is a mere 
subterfuge to plunder them. Much palm-wine to-day at 
different parts made them incapable of reasoning further ; 
they seemed inclined to fight, but after a great deal of 
talk we departed without collision. 

9th November. — We came to villages where all were civil, 
but afterwards arrived where there were other palm-trees 
and palm-toddy, and people low and disagreeable in con- 
sequence. The mountains all around are grand, and tree- 
covered. I saw a man with two great great toes : the double 
toe is usually a little one. 

11th November. — We had heard that the Manyuema were 
eager to buy slaves, but that meant females only to make 
Avives of them : they prefer goats to men. Mohamad had 
bought slaves in Lunda in order to get ivory from these 
Manyuema, but inquiry here and elsewhere brought it out 
plainly that they would rather let the ivory lie unused or 
rot than invest in male slaves, who are generally criminals 
— at least in Lunda. I advised my friend to desist from 
buying slaves who would all " eat off their own heads," but 
he knew better than to buy copper, and on our return he 
acknowledged that I was right. 

15th November. — We came into a country where Du- 
gumbe's slaves had maltreated the people greatly, and they 
looked on us as of the same tribe, and we had much trouble 
in consequence. The country is swarming with villages. 
Hassani of Dugumbe got the chief into debt, and then 
robbed him of ten men and ten goats to clear off the debt : 
the Dutch did the same in the south of Africa. 

nth November. — Copious rains brought us to a halt at 
Muana Balange's, on the banks of the Luamo liiver. Moere- 
kurambo had died lately, and his substitute took seven 
goats to the chiefs on the other side in order to induce 
them to come in a strong party and attack us for Hassani's 

d 2 


20th to 25th November. — We were now only about ten 
miles from the confluence of the Luanio and Lualaba, but all 
the people had been plundered, and some killed by the slaves 
of Dugumbe. The Luanio is here some 200 yards broad 
and deep ; the chiefs everywhere were begged to refuse us a 
passage. The women were particularly outspoken in assert- 
ing our identity with the cruel strangers, and when one 
lady was asked in the midst of her vociferation just to look 
if I were of the same colour with Dugumbe, she replied with 
a bitter little laugh, " Then you must be his father ! " 

It was of no use to try to buy a canoe, for all were our 
enemies. It was now the rainy season, and I had to move 
with great caution. The worst our enemies did, after trying 
to get up a war in vain, was to collect as we went by in 
force fully armed with their large spears and huge wooden 
shields, and show us out of their districts. All are kind 
except those who have been abused by the Arab slaves. 
While waiting at Luanio a man, whom we sent over to buy 
food, got into a panic and fled he knew not whither ; all 
concluded that he had been murdered, but some Manyuema 
whom we had never seen found him, fed him, and brought 
him home unscathed : I was very glad that no collision had 
taken place. We returned to Bambarre 19th December, 1869. 

20th December. — While we were away a large horde of 
Ujijians came to Bambarre, all eager to reach the cheap 
ivory, of which a rumour had spread far and wide; they 
numbered 500 guns, and invited Mohamad to go with them, 
but he preferred waiting for my return from the west. We 
now resolved to go due north ; he to buy ivory, and I to 
reach another part of the Lualaba and buy a canoe. 

Wherever the dense primeval forest has been cleared off 
by man, gigantic grasses usurp the clearances. None of 
the sylvan vegetation can stand the annual grass-burnings 
except a species of Bauhinia, and occasionally a large tree 
which sends out new wood below the burned places. The 


parrots build thereon, and the men make a stair up 150 feet 
by tying climbing plants (called Binayoba) around, at about 
four feet distance, as steps : near the confluence of the 
Luamo, men build huts on this same species of tree for 
safety against the arrows of their enemies. 

21st December. — The strong thick grass of the clearances 
dries down to the roots at the surface of the soil, and fire 
does it no harm. Though a few of the great old burly 
giants brave the fires, none of the climbers do : they dis- 
appear, but the plants themselves are brought out of the 
forests and ranged along the plantations like wire fences 
to keep wild beasts off ; the poles of these vegetable wire 
hedges often take root, as also those in stages for maize. 

22nd, 23rd, and 2±th December. — Mohamad presented a 
goat to be eaten on our Christmas. I got large copper 
bracelets made of my copper by Manyuema smiths, for they 
are considered very valuable, and have driven iron bracelets 
quite out of fashion. 

25th December. — We start immediately after Christmas: 
I must try with all my might to finish my exploration 
before next Christmas. 

26th December. — I get fever severely, and was down all 
day, but we march, as I have always found that moving is 
the best remedy for fever: I have, however, no medicine 
whatever. We passed over the neck of Mount Kinyima, 
north-west of Moenekuss, through very slippery forest, and 
encamped on the banks of the Lulwa Rivulet. 

28^ December. — Away to Monangoi's village, near the 
Luamo River, here 150 or more yards wide and deep. A 
man passed us, bearing a human finger wrapped in a leaf; 
it was to be used as a charm, and belonged to a man killed 
in revenge : the Arabs all took this as clear evidence of 
•cannibalism : I hesitated, however, to believe it. 

29th, 30th, and 31st December. — Heavy rains. The Luamo 
is called the Luasse above this. We crossed in canoes. 


1st January, 1870. — May the Almighty help ine to finish 
the work in hand, and retire through the Basango before the 
year is out. Thanks for all last year's lovingkindness. 

Our course was due north, with the Luasse flowing in a 
gently undulating green country on our right, and rounded 
mountains in Mbongo's country on our left. 

2nd January. — Rested a day at Mbongo's, as the people 
were honest. 

3rd January. — Reached a village at the edge of a great 
forest, where the people were excited and uproarious, 
but not ill-bred, they ran alongside the path with us 
shouting and making energetic remarks to each other about 
us. A newly-married couple stood in a village where we 
stopped to inquire the way, with arms around each other 
very lovingly, and no one joked or poked fun at them. 
"We marched five hours through forest and crossed three 
rivulets and much stagnant water which the sun by the few 
rays he darts in cannot evaporate. We passed several huge 
traps for elephants : they are constructed thus — a log of 
heavy wood, about 20 feet long, has a hole at one end for a 
climbing plant to pass through and suspend it, at the lower 
end a mortice is cut out of the side, and a wooden lance 
about 2 inches broad by 1^ thick, and about 4 feet long, is 
inserted firmly in the mortice ; a latch down on the ground,, 
when touched by the animal's foot, lets the beam run down 
on to his body, and the great weight of the wood drives in 
the lance and kills the animal. I saw one lance which had 
accidentally fallen, and it had gone into the stiff clay soil 
two feet. 

4th January. — The villagers we passed were civil, but like 
noisy children, all talked and gazed. When surrounded 
by 300 or 400, some who have not been accustomed to 
the ways of wild men think that a fight is imminent ; 
but, poor things, no attack is thought of, if it does not 
begin on our side. Many of Mohamad's people were dread- 


fully afraid of being killed and eaten; one man out in 
search of ivory seemed to have lost sight of his companions,, 
for they saw him running with all his might to a forest 
with no path in it ; he was searched for for several days, 
and was given up as a murdered man, a victim of the 
cannibal Manyuema ! On the seventh day after he lost his 
head, he was led into camp by a headman, who not only 
found him wandering but fed and lodged and restored him 
to his people. 

[With reference to the above we may add that nothing 
can exceed the terror in which cannibal nations are held by 
other African tribes. It was common on the Eiver Shire to 
hear Manganja and Ajawa people speak of tribes far away 
to the north who eat human bodies, and on every occasion 
the fact was related with the utmost horror and disgust.] 

The women here plait the hair into the form of a basket 
behind ; it is first rolled into a very long coil, then wound 
round something till it is about 8 or 10 inches long, pro- 
jecting from the back of the head. 

5th, 6th, and 1th January. — Wettings by rain and grass 
overhanging our paths, with bad water, brought on choleraic 
symptoms ; and opium from Mohamad had no effect in stop- 
ping it : he, too, had rheumatism. On suspecting the water as 
the cause, I had all I used boiled, and this was effectual, but 
I was greatly reduced in flesh, and so were many of our party. 

We proceeded nearly due north, through wilderness and 
many villages and running rills; the paths are often left 
to be choked up by the overbearing vegetation, and then 
the course of the rill is adopted as the only clear passage ; 
it has also this advantage, it prevents footmarks being fol- 
lowed by enemies : in fact the object is always to make 
approaches to human dwellings as difficult as possible, 
even the hedges around villages sprout out and grow a 
living fence, and this is covered by a great mass of a species 


of calabash with its broad leaves, so that nothing appears of 
the fence outside. 

11th January. — The people are civil, but uproarious from 
the excitement of having never seen strangers before; all 
visitors from a distance came with their large wooden 
shields; many of the men are handsome and tall but the, 
women are plainer than at Bambarre. 

12th January. — Cross the Minde - , 35 yards and knee 
deep, flowing to join Luamo far down : dark water. (13^/i.) 
Through the hills Chimunemune ; we see many albinos and 
partial lepers and syphilis is prevalent. It is too trying to 
travel during the rains. 

14f7i January. — The Muabe palm had taken possession 
of a broad valley, and the leaf-stalks, as thick as a strong 
man's arm and 20 feet long, had fallen off and blocked up 
all passage except by one path made and mixed up by the 
feet of buffaloes and elephants. In places like this the leg 
goes into elephants' holes up to the thigh and it is grievous ; 
three hours of this slough tired the strongest: a brown 
stream ran through the centre, waist deep, and washed off a 
little of the adhesive mud. Our path now lay through a 
river covered with tikatika, a living vegetable bridge made 
by a species of glossy leafed grass which felts itself into a 
mat capable of bearing a man's weight, but it bends in a 
foot or fifteen inches every step ; a stick six feet long could 
not reach the bottom in certain holes we passed. The lotus, 
or sacred lily, Avhich grows in nearly all the shallow waters 
of this country, sometimes spreads its broad leaves over the 
bridge so as to lead careless observers to think that it is the 
bridge builder, but the grass mentioned is the real agent. 
Here it is called Kintefwetefwe ; on Victoria Nyanza Tita- 

Vdth January. — Choleraic purging again came on till all 
the water used was boiled, but I was laid up by sheer weak- 
ness near the hill Chanza. 


20th and 21st January. — Weakness and illness goes on 
because we get wet so often ; the whole party suffers, and 
they say that they will never come here again. The Man- 
yango Eivulet has fine sweet water, but the whole country 
is smothered with luxuriant vegetation. 

27th, 29th, and 30th January. — Kest from sickness in 
camp. The country is indescribable from rank jungle of 
grass, but the rounded hills are still pretty; an elephant 
alone can pass through it — these are his head-quarters. 
The stalks are from half an inch to an inch and a half in 
diameter, reeds clog the feet, and the leaves rub sorely on 
the face and eyes : the view is generally shut in by this 
megatherium grass, except when we come to a slope down 
to a valley or the bed of a rill. 

We came to a village among fine gardens of maize, 
bananas, ground-nuts, and cassava, but the villagers said, 
"Go on to next village;" and this meant, "We don't want 
you here." The main body of Mohamad's people was about 
three miles before us, but I was so weak I sat down in the 
next hamlet and asked for a hut to rest in. A woman with 
leprous hands gave me hers, a nice clean one, and very heavy 
rain came on : of her own accord she prepared dumplings of 
green maize, pounded and boiled, which are sweet, for she said 
that she saw I was hungry. It was excessive weakness from 
purging, and seeing that I did not eat for fear of the leprosy, 
she kindly pressed me : " Eat, you are weak only from 
hunger ; this will strengthen you." I put it out of her 
sight, and blessed her motherly heart. 

I had ere this come to the conclusion that I ought not 
to risk myself further in the rains in my present weakness, 
for it may result in something worse, as in Marungu and 

The horde mentioned as having passed Bambarre was now 
somewhere in our vicinity, and it was impossible to ascertain 
from the Manyuema where the Lualaba lay. 


In going north on 1st February we came to some of this 
horde belonging to Katomba or Moeneniokaia, who stated 
that the leader was anxious for advice as to crossing Lualaba 
and future movements. He supposed that this river was 
seven days in front of him, and twelve days in front of 
us. It is a puzzle from its north-westing and low level i 
it is possibly Petherick's Bahr Ghazal. Could get no 

2nd February, 1870. — I propose to cross it, and buy an 
exploring canoe, because I am recovering my strength ; but 
we now climb over the bold hills Bininango, and turn 
south-west towards Katomba to take counsel : he knows 
more than anyone else about the country, and his people 
being now scattered everywhere seeking ivory, I do not 
relish their company. 

3rd February. — Caught in a drenching rain, which made 
me fain to sit, exhausted as I was, under an umbrella for an 
hour trying to keep the trunk dry. As I sat in the rain a 
little tree-frog, about half an inch long, leaped on to a 
grassy leaf, and began a tune as loud as that of many birds, 
and very sweet; it was surprising to hear so much music 
out of so small a musician. I drank some rain-water as 
I felt faint — in the paths it is now calf deep. I crossed 
a hundred yards of slush waist deep in mid channel, and 
full of holes made by elephants' feet, the path hedged 
in by reedy grass, often intertwined and very tripping. 
I stripped off my clothes on reaching my hut in a 
village, and a fire during night nearly dried them. At 
the same time I rubbed my legs with palm oil, and in 
the morning had a delicious breakfast of sour goat's milk 
and porridge. 

5th February. — The drenching told on me sorely, and it 
was repeated after we had crossed the good-sized rivulets 
Mulunkula and many villages, and I lay on an enormous 
boulder under a Muabe palm, and slept during the worst 

1870.] THE NYUMBO PLANT. 45 

of the pelting. I was seven days southing to Mamohela, 
Katomba's camp, and quite knocked lip and exhausted. I 
went into winter quarters on 7th February, 1870. 

7th February. — This Avas the camp of the headman of 
the ivory horde now away for ivory. Katomba, as Moene- 
mokaia is called, was now all kindness. We were away from 
his Ujijian associates, and he seemed to follow his natural 
bent without fear of the other slave-traders, who all hate to 
see me as a spy on their proceedings. Best, shelter, and 
boiling all the water I used, and above all the new species of 
potato called Nyumbo, much famed among the natives as 
restorative, soon put me all to rights. Katomba supplied 
me liberally with nyumbo ; and, but for a slightly medi- 
cinal taste, which is got rid of by boiling in two waters, 
this vegetable would be equal to English potatoes. 

11th February. — First of all it was proposed to go off to 
the Lualaba in the north-west, in order to procure Holms, 
sorghum or dura flour, that being, in Arab opinion, nearly 
equal to wheat, or as they say "heating," while the maize 
flour we were obliged to use was cold or cooling. 

13th February. — I was too ill to go through mud waist 
deep, so I allowed Mohamad (who was suffering much) to 
go away alone in search of ivory. As stated above, shelter 
and nyumbo proved beneficial. 

22nd February. — Falls between Vira and Baker's Water 
seen by Wanyamwezi. This confirms my conjecture on 
finding Lualaba at a lower level than Tanganyika. Bin 
Habib went to fight the Batusi, but they were too strong, 
and he turned. 

1st March, 1870. — Visited my Arab friends in their camp 
for the first time to-day. This is Kasessa's country, and the 
camp is situated between two strong rivulets, while Mamo- 
hela is the native name, Mount Bombola stands two miles 
from it north, and Mount Bolmikela is north-east the same 
distance. Wood, water, and grass, the requisites of a camp 


abound, and the Manyuema bring large supplies of food 
every day ; forty large baskets of maize for a goat ; fowls 
and bananas and nyumbo very cheap. 

2oth March. — Iron bracelets are the common medium 
of exchange, and coarse beads and cowries: for a copper 
bracelet three large fowls are given, and three and a half 
baskets of maize ; one basket three feet high is a woman's 
load, and they are very strong. 

The Wachiogone are a scattered tribe among the Maarabo 
or Suaheli, but they retain their distinct identity as a 

The Mamba fish has breasts with milk, and utters a cry ; 
its flesh is very white, it is not the crocodile which goes 
by the same name, but is probably the Dugong or Peixe 
Mulher of the Portuguese (?). Full-grown leeches come on 
the surface in this wet country. 

Some of Katomba's men returned with forty-three tusks. 
An animal with short horns and of a reddish colour is in 
the north ; it is not known to the Arabs (?). 

Joseph, an Arab from Oman, says that the Simoom is 
worse in Sham (Yemen ?) than in Oman : it blows for three 
or four hours. Butter eaten largely is the remedy against 
its ill effects, and this is also smeared on the body : in Oman 
a wetted cloth is put over the head, body, and legs, while 
this wind blows. 

1st May, 1870. — An elephant was killed which had three 
tusks ; all of good size.* 

Rains continued ; and mud and mire from the clayey soil 
of Manyuema were too awful to be attempted. 

2^th May. — I sent to Bambarre for the cloth and beads 
I left there. A party of Thani's people came south and said 
that they had killed forty Manyuema, and lost four of their 

* Snsi and Chuma say that the third tusk grew out from the base of 
the trunk, that is, midway between the other two. — Ed. 



own number ; nine villages were burned, and all this about 
a single string of beads which a man tried to steal ! 

June, 1870. — Mohamad bin Nassur and Alula's men 
brought 116 tusks from the north, where the people are 
said to be all good and obliging : Akila's chief man had 
a large deep ulcer on the foot from the mud. When we 
had the people here, Kassessa gave ten goats and one tusk 
to hire them to avenge a feud in which his elder brother 
was killed, and they went ; the spoils secured were 31 cap- 
tives, 60 goats, and about 40 Manyuema killed: one slave 
of the attacking party was killed, and two badly wounded. 
Thani's man, Yahood, who was leader in the other case of 
40 killed, boasted before me of the deed. I said, " You 
were sent here not to murder, but to trade;" he replied, 
" We are sent to murder." Bin Nassur said, " The English 
are always killing people;" I replied, "Yes, but only 
slavers who do the deeds that were clone yesterday." 

Various other tribes sent large presents to the Arabs to 
avert assaults, and tusks too were offered. 

The rains had continued into June, and fifty-eight inches 

26th June. — Now my people failed me ; so, with only 
three attendants, Susi, Chuma, and Gardner, I started off 
to the north-west for the Lualaba. The numbers of run- 
ning rivulets to be crossed were surprising, and at each, for 
some forty yards, the path had been worked by the feet of 
passengers into adhesive mud : we crossed fourteen in 
one day — some thigh deep ; most of them run into the 
Liya, which we crossed, and it flows to the Lualaba. We 
passed through many villages, for the paths all lead through 
human dwellings. Many people presented bananas, and 
seemed surprised when I made a small return gift ; one 
man ran after me with a sugar-cane; I paid for lodgings 
too : here the Arabs never do. 

28th June. — The driver ants were in millions in some part 


of the way ; on this side of the continent they seem less 
fierce than I have found them in the west? 

29th June. — At one village musicians with calabashes, 
having holes in them, flute-fashion, tried to please me by 
their vigorous acting, and by beating drums in time. 

30th June. — We passed through the nine villages burned 
for a single string of beads, and slept in the village of 

July, 1870. — While I was sleeping quietly here, some 
trading Arabs camped at Nasangwa's, and at dead of night 
one was pinned to the earth by a spear ; no doubt this was 
in revenge for relations slain in the forty mentioned : the 
survivors now wished to run a muck in all directions against 
the Manyuema. 

When I came up I proposed to ask the chief if he knew 
the assassin, and he replied that he was not sure of him, for 
he could only conjecture who it was ; but death to all Man- 
yuemas glared from the eyes of half-castes and slaves. For- 
tunately, before this affair was settled in their way, I met 
Mohamad Bogharib coming back from Kasonga's, and he 
joined in enforcing peace : the traders went off, but let my 
three people know, what I knew long before, that they hated 
having a spy in me on their deeds. I told some of them 
Avho were civil tongued that ivory obtained by bloodshed 
was unclean evil — " unlucky " as they say : my advice to them 
was, " Don't shed human blood, my friends ; it has guilt 
not to be wiped off by water." Off they went ; and after- 
wards the bloodthirsty party got only one tusk and a half, 
while another party, which avoided shooting men, got fifty- 
four tusks ! 

From Mohamad's people I learned that the Lualaba was 
not in the N.W. course I had pursued, for in fact it flows 
W.S.W. in another great bend, and they had gone far to 
the north without seeing it, but the country was exceed- 
ingly difficult from forest and water. As I had already 

1870.] HIS FEET FAIL. 47 

seen, trees fallen across the path formed a breast-high wall 
which had to be climbed over: flooded rivers, breast and 
neck deep, had to be crossed, the mud was awful, and nothing 
but villages eight or ten miles apart. 

In the clearances around these villages alone could the sun 
be seen. For the first time in my life my feet failed me, 
and now having but three attendants it would have been 
unwise to go further in that direction. Instead of healing 
quietly as heretofore, when torn by hard travel, irritable- 
eating ulcers fastened on both feet ; and I limped back to 
Bambarre on 22nd. 

The accounts of Ramadan (who was desired by me to take 
notes as he went in the forest) were discouraging, and made 
me glad I did not go. At one part, where the tortuous 
river was flooded, they were five hours in the water, and 
.a man in a small canoe went before them sounding for 
places not too deep for them, breast and chin deep, and 
Hassani fell and hurt himself sorely in a hole. The people 
have goats and sheep, and love them as they do children. 

[Fairly baffled by the difficulties in his way, and sorely 
troubled by the demoralised state of his men, who appear 
not to have been proof against the contaminating presence 
of the Arabs, the Doctor turns back at this point.] 

6th July. — Back to Mamohela, and welcomed by the Arabs, 
who all approved of my turning back. Katomba presented 
abundant provisions for all the way to Bambarre. Before 
we reached this, Mohamad made a forced march, and 
Moenemokaia's people came out drunk : the Arabs assaulted 
them, and they ran off. 

23rd July. — The sores on my feet now laid me up as 
irritable-eating ulcers. If the foot were put to the ground, 
a discharge of bloody ichor flowed, and the same dis- 
charge happened every night with considerable pain, that 
prevented sleep : the wailing of the slaves tortured with 


these sores is one of the night sounds of a slave-camp : they 
eat through everything — muscle, tendon, and bone, and often 
lame permanently if they do not kill the poor things. Medi- 
cines have very little effect on such wounds : their periodi- 
city seems to say that they are allied to fever. The Arabs 
make a salve of bees'-wax and sulphate of copper, and this 
applied hot, and held on by a bandage affords support, but 
the necessity of letting the ichor escape renders it a painful 
remedy : I had three ulcers, and no medicine. The native 
plan of support by means of a stiff leaf or bit of calabash 
was too irritating, and so they continued to eat in and 
enlarge in spite of everything : the vicinity was hot, and 
the pain increased with the size of the wound. 

2nd August. — An eclipse at midnight : the Moslems 
called loudly on Moses. Very cold. 

On 17th August, Monanyembe, the chief who was 
punished by Mohamad Bogharib, lately came bringing two 
goats ; one he gave to Mohamad, the other to Moenekuss' 
son, acknowledging that he had killed his elder brother : 
he had killed eleven persons over at Linamo in our absence, 
in addition to those killed in villages on our S.E. when we 
were away. It transpired that Kandahara, brother of old 
Moenekuss, whose village is near this, killed three women 
and a child, and that a trading man came over from Kasan- 
gangaye, and was murdered too, for no reason but to eat 
his body. Mohamad ordered old Kandahara to bring ten 
goats and take them over to Kasangangaye to pay for the 
murdered man. When they tell of each other's deeds they 
disclose a horrid state of bloodthirsty callousness. The 
people over a hill N.N.E. of this killed a person out hoeing ; 
if a cultivator is alone, he is almost sure of being slain. 
Some said that people in the vicinity, or hyaenas, stole the 
buried dead; but Posho's wife died, and in Wanyamesi 
fashion was thrown out of camp unburied. Mohamad 
threatened an attack if Manyuema did not cease exhuming 

1870.] FOUR RIVERS. 49 

■the dead ; it was effectual, neither men nor hyaenas touched 
her, though exposed now for seven days. 

The head of Moenekuss is said to be preserved in a pot in 
his house, and all public matters are gravely communicated 
to it, as if his spirit dwelt therein : his body was eaten, the 
flesh was removed from the head and eaten too ; his father's 
head is said to be kept also : the foregoing refers to Bam- 
barre alone. In other districts graves show that sepulture 
is customary, but here no grave appears : some admit the 
existence of the practice here; others deny it. In the 
Metamba country adjacent to the Lualaba, a quarrel with a 
wife often ends in the husband killing her and eating her 
heart, mixed up in a huge mess of goat's flesh : this has 
the charm character. Fingers are taken as charms in other 
parts, but in Bambarre alone is the depraved taste the 
motive for cannibalism. 

Bambarre, ISth August. — I learn from Josut and Moene- 
pembe', who have been to Katanga and beyond, that there 
is a Lake N.N.W. of the copper mines, and twelve days 
distant ; it is called Chibungo, and is said to be large. 
Seven days west of Katanga flows another Lualaba, the 
dividing line between Bua and Lunda or Londa ; it is very 
large, and as the Lufira flows into Chibungo, it is probable 
that the Lualaba West and the Lufira form the Lake. Lualaba 
West and Lufira rise by fountains south of Katanga, three or 
four days off. Luambai and Lunga fountains are only about 
ten miles distant from Lualaba West and Lufira fountains : 
a mound rises between them, the most remarkable in Africa. 
Were this spot in Armenia it would serve exactly the 
description of the garden of Eden in Genesis, with its four 
rivers, the Gihon, Pison, Hiddekel, and Euphrates ; as it is, 
it possibly gave occasion to the story told to Herodotus by 
the Secretary of Minerva in the City of Sais, about two hills 
with conical tops, Crophi and Mophi. "Midway between 
them," said he, " are the fountains of the Nile, fountains 

VOL. II. e 


which it is impossible to fathom : half the water runs north- 
ward into Egypt ; half to the south towards Ethiopia." 

Four fountains rising so near to each other would readily 
be supposed to have one source, and half the water flowing 
into the Nile and the other half to the Zambesi, required 
but little imagination to originate, seeing the actual visitor 
would not feel bound to say how the division was effected. 
He could only know the fact of waters rising at one spot, 
and separating to flow north and south. The conical tops to 
the mound look like invention, as also do the names. 

A slave, bought on Lualaba East, came from Lualaba 
West in about twelve days : these two Lualabas may form 
the loop depicted by Ptolemy, and upper and lower Tangan- 
yika be a third arm of the Nile. 

Patience is all I can exercise : these irritable ulcers hedge 
me in now, as did my attendants in June, but all will be for 
the best, for it is in Providence and not in me. 

The watershed is between 700 and 800 miles long from 
west to east, or say from 22° or 23° to 34° or 35° East longi- 
tude. Parts of it are enormous sponges ; in other parts innu- 
merable rills unite into rivulets, which again form rivers — 
Lufira, for instance, has nine rivulets, and Lekulwe other 
nine. The convex surface of the rose of a garden watering- 
can is a tolerably apt similitude, as the rills do not spring 
off the face of it, and it is 700 miles across the circle ; but 
in the numbers of rills coming out at different heights on 
the slope, there is a faint resemblance, and I can at present 
think of no other exan^le. 

I am a little thankful to old Nile for so hiding his head 
that all " theoretical discoverers " are left out in the cold. 
"With all real explorers I have a hearty sympathy, and I 
have some regret at being obliged, in a manner compelled,, 
to speak somewhat disparagingly of the opinions formed 
by my predecessors. The work of Speke and Grant is part 
of the history of this region, and since the discovery of the 


sources of the Nile was asserted so positively, it seems 
necessary to explain, not offensively, I hope, wherein their 
mistake lay, in making a somewhat similar claim. My 
opinions may yet be shown to be mistaken too, but at present 
I cannot conceive how. When Speke discovered Victoria 
Nyanza in 1858, he at once concluded that therein lay the 
sources of the Nile. His work after that was simply follow- 
ing a foregone conclusion, and as soon as he and Grant looked 
towards the Victoria Nyanza, they turned their backs on the 
Nile fountains ; so every step of their splendid achievement 
of following the river down took them further and further 
away from the Caput Nili. When it was perceived that the 
little river that leaves the Nyanza, though they called it 
the White Nile, would not account for that great river, 
they might have gone west and found headwaters (as the 
Lualaba) to which it can bear no comparison. Taking their 
White Nile at 80 or 90 yards, or say 100 yards broad, the 
Lualaba, far south of the latitude of its point of departure, 
shows an average breadth of from 4000 to 6000 yards, and 
always deep. 

Considering that more than sixteen hundred years have 
elapsed since Ptolemy put down the results of early explorers, 
and emperors, kings, philosophers — all the great men of 
antiquity in short longed to know the fountains whence flowed 
the famous river, and longed in vain — exploration does not 
seem to have been very becoming to the other sex either. 
Madame Tinne came further up the river than the cen- 
turions sent by Nero Csesar, and showed such indomitable 
pluck as to reflect honour on her race. I know nothing 
about her save what has appeared in the public papers, but 
taking her exploration along with what was done by Mrs. 
Baker, no long time could have elapsed before the laurels 
for the modern re-discovery of the sources of the Nile should 
have been plucked by the ladies. In 1841 the Egyptian Ex- 
pedition under D'Arnauld and Sabatier reached lat. 4° 42' : 

e 2 


this was a great advance into the interior as compared with 
Linant in 1827, 13° 30' N"., and even on the explorations of 
Jomard (?) ; but it turned when nearly a thousand miles 
from the sources. 

[The subjoined account of the soko — which is in all pro- 
bability an entirely new species of chimpanzee, and not the 
gorilla, is exceedingly interesting, and no doubt Living- 
stone had plenty of stories from which to select. Neither 
Susi nor Chuma can identify the soko of Manyuema with 
the gorilla, as we have it stuffed in the British Museum. 
They think, however, that the soko is quite as large and 
as strong as the gorilla, judging by the specimens shown 
to them, although they could have decided with greater 
certainty, if the natives had not invariably brought in the 
dead sokos disembowelled ; as they point out, and as we 
imagine from Dr. Livingstone's description, the carcase 
would then appear much less bulky. Livingstone gives an 
animated sketch of a soko hunt.] 

24:th August. — Four gorillas or sokos were killed yester- 
day : an extensive grass-burning forced them out of their 
usual haunt, and coming on the plain they were sj)eared. 
They often go erect, but place the hand on the head, 
as if to steady the body. When seen thus, the soko is an 
ungainly beast. The most sentimental young lady would 
not call him a " dear," but a bandy-legged, pot-bellied, low- 
looking villain, without a particle of the gentleman in him. 
Other animals, especially the antelopes, are graceful, and it 
is pleasant to see them, either at rest or in motion : the 
natives also are well made, lithe and comely to behold, 
but the soko, if large, would do well to stand for a picture 
of the Devil. 

He takes away my appetite by his disgusting bestiality 
of appearance. His light-yellow face shows off his ugly 
whiskers, and faint apology for a beard ; the forehead 

1870.] THE SOKO. 53 

villainously low, with high ears, is well in the back-ground 
of the great dog-mouth ; the teeth are slightly human, but 
the canines show the beast by their large development. 
The hands, or rather the fingers, are like those of the 
natives. The flesh of the feet is yellow, and the eagerness 
with which the Manyuema devour it leaves the impression 
that eating sokos was the first stage by which they arrived 
at being cannibals ; they say the flesh is delicious. The 
soko is represented by some to be extremely knowing, 
successfully stalking men and women while at their work, 
kidnapping children, and running up trees with them — he 
seems to be amused by the sight of the young native in 
his arms, but comes down when tempted by a bimch of 
bananas, and as he lifts that, drops the child : the young 
soko in such a case would cling closely to the armpit of the 
elder. One man was cutting out honey from a tree, and 
naked, when a soko suddenly appeared and caught him, 
then let him go : another man was hunting, and missed 
in his attempt to stab a soko : it seized the spear and 
broke it, then grappled with the man, who called to his 
companions, " Soko has caught me," the soko bit off the 
ends of his fingers and escaped unharmed. Both men are 
now alive at Bambarre. 

The soko is so cunning, and has such sharp eyes, that 
no one can stalk him in front without being seen, hence, 
when shot, it is always in the back; when surrounded by 
men and nets, he is generally speared in the back too, 
otherwise he is not a very formidable beast : he is nothing, 
as compared in power of damaging his assailant, to a leopard 
or lion, but is more like a man unarmed, for it does not 
occur to him to use his canine teeth, which are long and 
formidable. Numbers of them come down in the forest, 
within a hundred yards of our camp, and would be unknown 
but for giving tongue like fox-hounds : this is their nearest 
approach to speech. A man hoeing was stalked by a soko, 


and seized ; he roared out, but the soko giggled and grinned, 
and left him as if he had done it in play. A child caught 
up by a soko is often abused by being pinched and scratched, 
and let fall. 

The soko kills the leopard occasionally, by seizing both 
paws, and biting them so as to disable them, he then goes up 
a tree, groans over his wounds, and sometimes recovers, while 
the leopard dies : at other times, both soko and leopard die. 
The lion kills him at once, and sometimes tears his limbs 
off, but does not eat him. The soko eats no flesh — small 
bananas are his dainties, but not maize. His food consists 
of wild fruits, which abound : one, Stafene, or Manyuema 
Mamwa, is like large sweet sop but indifferent in taste and 
flesh. The soko brings forth at times twins. A very large 
soko was seen by Mohamad's hunters sitting picking his 
nails ; they tried to stalk him, but he vanished. Some 
Manyuema think that their buried dead rise as sokos, and 
one was killed with holes in his ears, as if he had been a 
man. He is very strong and fears guns but not spears : 
he never catches women. 

Sokos collect together, and make a drumming noise, some 
say with hollow trees, then burst forth into loud yells which 
are well imitated by the natives' embryotic music. If a 
man has no spear the soko goes away satisfied, but if 
wounded he seizes the wrist, lops off the fingers, and spits 
them out, slaps the cheeks of his victim, and bites without 
breaking the skin : he draws out a spear (but never uses 
it), and takes some leaves and stuffs them into his wound 
to staunch the blood ; he does not wish an encounter with 
an armed man. He sees women do him no harm, and 
never molests them; a man without a spear is nearly safe 
from him. They beat hollow trees as drums with hands, and 
then scream as music to it ; when men hear them, they 
go to the sokos ; but sokos never go to men with hostility. 
Manyuema say, " Soko is a man, and nothing bad in him." 

rage 65. 



They live in communities of about ten, each having his 
own female ; an intruder from another camp is beaten off 
Avith their fists and loud yells. If one tries to seize the 
female of another, he is caught on the ground, and all unite 
in boxing and biting the offender. A male often carries a 
child, especially if they are passing from one patch of forest 
to another over a grassy space; he then gives it to the 

I now spoke with my friend Mohamad, and he offered to 
go with me to see Lualaba from Luamo, but I explained 
that merely to see and measure its depth would not do, I 
must see whither it went. This would require a number of 
his people in lieu of my deserters, and to take them away 
from his ivory trade, which at present is like gold digging, I 
must make amends, and I offered him 2000 rupees, and a 
gun worth 700 rupees, E. 2700 in all, or 270?. He agreed, 
and should he enable me to finish up my work in one trip 
down Lualaba, and round to Lualaba West, it would be a 
great favour. 

[How severely he felt the effects of the terrible illnesses 
of the last two years may be imagined by some few words 
here, and it must ever be regretted that the conviction 
which he speaks of was not acted up to.] 

The severe pneumonia in Marunga, the choleraic com- 
plaint in Manyuema, and now irritable ulcers warn me to 
retire while life lasts. Mohamad's people went north, and 
east, and west, from Kasonga's: sixteen marches north, ten 
ditto west, and four ditto E. and S.E. The average march 
was 6^ hours, say 12', about 200' N. and W., lat. of Kasongo, 
say 4° south. They may have reached 1°, 2° S. They were 
now in the Balegge country, and turned. It was all dense 
forest, they never saw the sun except when at a village, and 
then the villages were too far apart. The people were very 
fond of sheep, which they call ngombe, or ox, and tusks are 


never used. They went off to where an elephant had formerly 
been killed, and brought the tusks rotted and eaten or gnawed 
by "Cere" (?) — a Kodent, probably the Aulocaudatus Siciu- 
derianus. Three large rivers were crossed, breast and chin 
deep; in one they were five hours, and a man in a small 
canoe went ahead sounding for water capable of being waded. 
Much water and mud in the forest. This report makes me 
thankful I did not go, for I should have seen nothing, and 
been worn out by fatigue and mud. They tell me that the 
River Metunda had black water, and took two hours to cross 
it, breast deep. They crossed about forty smaller rivers 
over the River Mohunga, breast deep. The River of Mbite 
also is large. All along Lualaba and Metumbe the sheep 
have hairy dew-laps, no wool, Tartar breed (?), small thin 

A broad belt of meadow-land, with no trees, lies along 
Lualaba, beyond that it is all dense forest, and trees so 
large, that one lying across the path is breast high : clear- 
ances exist only around the villages. The people are very 
expert smiths and weavers of the " Lamba," and make fine 
large spears, knives, and needles. Market-places, called 
" Tokos," are numerous all along Lualaba ; to these the 
Barua of the other bank come daily in large canoes, bring- 
ing grass-cloth, salt, flour, cassava, fowls, goats, pigs, and 
slaves. The women are beautiful, with straight noses, and 
well-clothed ; when the men of the districts are at war, the 
women take their goods to market as if at peace and are 
never molested : all are very keen traders, buying one 
thing with another, and changing back again, and any profit 
made is one of the enjoyments of life. 

I knew that my deserters hoped to be fed by Mohamad 
Bogharib when we left the camp at Mamohela, but he told 
them that he would not have them; this took them aback, 
but they went and lifted his ivory for him, and when a 
parley Mas thus brought about, talked him over, saying 

1870.] THE DESEETEES. 57 

that they would go to me, and do all I desired : they 
never came, but, as no one else would take them, I gave 
them three loads to go to Bambarre ; there they told 
Mohamad that I would not give them beads, and they did 
not like to steal ; they were now trying to get his food by 
lies. I invited them three times to come and take beads, 
but having supplies of food from the camp women, they 
hoped to get the upper hand with me, and take what they 
liked by refusing to carry or work. Mohamad spoke long- 
to them, but speaking mildly makes them imagine that the 
spokesman is afraid of them. They kept away from my 
work and would fain join Mohamad's, but he won't have 
them. I gave beads to all but the ringleaders. Their 
conduct looks as if a quarrel had taken place between us, 
but no such excuse have they. 

I am powerless, as they have left me, and think that they 
may do as they like, and the " Manyuema are bad " is the 
song. Their badness consists in being dreadfully afraid of 
guns, and the Arabs can do just as they like with them and 
their goods. If spears alone were used the Manyuema would 
be considered brave, for they fear no one, though he has 
many spears. They tell us truly " that were it not for our 
guns not one of us would return to our own country." 
Moeneniokaia killed two Arab agents, and took their guns ; 
this success led to their asserting, in answer to the remon- 
strances of the women, " We shall take their goats, guns, 
and women from them." The chief, in reporting the matter 
to Moenemger (?) at Luamo, said, " The Englishman told 
my people to go away as he did not like fighting, but my 
men were filled with 'malofu,' or palm-toddy, and refused 
to their own hurt." Elsewhere they made regular prepara- 
tion to have a fight with Dugumbe's people, just to see who 
was strongest — they with their spears and wooden shields,, 
and the Arabs with what in derision they called tobacco- 
pipes (guns). They killed eight or nine Arabs. 


No traders seem ever to have come in before this. Banna 
brought copper and skins for tusks, and the Babisa and 
Baguha coarse beads. The Bavira are now enraged at seeing 
Ujijians pass into their ivory field, and no wonder ; they 
took the tusks which cost them a few strings of beads, and 
received weight for weight in beads, thick brass wire, and 
loads of calico. 

( £S ) 


footsteps of Moses. Geology of Manyuema land. " A drop of comfort."' 
Continued sufferings. A stationary explorer. Consequences of trusting 
to theory. Nomenclature of Rivers and Lakes. Plunder and murder 
is Ujijian trading. Comes out of hut for first time after eighty days' 
illness. Arab cure for ulcerated sores. Rumour of letters. The loss 
of medicines a great trial now. The broken-hearted chief. Return 
of Arab ivory traders. Future plans. Thankfulness for Mr. Edward 
Young's Search Expedition. The Hombilled Phoenix. Tedious delays. 
The bargain for the boy. Sends letters to Zanzibar. Exasperation of 
Manyuema against Arabs. The "Sassassa bird."' The disease "Safura." 

Bambake£, 25th August, 1870. — One of my waking dreams 
is that the legendary tales about Moses coming up into 
Inner Ethiopia with Merr his foster-mother, and founding 
a city which he called in her honour " Meroe," may have a 
substratum of fact. He was evidently a man of transcendent 
genius, and we learn from the speech of St. Stephen that 
" he was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and 
Avas mighty in words and in deeds." His deeds must have 
been well known in Egypt, for "he supposed that his 
brethren would have understood how that God by His hand 
would deliver them, but they understood not." His sup- 
position could not be founded on his success in smiting a 
single Egyptian ; he was too great a man to be elated by 
a single act of prowess, but his success on a large scale in 
Ethiopia afforded reasonable grounds for believing that his 
brethren would be proud of their countryman, and disposed 
to follow his leadership, but they were slaves. The notice 


taken of the matter by Pharaoh showed that he was eyed 
by the great as a dangerous, if not powerful, man. He 
" dwelt " in Midian for some time before his gallant bearing 
towards the shepherds by the well, commended him to the 
priest or prince of the country. An uninteresting wife, and 
the want of intercourse with kindred spirits during the long 
forty years' solitude of a herdsman's life, seem to have acted 
injuriously on his spirits, and it was not till he had with 
Aaron struck terror into the Egyptian mind, that the " man 
Moses" again became "very great in the eyes of Pharaoh 
and his servants." The Ethiopian woman whom he married 
could scarcely be the daughter of Eeuel or Jethro, for 
Midian was descended from Keturah, Abraham's concu- 
bine, and they were never considered Cushite or Ethio- 
pian. If he left his wife in Egypt she would now be 
some fifty or sixty years old, and all the more likely to 
be despised by the proud prophetess Miriam as a daughter 
of Ham. 

I dream of discovering some monumental relics of Meroe,. 
and if anything confirmatory of sacred history does remain, 

1 pray to be guided thereunto. If the sacred chronology 
would thereby be confirmed, I would not grudge the toil 
and hardships, hunger and pain, I have endured — the irritable 
ulcers would only be discipline. 

Above the fine yellow clay schist of Manyuema the banks 
of Tanganyika reveal 50 feet of shingle mixed with red 
earth ; above this at some parts great boulders lie ; after 
this 60 feet of fine clay schist, then 5 strata of gravel under- 
neath, with a foot stratum of schist between them. The first 
seam of gravel is about 2 feet, the second 4 feet, and the 
lowest of all about 30 feet thick. The fine schist was formed 
in still water, but the shingle must have been produced in 
stormy troubled seas if not carried hither and thither by ice 
and at different epochs. 

This Manyuema country is unhealthy, not so much from 


fever as from debility of the whole system, induced by damp, 
cold, and indigestion : this general weakness is ascribed by 
some to maize being the common food, it shows itself in 
weakness of bowels and choleraic purging. This may be 
owing to bad water, of which there is no scarcity, but it 
is so impregnated with dead vegetable matter as to have 
the colour of tea. Irritable ulcers fasten on any part 
abraded by accident, and it seems to be a spreading fungus, 
for the matter settling on any part near becomes a fresh 
centre of propagation. The vicinity of the ulcer is very 
tender, and it eats in frightfully if not allowed rest. Many 
slaves die of it, and its periodical discharges of bloody ichor 
makes me suspect it to be a development of fever. I have 
found lunar caustic useful : a plaister of wax, and a little 
finely-ground sulphate of copper is used by the Arabs, and 
•so is cocoa-nut oil and butter. These ulcers are excessively 
intractable, there is no healing them before they eat into 
the bone, especially on the shins. 

Eheumatism is also common, and it cuts the natives off. 
The traders fear these diseases, and come to a stand if 
attacked, in order to use rest in the cure. "Taenia," or 
Tape-worm, is frequently met with, and no remedy is known 
among the Arabs and natives for it. 

[Searching in his closely-written pocket-books we find 
many little mementoes of his travels ; such, for instance, as 
two or three tsetse flies pressed between the leaves of one 
book; some bees, some leaves and moths in another, but, 
hidden away in the pocket of the note-book which Living- 
stone used during the longest and most painful illness he 
ever underwent lies a small scrap of printed paper which 
tells a tale in its own simple way. On one side there is 
written in his well-known hand : — ] 

si Turn over and see a drop of comfort found when suffer- 


ing from irritable eating ulcers on the feet in Manyuema,. 
August, 1870." 

[On the reverse we see that the scrap was evidently 
snipped off a list of books advertised at the end of some 
volume which, with the tea and other things sent to Ujiji, 
had reached him before setting out on this perilous journey. 
The " drop of comfort " is as follows : — ] 



Fifth Thousand. With Map and Illustrations. 8vo. 21s. 

"'Few achievements in our day have made a greater 
impression than that of the adventurous missionary who 
unaided crossed the Continent of Equatorial Africa. His 
unassuming simplicity, his varied intelligence, his indomit- 
able pluck, his steady religious purpose, form a combination 
of qualities rarely found in one man. By common consent, 
Dr. Livingstone has come to be regarded as one of the most 
remarkable travellers of his own or of any other age.' — 
British Quarterly Bevieiv. " 

[The kindly pen of the reviewer served a good turn when 
there was " no medicine " but the following : — ] 

I was at last advised to try malachite, rubbed down with 
water on a stone, and applied with a feather : this is the 
only thing that has any beneficial effect. 

9th September, 1870. — A Londa slave stole ten goats from 
the Manyuema ; he was bound, but broke loose, and killed 
two goats yesterday. He was given to the Manyuema. The 
Balonda evidently sold their criminals only. He was shorn 

1870.] SLOW RECOVERY. 63 

of his ears and would have been killed, but Mouangoi said : 
" Don't let the blood of a freeman touch our soil." 

26th September. — I am able now to report the ulcers 
healing. For eighty days I have been completely laid up 
by them, and it will be long ere the lost substance will be 
replaced. They kill many slaves ; and an epidemic came to 
us which carried off thirty in our small camp.* 

[We come to a very important note under the next 
date. It may be necessary to remind the reader that when 
Livingstone left the neighbourhood of Lake Nyassa and 
bent his steps northwards, he believed that the " Chain- 
beze " Kiver, which the natives reported to be ahead of 
him, was in reality the Zambezi, for he held in his hand 
a map manufactured at home, and so conveniently mani- 
pulated as to clear up a great difficulty by simply inserting 
" New Zambezi " in the place of the Chambeze. As we 
now see, Livingstone handed back this addled geographical 
egg to its progenitor, who, we regret to say, has not only 
smashed it in wrath, but has treated us to so much of its 
savour in a pamphlet written against the deceased explorer,, 
that few will care to turn over its leaves. 

However, the African traveller has a warning held up 
before him which may be briefly summed up in a caution 
to be on the look out for constant repetitions in one form 
or another of the same name. Endless confusion has 
arisen from Nyassas and Nyanzas, from Chiroas and Kiroas 
and Shirwas, to say nothing of Zambesis and Chambezes. 

* A precisely similar epidemic broke out at the settlement at Ma- 
gomero, in which fifty-four of the slaves liberated by Dr. Livingstone and 
Bishop Mackenzie died. This disease is by far the most fatal scourge the 
natives suffer from, not even excepting small-pox. It is common through- 
out Tropical Africa. We believe that some important facts have recently 
been brought to light regarding it, and we can only trust sincerely that 
the true*nature of the disorder will be known in time, so that it may be 
successfully treated : at present change of air and high feeding on a meat 
diet are the best remedies we know. — Ed. 


The natives are just as prone to perpetuate Zambezi or 
Lufira in Africa as we are to multiply our Avons and 
Ouses in England.] 

Aih October, 1870. — A trading party from Ujiji reports 
an epidemic raging between the coast and Ujiji, and very 
fatal. Syde bin Habib and Dugumbe are coming, and 
they have letters and perhaps people for me, so I remain, 
though the irritable ulcers are well-nigh healed. I fear 
that my packet for the coast may have fared badly, for 
the Lewale has kept Musa Kaniaal by him, so that no 
evidence against himself or the dishonest man Musa bin 
Saloom should be given: my box and guns, with despatches, 
I fear will never be sent. Zahor, to whom I gave calico to 
pay carriers, has been sent off to Lobemba. 

Mohamad sowed rice yesterday, and has to send his 
people (who were unsuccessful among the Balegga) away 
to the Metambe, where they got ivory before. 

I cannot understand very well what a " Theoretical Dis- 
coverer" is. If anyone got up and declared in a public 
meeting that he was the theoretical discoverer of the philo- 
sopher's stone, or of perpetual motion for watches, should we 
not mark him as a little Avrong in the head ? So of the Nile 
sources. The Portuguese crossed the Chambeze some 
seventy years before I did, but to them it was a branch of 
the Zambezi and nothing more. Cooley put it down as the 
New Zambesi, and made it run backwards, up-hill, between 
3000 and 4000 feet ! I was misled by the similarity of 
names and a map, to think it the eastern branch of the 
Zambezi. I was told that it formed a large water in the 
south-west, this I readily believed to be the Liambai, in 
the Barotse Valley, and it took me eighteen months of toil 
to come back again to the Chambeze in Lake Bangweolo, 
and work out the error into which I was led — twenty-two 
months elapsed ere I got back to the point whence I set out 

1870.] NOMENCLATURE. 65 

to explore Chambeze, Bangweolo, Luapula, Moero, and 
Lualaba. I spent two full years at this work, and the Chief 
Caseiube was the first to throw light on the subject by 
saying, " It is the same water here as in the Chambeze, the 
same in Moero and Lualaba, and one piece of water is just 
like another. Will you draw out calico from it that you 
wish to see it ? As your chief desired you to see Bangweolo, 
go to it, and if in going north you see a travelling party, 
join it ; if not, come back to me, and I will send you safely 
by my path along Moero." 

The central Lualaba I would fain call the Lake Biver 
Webb ; the western, the Lake Biver Young. The Lufira 
and Lualaba West form a Lake, the native name of which, 
" Chibungo," must give way to Lake Lincoln. I wish to 
name the fountain of the Liambai or Upper Zambesi, 
Balmerston Fountain, and adding that of Sir Bartle Frere 
to the fountain of Lufira, three names of men who have 
done more to abolish slavery and the slave-trade than any 
of their contemporaries. 

[Through the courtesy of the Earl of Derby we are able 
to insert a paragraph here which occurs in a despatch 
written to Her Majesty's Foreign Office by Dr. Livingstone 
a few weeks before his death. He treats more fully in it 
upon the different names that he gave to the most important 
rivers and lakes which he discovered, and we see how he 
cherished to the last the fond memory of old well-tried 
friendships, and the great examples of men like President 
Lincoln and Lord Palmerston.] 

" I have tried to honour the name of the good Lord 
Palmerston, in fond remembrance of his long and unwearied 
labour for the abolition of the Slave Trade ; and I venture 
to place the name of the good and noble Lincoln on the 
Lake, in gratitude to him who gave freedom to 4,000,000 of 
slaves. These two great men are no longer among us ; but 

VOL. II. f 


it pleases me, here in the wilds, to place, as it were, my poor 
little garland of love on their tombs. Sir Bartle Frere 
having accomplished the grand work of abolishing slavery 
in Scindiah, Upper India, deserves the gratitude of every 
lover of human kind. 

" Private friendship guided me in the selection of other 
names where distinctive epithets were urgently needed. 
' Paraffin ' Young, one of my teachers in chemistry, raised 
himself to be a merchant prince by his science and art, and 
has shed pure white light in many lowly cottages, and in 
some rich palaces. Leaving him and chemistry, I went 
away to try and bless others. I, too, have shed light of 
another kind, and am fain to believe that I have performed 
a small part in the grand revolution Avhich our Maker has 
been for ages carrying on, by multitudes of conscious, and 
many unconscious agents, all over the world. Young's 
friendship never faltered. 

" Oswell and Webb were fellow-travellers, and mighty 
hunters. Too much engrossed myself with mission-work to 
hunt, except for the children's larder, Avhen going to visit 
distant tribes, I relished the sight of fair stand-up fights by 
my friends with the large denizens of the forest, and admired 
the true Nimrod class for their great courage, truthfulness, 
and honour. Being a warm lover of natural history, the 
entire butcher tribe, bent only on making ' a bag,' without 
regard to animal suffering, have not a single kindly word 
from me. An Ambonda man, named Mokautju, told Oswell 
and me in 1851 that the Liambai and Kafue rose as one 
fountain and then separated, but after a long course came 
together again in the Zambezi above Zumbo." 

8tJi October. — Mbarawa and party came yesterday from 
Katomba at Mamohela. He reports that Jangeonge (?) with 
Moeneokela's men had been killing people of the Metamba 
or forest, and four of his people were slain. He intended 

1870.] THE CHOLERA. 67 

fighting, hence his desire to get rid of me when I went 
north : he got one and a half tusks, but little ivory, but 
Katomba's party got fifty tusks ; Abdullah had got two 
tusks, and had also been fighting, and Katomba had sent a 
fighting party down to Lolinde ; plunder and murder is 
Ujijian trading. Mbarawa got his ivory on the Lindi, or as 
he says, " Urindi," which has black water, and is very large : 
an arrow could not be shot across its stream, 400 or 500 yards 
wide, it had to be crossed by canoes, and goes into Lualaba. 
It is curious that all think it necessary to say to me, " The 
Alanyueina are bad, very bad;" the Balegga will be let 
alone, because they can fight, and we shall hear nothing of 
their badness. 

10th October. — I came out of my hut to-day, after being 
confined to it since the 22nd July, or eighty days, by 
irritable ulcers on the feet. The last twenty days I suffered 
from fever, which reduced my strength, taking away my 
voice, and purging me. My appetite was good, but the third 
mouthful of any food caused nausea and vomiting — purging 
look place and profuse sweating ; it was choleraic, and how 
many Manyuema died of it we could not ascertain. While 
this epidemic raged here, we heard of cholera terribly severe 
on the way to the coast. I am thankful to feel myself well. 

Only one ulcer is open, the size of a split pea 1 : malachite 
was the remedy most useful, but the beginning of the rains 
may have helped the cure, as it does to others ; copper 
rubbed down is used when malachite cannot be had. We 
expect Syde bin Habib soon : he will take to the river, and 
I hope so shall I. The native traders reached people who 
had horns of oxen, got from the left bank of the Lualaba. 
Katomba's people got most ivory, namely, fifty tusks ; the 
others only four. The Metamba or forest is of immense 
extent, and there is room for much ivory to be picked up 
at five or seven bracelets of copper per tusk, if the slaves 
sent will only be merciful. The nine villages destroyed, 

F 2 


and 100 men killed, by Katomba's slaves at Nasangwa's, 
were all about a string of beads fastened to a powder horn, 
which a Manyucma man tried in vain to steal ! 

Katomba gets twenty-five of the fifty tusks brought by 
his people. We expect letters, and perhaps men by Syde 
bin Habib. Xo news from the coast had come to Ujiji, 
save a rumour that some one was building a large house at 
Bagamoio, but whether French or English no one can say : 
possibly the erection of a huge establishment on the main- 
land may be a way of laboriously proving that it is more 
healthy than the island. It will take a long time to 
prove by stone and lime that the higher lands, 200 miles 
inland, are better still, both for longevity and work.* I 
am in agony for news from home ; all I feel sure of now 
is that my friends will all wish me to complete my task. 
I join in the wish now, as better than doing it in vain 

The Manyuema hoeing is little better than scraping the 
soil, and cutting through the roots of grass and weeds, by 
a horizontal motion of the hoe or knife; they leave the 
roots of maize, ground-nuts, sweet potatoes, and dura, to 
find their way into the rich soft soil, and well they succeed, 
so there is no need for deep ploughing : the ground-nuts 
and cassava hold their own against grass for years, and 
bananas, if cleared of weeds, yield abundantly. Mohamad 
sowed rice just outside the camp without any advantage 
being secured by the vicinity of a rivulet, and it yielded for 

* Dr. Livingstone never ceased to impress upon Europeans the utter 
necessity of living on the high table-lands of the interior, rather than on 
the sea-hoard or the banks of the great arterial rivers. Men may escape 
death in an unhealthy place, but the system is enfeebled and energy re- 
duced to the lowest ebb. Under such circumstances life becomes a misery, 
and important resiilts can hardly be looked for when one's vitality is pre- 
occupied in wrestling with the imhealthiness of the situation, day and 
night. — Ed. 


one measure of seed one hundred and twenty measures of 
increase. This season he plants along the rivulet called 
" Bonde," and on the damp soil. 

The rain-water does not percolate far, for the clay retains 
it about two feet beneath the surface : this is a cause of 
unhealthiness to man. Fowls and goats have been cut off 
this year in large numbers by an epidemic. 

The visits of the Ujijian traders must be felt by the Man- 
yueina to be a severe infliction, for the huts are appropriated, 
and no leave asked : firewood, pots, baskets, and food are 
used without scruple, and anything that pleases is taken 
away ; usually the women flee into the forest, and return to 
find the whole place a litter of broken food. I tried to pay 
the owners of the huts in which I slept, but often in vain, 
for they hid in the forest, and feared to come near. It 
was common for old men to come forward to me with 
a present of bananas as I passed, uttering with trembling 
accents, " Bolongo, Bolongo ! " (" Friendship, Friendship ! "), 
and if I stopped to make a little return present, others ran 
for plantains or palm-toddy. The Arabs' men ate up what 
they demanded, without one word of thanks, and turned 
round to me and said, " They are bad, don't give them 
anything." " Why, what badness is there in giving food ? " 
I replied. " Oh ! they like you, but hate us." One man 
gave me an iron ring, and all seemed inclined to be friendly, 
yet they are undoubtedly bloodthirsty to other Manyuema, 
and kill each other. 

I am told that journeying inland the safe way to avoid 
tsetse in going to Merere's is to go to Mdonge, Makinde, 
Zungomero, Masapi, Irundu, Nyangore, then turn north to 
the Nyannugams, and thence to Nyembe, and so on south to 
Merere's. A woman chief lies in the straight way to Merere, 
but no cattle live in the land. Another insect lights on the 
animals, and when licked off bites the tongue, or breeds, 
and is fatal as well as tsetse : it is larger in size. Tipo Tipo 


and Syde Lin Ali come to Nyembe, thence to Nsama's, cross 
Lnalaba at Mpweto's, follow left bank of that river till they 
cross the next Lnalaba, and so into Lunda of Matianiyo. 
Much, ivory may be obtained by this course, and it shows 
enterprise. Syde bin Habib and Dugumbe will open up 
the Lnalaba this year, and I am hoping to enter the West 
Lnalaba, or Young's River, and if possible go up to Katanga. 
The Lord be my guide and helper. I feel the want of 
medicine strongly, almost as much as the want of men. 

16th October. — Moeneingoi, the chief, came to tell me 
that Monamyembo had sent five goats to Lohombo to 
get a charm to kill him. " Would the English and Kolo- 
kolo (Mohamad) allow him to be killed while they were 
here ?" I said that it was a false report, but he believes it 
firmly : Monamyembo sent his son to assure us that he was 
slandered, but thus quarrels and bloodshed feuds arise ! 

The great want of the Manyuema is national life, of this 
they have none : each headman is independent of every 
other. Of industry they have no lack, and the villagers are 
orderly towards each other, but they go no further. If a 
man of another district ventures among them, it is at his 
peril ; he is not regarded with more favour as a Manyuema 
than one of a herd of buffaloes is by the rest : and he is 
almost sure to be killed. 

Mocnekuss had more wisdom than his countrymen : his 
eldest son went over to Monamyembo (one of his subjects) 
and was there murdered by five spear wounds. The old 
chief went and asked who had slain his son. All professed 
ignorance, whilst some suggested " perhaps the Bahombo did 
it," so he went off to them, but they also denied it and laid 
it at the door of Monamdenda, from whom he got the same 
reply when he arrived at his place — no one knew, and so the 
old man died. This, though he was heartbroken, was called 
witchcraft by Monamyembo. Eleven people were murdered, 
and after this cruel man was punished he sent a goat witli 

1870.] MOENEKUSS. 71 

the confession that he had killed Moeneknss' son. This son 
had some of the father's wisdom : the others he never could 
get to act like men of sense. 

19th October. — Bambarre. The ringleading deserters sent 
Chuma to say that they were going with the people of 
Mohamad (who left to-day), to the Metamba, but I said that 
I had nought to say to them. They would go now to 
the Metamba, whom, on deserting, they said they so much 
feared, and they think nothing of having left me to go 
with only three attendants, and get my feet torn to pieces 
in mud and sand. They probably meant to go back to the 
women at Mamohela, who fed them in the absence of their 
husbands. They were told by Mohamad that they must 
not follow his people, and he gave orders to bind them, and 
send them back if they did. They think that no punish- 
ment will reach them whatever they do : they are freemen, 
and need not work or do anything but beg. "English," 
they call themselves, and the Arabs fear them, though the 
eagerness with which they engaged in slave-hunting showed 
them to be genuine niggers. 

20th October. — The first heavy rain of this season fell 
yesterday afternoon. It is observable that the permanent 
halt to which the Manyuema have come is not affected by 
the appearance of superior men among them : they are 
stationary, and improvement is unknown. Moeneknss paid 
smiths to teach his sons, and they learned to work in copper 
and iron, but he never could get them to imitate his own 
generous and obliging deportment to others ; he had to 
reprove them perpetually for mean shortsightedness, and 
when he died he virtually left no successor, for his sons are 
both narrowminded, mean, shortsighted creatures, without 
dignity or honour. All they can say of their forefathers is 
that they came from Lualaba up Luamo, then to Luelo, and 
thence here. The name seems to mean " forest people " — 


The party under Hassani crossed the Loguniba at Kan- 
yingere's, and went N. and N.N.E. They found the coun- 
try becoming more and more mountainous, till at last, 
approaching Morere, it was perpetually up and down. They 
slept at a village on the top, and could send for water to 
the bottom only once, it took so much time to descend 
and ascend. The rivers all flowed into Kerere or Lower 
Tanganyika. There is a hot fountain whose water could 
not be touched nor stones stood upon. The Balegga were 
very unfriendly, and collected in thousands. "We come 
to buy ivory," said Hassani, " and if there is none we go 
away." " Nay," shouted they, " you come to die here ! " 
and then they shot with arrows ; when musket-balls 
were returned they fled, and would not come to receive the 

2oth October. — Bambarre. In this journey I have en- 
deavoured to follow with unswerving fidelity the line of 
duty. My course has been an even one, turning neither to 
the right hand nor to the left, though my route has been 
tortuous enough. All the hardship, hunger, and toil were 
met with the full conviction that I was right in persevering 
to make a complete work of the exploration of the sources 
of the Nile. Mine has been a calm, hopeful endeavour to 
do the work that has been given me to do, whether I succeed 
or whether I fail. The prospect of death in pursuing what 
I knew to be right did not make me veer to one side or the 
other. I had a strong presentiment during the first three 
years that I should never live through the enterprise, but 
it weakened as I came near to the end of the journey, 
and an eager desire to discover any evidence of the great 
Moses having visited these parts bound me, spell-bound 
me, I may say, for if I could bring to light anything to 
confirm the Sacred Oracles, I should not grudge one whit all 
the labour expended. I have to go down the Central Lua- 
laba or Webb's Lake River, then up the Western or Young's 


Lake Eiver to Katanga head waters and then retire. I pray 
that it may be to my native home. 

Syde bin Habib, Dugumbe, Jnma Merikano, Abdullah 
Masendi are coming in with 700 muskets, and an immense 
store of beads, copper, &c. They will cross Lualaba and 
trade west of it: I wait for them because they may have 
letters for me. 

28th October. — Moenemokata, who has travelled further 
than most Arabs, said to me, " If a man goes with a good- 
natured, civil tongue, he may pass through the worst people 
in Africa unharmed : " this is true, but time also is required : 
one must not run through a country, but give the people 
time to become acquainted with you, and let their first fears 

29th October. — The Manyuema buy their wives from each 
other; a pretty girl brings ten goats. I saw one brought 
home to-day ; she came jauntily with but one attendant, 
and her husband walking behind. They stop five days, 
then go back and remain other five days at home : then the 
husband fetches her again. Many are pretty, and have 
perfect forms and limbs. 

Slst October. — Monangoi, of Luamo, married to the sister 
of Moenekuss, came some time ago to beg that Kanyingere 
might be attacked by Mohamad's people : no fault has he, 
" but he is bad." Monangoi, the chief here, offered two tusks 
to effect the same thing; on refusal, he sends the tusks 
to Katomba, and may get his countryman spoiled by him. 
" He is bad," is all they can allege as a reason. Meantime 
this chief here caught a slave who escaped, a prisoner from 
Moene-mokia's, and sold him or her to Moene-mokia for 
thirty spears and some knives ; when asked about this 
captive, he said, " She died :" it was simply theft, but he 
does not consider himself bad. 

2nd November, 1870. — The plain without trees that flanks 
the Lualaba on the right bank, called Mbuga, is densely 


peopled, and the inhabitants are all civil and friendly. 
From fifty to sixty large canoes come over from the left 
bank daily to hold markets ; these people too " are good," but 
the dwellers in the Metamba or dense forest are treacherous 
and murder a single person without scruple : the dead body 
is easily concealed, while on the plain all would become aware 
of it. 

I long with intense desire to move on and finish my 
work, I have also an excessive Avish to find anything that 
may exist proving the visit of the great Moses and the 
ancient kingdom of Tirhaka, but I pray give me just what 
pleases Thee my Lord, and make me submissive to Thy will 
in all things. 

I received information about Mr. Young's search trip 
up the Shire and Nyassa only in February 1870, and now 
take the first opportunity of offering hearty thanks in a 
despatch to Her Majesty's Government, and all concerned 
in kindly inquiring after my fate. 

Musa and his companions were fair average specimens 
for heartlessness and falsehood of the lower classes of Mo- 
hamadans in East Africa. When we were on the Shire we 
used to swing the ship into mid-stream every night, in 
order to let the air which was put in motion by the water,, 
pass from end to end. Musa'* brother-in-law stepped into 
the water one morning, in-order to swim off for a boat, and 
was seized by a crocodile, the poor fellow held up his hand 
imploringly, but Musa and the rest allowed him to perish. 
On my denouncing his heartlessness, Musa replied, " Well, 
no one tell him go in there." When at Senna a slave 
woman was seized by a crocodile : four Makololo rushed in 
unbidden, and rescued her, though they knew nothing about 
her: from long intercourse with both Johanna men and 
Makololo I take these incidents as typical of the two races. 
Those of mixed blood possess the vices of both races, and 
the virtues of neither. 

1870.] THE JOHANNA MEN. 75- 

A gentleman of superior abilities* has devoted life and 
fortune to elevate the Johanna men, but fears that they are 
" an unimprovable race." 

The Sultan of Zanzibar, who knows his people better than 
any stranger, cannot entrust any branch of his revenue 
to even the better class of his subjects, but places all his 
customs, income, and money affairs, in the hands of Banians 
from India, and his father did before him. 

When the Mohamadan gentlemen of Zanzibar are asked 
" why their sovereign places all his pecuniary affairs and 
fortune in the hands of aliens?" they frankly avow that if 
he allowed any Arab to farm his customs, he would receive 
nothing but a crop of lies. 

Burton had to dismiss most of his people at Ujiji for dis- 
honesty : Speke's followers deserted at the first approach of 
danger. Musa fled in terror on hearing a false report from a 
half-caste Arab about the Mazitu, 150 miles distant, thoiurh 
I promised to go due west, and not turn to the north till 
far past the beat of that tribe. The few liberated slaves 
with whom I went on had the misfortune to be Mohamadan 
slaves in boyhood, but did fairly till we came into close 
contact with Moslems again. A black Arab was released 
from a twelve years' bondage by Casembe, through my own 
influence and that of the Sultan's letter : we travelled 
together for a time, and he sold the favours of his female 
slaves to my people for goods which he perfectly well knew 
were stolen from me. He received my four deserters, and 
when I had gone off to Lake Bangweolo with only four 
attendants, the rest wished to follow, but he dissuaded them 
by saying that I had gone into a country where there was 
war : he was the direct cause of all my difficulties with 
these liberated slaves, but judged by the East African 
Moslem standard, as he ought to be, and not by ours, he is- 

* Mr. John Smiley, of Pomone, Johanna, an island in the Comoro 


a very good man, and I did not think it prudent to come 
to a rupture with the old blackguard. 

" Laba " means in the Manyuema dialect " medicine ;" a 
/•harm, " boganga :" this would make Lualaba mean the 
River of Medicine or charms. Hassani thought that it 
meant " great," because it seemed to mean flowing greatly 
or grandly. 

Casembe caught all the slaves that escaped from Mo- 
hamad, and placed them in charge of Fungafunga; so 
there is little hope for fugitive slaves so long as Casembe 
lives : this act is to the Arabs very good : he is very 
sensible, and upright besides. 

3rd Nouemler. — Got a Kondohondo, the large double- 
billed Hornbill (the Buceros eristata), Kakomira, of the 
Shire, and the Sassassa of Bambarre. It is good eating, 
and has fat of an orange tinge, like that of the zebra ; I 
keep the bill to make a spoon of it. 

An ambassador at Stamboul or Constantinople was shown 
a hornbill spoon, and asked if it were really the bill of the 
Phcenix. He replied that he did not know, but he had a 
friend in London who knew all these sort of things, so the 
Turkish ambassador in London brought the spoon to Pro- 
fessor Owen. He observed something in the divergences of 
the fibres of the horn which he knew before, and went off 
into the Museum of the College of Surgeons, and brought a 
preserved specimen of this very bird. " God is great — God 
is great," said the Turk, " this is the Phcenix of which we 
have heard so often." I heard the Professor tell this at a 
dinner of the London Hunterian Society in 1857. 

There is no great chief in Manyuema or Balegga ; all are 
petty headmen, each of whom considers himself a chief : it 
is the ethnic state, with no cohesion between the different 
portions of the tribe. Murder cannot be punished except 
by a war, in which many fall, and the feud is made worse, 
and transmitted to their descendants. 


The heathen philosophers were content with mere guesses 
at the future of the soul. The elder prophets were content 
with the Divine support in life and in death. The later 
prophets advance further, as Isaiah : " Thy dead men shall 
live, together with my dead body shall they arise. Awake, 
and sing, ye that dwell in the dust : for thy dew is as the 
dew of herbs. The earth also shall cast out her dead." 
This, taken with the sublime spectacle of Hades in the four- 
teenth chapter, seems a forecast of the future, but Jesus 
instructed Mary and her sister and Lazarus; and Martha 
without hesitation spoke of the resurrection at the last day 
as a familiar doctrine, far in advance of the Mosaic law in 
which she had been reared. 

The Arabs tell me that Monynngo, a chief, was sent for 
five years among the Watuta to learn their language and 
ways, and he sent his two sons and a daughter to Zanzibar 
to school. He kills many of his people, and says they are so- 
bad that if not killed they would murder strangers. Once 
they were unruly, when he ordered some of them to give 
their huts to Mohamad ; on refusing, he put fire to them, 
and they soon called out, " Let them alone ; we will retire." 
He dresses like an Arab, and has ten loaded guns at his 
sitting-place, four pistols, two swords, several spears, and 
two bundles of the Batuta spears : he laments that his father 
filed his teeth when he was young. The name of his very 
numerous people is Bawungu, country Urungu : his other 
names are Ironga, Mohamu. 

The Basango, on the other hand, consider their chief as 
a deity, and fear to say aught wrong, lest he should hear 
them : they fear both before him and when out of sight. 

The father of Mei-ere" never drank pombe or beer, and 
assigned as a reason that a great man who had charge of 
people's lives should never become intoxicated so as to do eviL 
Bange he never smoked, but in council smell ed at a bunch 
of it, in order to make his people believe that it had a great 


effect on him. Merere drinks pombe freely, but never uses 
bange : he alone kills sheep ; he is a lover of mutton and 
beef, but neither goats nor fowls are touched by him. 

9th November. — I sent to Lohombo for dura, and planted 
some Nyumbo. I long excessively to be away and finish 
my work by the two Lacustrine rivers, Lualaba of Webb 
and Young, but wait only for Syde and Dugumbe, who 
may have letters, and as I do not intend to return hither, 
but go through Karagwd homewards, I should miss them 
altogether. I groan and am in bitterness at the delay, but 
thus it is : I pray for help to do what is right, but sorely 
am I perplexed, and grieved and mourn: I cannot give 
up making a complete work of the exploration. 

10th November. — A party of Katomba's men arrived on 
their way to Ujiji for carriers, they report that a foray was 
made S.W. of Mamohela to recover four guns, which were 
captured from Katomba; three were recovered, and ten of 
the Arab party slain. The people of Manyuema fought very 
fiercely with arrows, and not till many were killed and 
others mutilated would they give up the guns ; they pro- 
bably expected this foray, and intended to fight till the last. 
They had not gone in search of ivory while this was enact- 
ing, consequently Mohamad's men have got the start of 
them completely, by going along Lualaba to Kasongo's, and 
then along the western verge of the Metamba or forest to 
Loinde' or Rindi River. The last men sent took to fighting 
instead of trading, and returned empty ; the experience 
gained thus, and at the south-west, will probably lead them 
to conclude that the Manyuema are not to be shot down 
without reasonable cause. They have sown rice and maize 
at Mamohela, but cannot trade now where they got so much 
ivory before. Five men were killed at Rindi or Loinde, 
and one escaped : the reason of this outbreak by men who 
have been so peaceable is not divulged, but anyone seeing 
the wholesale plunder to which the houses and gardens were 


subject can easily guess the rest. Mamohela's camp had 
several times been set on fire at night by the tribes which 
suffered assault, but did not effect all that was intended. 
The Arabs say that the Manyuema now understand that every 
gun-shot does not kill ; the next thing they will learn will 
be to grapple in close quarters in the forest, where their 
spears will outmatch the guns in the hands of slaves, it 
will follow, too, that no one will be able to pass through 
this country ; this is the usual course of Suaheli trading ; 
it is murder and plunder, and each slave as he rises in his 
•owner's favour is eager to show himself a mighty man of 
valour, by coldblooded killing of his countrymen : if they 
can kill a fellow-nigger, their pride boils up. The con- 
science is not enlightened enough to cause uneasiness, and 
Islam gives less than the light of nature. 

I am grievously tired of living here. Mohamad is as 
kind as he can be, but to sit idle or give up before I finish 
my work are both intolerable ; I cannot bear either, yet I 
am forced to remain by want of people. 

Wtli November. — I wrote to Mohamad bin Saleh at Ujiji 
for letters and medicines to be sent in a box of China tea, 
which is half empty : if he cannot get carriers for the long 
box itself, then he is to send these, the articles of which I 
stand in greatest need. 

The relatives of a boy captured at Monanyembe brought 
three goats to redeem him : he is sick and emaciated ; one 
goat was rejected. The boy shed tears when he saw his 
grandmother, and the father too, when his goat was rejected. 
" So I returned, and considered all the oppressions that are 
done under the sun : and behold the tears of such as were 
oppressed, and they had no comforter ; and on the side of 
their oppressors there was power ; but they had no com- 
forter." — Eccles. iv. 1. The relations were told either to 
briug the goat, or let the boy die ; this was hard-hearted. 
At Mamohela ten goats are demanded for a captive, and 


given too ; here three are demanded. " He that is higher 
than the highest regardeth, and there be higher than they. 
Marvel not at the matter." 

I did not write to the coast, for I suspect that the Lewale 
Syde bin Salem Buraschid destroys my letters in order to 
quash the affair of robbery by his man Saloom, he kept 
the other thief, Kamaels, by him for the same purpose. 
Mohamad writes to Bin Saleh to say that I am here and 
well ; that I sent a large packet of letters in June 1869, 
with money, and received neither an answer, nor my box 
from Unyanyembe, and this is to be communicated to the 
Consul by a friend at Zanzibar. If I wrote, it would only 
be to be burned ; this is as far as I can see at present : the 
friend who will communicate with the Consul is Mohamad 
bin Abdullah the Wuzeer, Seyd Suleiman is the Lewale of 
the Governor of Zanzibar, Suleiman bin Ali or Sheikh 
Suleiman the Secretary. 

The Mamohela horde is becoming terrified, for every party 
going to trade has lost three or four men, and in the last 
foray they saw that the Manyuema can fight, for they killed 
ten men : they will soon refuse to go among those whom 
they have forced to become enemies. 

One of the Bazula invited a man to go with him to buy 
ivory; he went with him, and on getting into the Zulas 
country the stranger Avas asked by the guide if his gun killed 
men, and how it did it : whilst he was explaining the matter 
he was stabbed to death. No one knows the reason of 
this, but the man probably lost some of his relations else- 
where: this is called murder without cause. When Syde 
and Dugumbe come, I hope to get men and a canoe to 
finish my work among those who have not been abused by 
Ujijians, and still retain their natural kindness of disposi- 
tion ; none of the people are ferocious without cause ; and 
the sore experience which they gain from slaves with guns 
in their hands usually ends in sullen hatred of all strangers. 


The education of the world is a terrible one, and it has 
come down with relentless rigour on Africa from the most 
remote times ! What the African will become after this 
awfully hard lesson is learned, is among the future deve- 
lopments of Providence. When He, who is higher than the 
highest, accomplishes His purposes, this will be a wonderful 
country, and again something like what it was of old, when 
Zerah and Tirhaka flourished, and were great. 

The soil of Manyuema is clayey and remarkably fertile, 
the maize sown in it rushes up to seed, and everything is 
in rank profusion if only it be kept clear of weeds, but the 
Bambarre people are indifferent cultivators, planting maize, 
bananas and plantains, and ground-nuts only — no dura, a 
little cassava, no pennisetum, meleza, pumpkins, melons, 
or nyumbo, though they all flourish in other districts: a 
few sweet potatoes appear, but elsewhere all these native 
grains and roots are abundant and cheap. No one would 
choose this as a residence, except for the sake of Moene- 
kuss. Oil is very dear, while at Lualaba a gallon may be 
got for a single string of beads, and beans, ground-nuts, 
cassava, maize, plantains in rank profusion. The Balegga, 
like the Bambarre people, trust chiefly to plantains and 
ground-nuts ; to play with parrots is their great amusement. 

13th November. — The men sent over to Lohombo, about 
thirty miles off, got two and a half loads of dura for a 
small goat, but the people were unwilling to trade. " If we 
encourage Arabs to trade, they will come and kill us with 
their guns," so they said, and it is true : the slaves are over- 
bearing, and when this is resented, then slaughter ensues. 
I got some sweet plantains and a little oil, which is useful 
in cooking, and with salt, passes for butter on bread, but all 
were unwilling to trade. Monangoi was over near Lohombo, 
and heard of a large trading party coming, and not far off; 
this may be Syde and Dugumbe, but reports are often 
false. When Katomba's men were on the late foray, they 



were completely overpowered, and compelled by the Man- 
yuema to lay down their guns and powder-horns, on pain 
of being instantly despatched by bowshot : they were 
mostly slaves, who could only draw the trigger and make 
a noise. Katomba had to rouse out all the Arabs who could 
shoot, and when they came they killed many, and gained 
the lost day ; the Manyuema did not kill anyone who laid 
down his gun and powder-horn. This is the beginning of 
an end which was easily perceived when it became not a 
trading, but a foray of a murdering horde of savages. 

The foray above mentioned was undertaken by Katomba 
for twenty goats from Kassessa ! — ten men lost for twenty 
goats, but they will think twice before they try another 

A small bird follows the " Sassassa" or Bueeros cristata. 
It screams and pecks at his tail till he discharges the 
contents of his bowels, and then leaves him ; it is called 
" play " by the natives, and by the Suaheli " Utane " or 
" Msaha " — fun or wit ; he follows other birds in the same 
merciless way, screaming and pecking to produce purging ; 
Manyuema call this bird " Mambambwa." The buffalo bird 
warns its big friend of danger, by calling " Chachacha," and 
the rhinoceros bird cries out, " Tye, tye, tye, tye," for the same 
purpose. The Manyuema call the buffalo bird "Mojela," 
and the Suaheli, " Chassa." A climbing plant in Africa is 
known as " Ntulungope," which mixed with flour of dura 
kills mice ; they swarm in our camp and destroy everything,, 
but Ntulungope is not near this. 

The Arabs tell me that one dollar a day is ample for 
provisions for a large family at Zanzibar ; the food consists 
of wheat, rice, flesh of goats or ox, fowls, bananas, milk, 
butter, sugar, eggs, mangoes, and potatoes. Ambergris is 
boiled in milk and sugar, and used by the Hindoos as a 
means of increasing blood in their systems ; a small quantity 
is a dose ; it is found along the shore of the sea at Barawa or 

1870.] THE " SAFURA " DISEASE. 83 

Brava, and at Madagascar, as if the sperm whale got rid of 
it while alive. Lamoo or Amu is wealthy, and well supplied 
with everything, as grapes, peaches, wheat, cattle, camels, &c. 
The trade is chiefly with Madagascar : the houses are richly 
furnished with furniture, dishes from India, &c. At Garaganza 
there are hundreds of Arab traders, there too all fruits 
abound, and the climate is healthy, from its elevation. Why 
cannot we missionaries imitate these Arabs in living on 
heights ? 

24:th November. — Herpes is common at the plantations in 
Zanzibar, but the close crowding of the houses in the town 
they think prevents it; the lips and mouth are affected, 
and constipation sets in for three days, all this is cured by 
going over to the mainland. Affections of the lungs are 
healed by residence at Bariwa or Brava, and also on the 
mainland. The Tafori of Halfani took my letters from 
Ujiji, but who the person employed is I do not know. 

29th November. — Safura is the name of the disease of 
clay or earth eating, at Zanzibar ; it often affects slaves, 
and the clay is said to have a pleasant odour to the eaters, 
but it is not confined to slaves, nor do slaves eat in order 
to kill themselves ; it is a diseased appetite, and rich men 
who have plenty to eat are often subject to it. The feet 
swell, flesh is lost, and the face looks haggard ; the patient 
can scarcely walk for shortness of breath and weakness, and 
he continues eating till he dies. Here many slaves are now 
diseased with safura; the clay built in walls is preferred, 
and Manyuema women when pregnant often eat it. The 
cure is effected by drastic purges composed as follows : old 
vinegar of cocoa-trees is put into a large basin, and old slag 
red-hot cast into it, then "Money e," asafcetida, half a rupee 
in weight, copperas, sulph. ditto : a small glass of this, 
fasting morning and evening, produces vomiting and purg- 
ing of black dejections, this is continued for seven days ; 
no meat is to be eaten, but only old rice or dura and 

g 2 


water ; a fowl in course of time : no fish, butter, eggs, or 
beef for two years on pain of death. Mohamad's father 
had skill in the cure, and the above is his prescription. 
Safura is thus a disease per se; it is common in Man- 
yuema, and makes me in a measure content to wait for 
my medicines ; from the description, inspissated bile seems 
to be the agent of blocking up the gall-duct and duodenum 
and the clay or earth may be nature trying to clear it away : 
the clay appears unchanged in the stools, and in large 
quantity. A Banyamwezi carrier, who bore an enormous 
load of copper, is now by safura scarcely able to walk ; he 
took it at Lualaba where food is abundant, and he is con- 
tented with his lot. Squeeze a finger-nail, and if no blood 
appears beneath it, safura is the cause of the bloodlessness. 

( 85 ) 


Degraded state of the Manyuema. Want of writing materials. Lion's 
fat a specific against tsetse. The Neggeri. Jottings about Merere. 
Various sizes of tusks. An epidemic. The strangest disease of all ! 
The New Year. Detention at Bambarre. Goitre. News of the 
cholera. Arrival of coast caravan. The parrot's-feather challenge. 
Murder of James. Men arrive as servants. They refuse to go north. 
Parts at last with malcontents. Eeceives letters from Dr. Kirk and 
the Sultan. Doubts as to the Congo or Nile. Katomba presents a 
young soko. Forest scenery. Discrimination of the Manyuema. They 
"want to eat a white one." Horrible bloodshed by Ujiji traders. 
Heartsore and sick of blood. Approach Nyangwe. Eeaches the 

6th December, 1870. — Oh, for Dugunibe' or Syde to come ! 
but this delay may be all for the best. The parrots all 
seize their food, and hold it with the left hand, the lion, 
too, is left-handed ; he strikes with the left, so are all 
animals left-handed save man. 

I noticed a very pretty woman come past this quite 
jauntily about a month ago, on marriage with Monasimba. 
Ten goats were given ; her friends came and asked another 
goat, which being refused, she was enticed away, became 
sick of rheumatic fever two days afterwards, and died 
yesterday. Not a syllable of regret for the beautiful young 
creature does one hear, but for the goats : " Oh, our ten 
goats!" — they cannot grieve too much — "Our ten goats — 
oh! oh!" 

Basanga wail over those who die in bed, but not over 
those who die in battle : the cattle are a salve for all sores. 


Another man was killed within half a mile of this : they 
quarrelled, and there is virtually no chief. The man was 
stabbed, the village burned, and the people all fled : they 
are truly a bloody people ! 

A man died near this, Monasimba went to his wife, and 
after washing he may appear among men. If no widow can 
be obtained, he must sit naked behind his house till some 
one happens to die, all the clothes he wore are thrown 
away. They are the lowest of the low, and especially in 
bloodiness : the man who killed a woman without cause goes 
free, he offered his grandmother to be killed in his stead, 
and after a great deal of talk nothing was done to him ! 

8th December. — Suleiman-bin-Juma lived on the main- 
land, Mosessame, opposite Zanzibar : it is impossible to 
deny his power of foresight, except by rejecting all evidence, 
for he frequently foretold the deaths of great men among 
Arabs, and he w r as pre-eminently a good man, upright 
and sincere : " Thirti," none like him now for goodness and 
skill. He said that two middle-sized white men, with 
straight noses and flowing hair down to the girdle behind, 
came at times, and told him things to come. He died 
twelve years ago, and left no successor ; he foretold his 
own decease three days beforehand by cholera. " Heresi," a 
ball of hair rolled in the stomach of a lion, is a grand charm 
to the animal and to Arabs. Mohamad has one. 

10th December. — I am sorely let and hindered in this 
Manyuema. Bain every day, and often at night; I could 
not travel now, even if I had men, but I could make some 
progress ; this is the sorest delay I ever had. I look above 
for help and mercy. 

[The wearied man tried to while away the time by 
gaining little scraps of information from the Arabs and 
the natives, but we cannot fail to see what a serious stress 
was all the time put upon his constitution under these cir- 

1S70.] LION'S FAT. 87 

cumstances; the reader will pardon the disjointed nature 
of his narrative, written as it was under the greatest 

Lion's fat is regarded as a sure preventive of tsetse or 
bungo. This was noted before, but I add now that it is 
smeared on the ox's tail, and preserves hundreds of the 
Banyaniwesi cattle in safety while going to the coast; it 
is also used to keep pigs and hippopotami away from 
gardens: the smell is probably the efficacious part in 
" Heresi," as they call it. 

12th December. — It may be all for the best that I am so 
hindered, and compelled to inactivity. 

An advance to Lohombo was the furthest point of traders 
for many a day, for the slaves returning with ivory were 
speared mercilessly by Manyuema, because they did not 
know guns could kill, and their spears could. Katomba 
coming to Moenekuss was a great feat three or four years 
ago ; then Dugumbe went on to Lualaba, and fought his 
way, so I may be restrained now in mercy till men come. 

The Neggeri, an African animal, attacks the tenderest 
parts of man and beast, cuts them off, and retires contented : 
buffaloes are often castrated by him. Men who know it, 
squat down, and kill him with knife or gun. The Zibu or 
mbuide flies at the tendon Achilles ; it is most likely the 
Eatel. : 

The Fisi ea bahari, probably the seal, is abundant in the 
seas, but the ratel or badger probably furnished the skins 
for the Tabernacle : bees escape from his urine, and' he 
eats their honey in safety ; lions and all other animals fear 
his attacks of the heel. 

The Babemba mix a handful (about twenty-five to a 
measure) of castor-oil seeds with the dura and meleza they 
grind, and usage makes them like it, the nauseous taste 
is not perceptible in porridge; the oil is needed where so 


much farinaceous or starchy matter exists, and the bowels 
are regulated by the mixture : experience has taught them 
the need of a fatty ingredient. 

[Dr. Livingstone seems to have been anxious to procure 
all the information possible from the Arabs respecting the 
powerful chief Merere, who is reported to live on the borders 
of the Salt Water Lake, which lies between Lake Tanganyika 
and the East Coast. It would seem as if Merere held the 
most available road for travellers passing to the south-west 
from Zanzibar, and although the Doctor did not go through 
his country, he felt an interest no doubt in ascertaining as 
much as he could for the benefit of others.] 

Goambari is a prisoner at Merere's, guarded by a thousand 
or more men, to prevent him intriguing with Monyungo, 
who is known as bloodthirsty. In the third generation 
Charura's descendants numbered sixty able-bodied spear- 
men, Garahenga or Kimamure killed many of them. 
Charura had six white attendants with him, but all died 
before he did, and on becoming chief he got all his pre- 
decessor's wives. Merere is the son of a woman of the 
royal stock, and of a common man, hence he is a shade 
or two darker than Charura's descendants, who are very 
light coloured, and have straight noses. They shave the 
head, and straight hair is all cut off; they drink much 
milk, warm, from the teats of the cows, and think that it is 
strengthening by its heat. 

December 23rd. — Bambarre peoj)le suffer hunger now 
because they will not plant cassava ; this trading party eats 
all the maize, and sends to a distance for more, and the 
Manyuema buy from them with malofu, or palm-toddy. 
Rice is all coming into ear, but the Manyuema planted none : 
maize is ripening, and mice are a pest. A strong man 
among the Manyuema does what he pleases, and no chief 

1870.] REMARKS ON IYORY. 89 

interferes : for instance, a man's wife for ten goats was 
given off to a Mene man, and his child, now grown, is given 
away too ; he comes to Mohamad for redress ! Two ele- 
phants killed were very large, but have only small tusks : 
they come from the south in the rains. All animals, as 
elephants, buffaloes, and zebras, are very large in the 
Basango country ; tusks are full in the hollows, and 
weigh very heavy, and animals are fat and good in flesh : 
eleven goats are the exchange for the flesh of an elephant. 

[The following details respecting ivory cannot fail to be 
interesting here : they are very kindly furnished by Mr. 
F. D. Blyth, whose long experience enables him to speak 
with authority upon the subject. He says, England imports 
about 550 tons of ivory annually,— of this 280 tons pass 
away to other countries, whilst the remainder is used by 
our manufacturers, of whom the Sheffield cutlers alone 
require about 170 tons. The whole annual importation is 
derived from the following countries, and in the quantities 
given below, as near as one can approach to actual figures : 

Bombay and Zanzibar export 160 tons. 

Alexandria and Malta 180 „ 

West Coast of Africa 1 40 „ 

Cape of Good Hope 50 „ 

Mozambique 20 „ 

The Bombay merchants collect ivory from all the 
southern countries of Asia, and the East Coast of Africa, 
and after selecting that which is most suited to the wants 
of the Indian and Chinese markets, ship the remainder to 

From Alexandria and Malta we receive ivory collected 
from Northern and Central Africa, from Egypt, and the 
countries through which the Nile flows. 

Immediately after the Franco-German war the value of 
























ivory increased considerably ; and when we look at the 
prices realized on large Zanzibar tusks at the public sales, 
we can well understand the motive power which drove the 
Arab ivory hunters further and further into the country 
from which the chief supply was derived when Dr. Living- 
stone met them. 

In 1867 their price varied from £39 to £42. 

Single tusks vary in weight from 1 lb. to 165 lbs. : the 
average of a pair of tusks may be put at 28 lbs., and there- 
fore 44,000 elephants, large and small, must be killed 
yearly to supply the ivory which comes to England alone, 
and when we remember that an enormous quantity goes to 
America, to India and China, for consumption there, and of 
which we have no account, some faint notion may be formed 
of the destruction that goes on amongst the herds of 

Although naturalists distinguish only two living species 
of elephants, viz. the African and the Asiatic, nevertheless 
there is a great difference in the size, character, and colour 
of their tusks, which may arise from variations in climate, 
soil, and food. The largest tusks are yielded by the African 
elephant, and find their way hither from the port of Zan- 
zibar : they are noted for being opaque, soft or " mellow " 
to work, and free from cracks or defects. • 

The tusks from India, Ceylon, &c, are smaller in size, 
partly of an opaque character, and partly translucent (or, 
as it is technically called " bright "), and harder and more 

1870.] ELEPHANT'S TUSKS. 91 

cracked, but those from Siarn and the neighbouring countries 
are very " bright," soft, and fine grained ; they are much 
sought after for carvings and ornamental work. Tusks from 
Mozambique and the Cape of Good Hope seldom exceed 
70 lbs. in weight each : they are similar in character to the 
Zanzibar kind. 

Tusks which come through Alexandria and Malta differ 
considerably in quality : some resemble those from Zanzibar, 
whilst others are white and opaque, harder to work, and more 
cracked at the points ; and others again are very translucent 
and hard, besides being liable to crack : this latter descrip- 
tion fetches a much lower price in the market. 

From the West Coast of Africa we get ivory which is 
always translucent, with a dark outside or coating, but 
partly hard and partly soft. 

The soft ivory which comes from Ambriz, the Gaboon 
River, and the ports south of the equator, is more highly 
valued than any other, and is called " silver grey " : this 
sort retains its whiteness when exposed to the air, and is 
free from that tendency to become yellowish in time which 
characterises Asiatic and East African ivory. 

Hard tusks, as a rule, are proportionately smaller in dia- 
meter, sharper, and less worn than soft ones, and they come 
to market much more cracked, fetching in consequence a 
lower price. 

In addition to the above a few tons of Mammoth ivory 
are received from time to time from the Arctic regions and 
Siberia, and although of unknown antiquity, some tusks are 
equal in every respect to ivory which is obtained in the 
present day from elephants newly killed ; this, no doubt, is 
owing to the preservative effects of the ice in which the 
animals have been imbedded for many thousands of years. 
In the year 1799 the entire carcase of a mammoth was taken 
from the ice, and the skeleton and portions of the skin, still 
covered with reddish hair, are preserved in the Museum of 


St. Petersburg : it is said that portions of the flesh were 
eaten by the men who dug it out of the ice.] 

24 tli December. — Between twenty-five and thirty slaves 
have died in the present epidemic, and many Manyuema ; 
two yesterday at Kandawara. The feet swell, then the hands 
and face, and in a day or two they drop dead ; it came from 
the East, and is very fatal, for few escape who take it. 

A woman was accused of stealing maize, and the chief 
here sent all his people yesterday, plundered all she had 
in her house and garden, and brought her husband bound in 
thongs till he shall pay a goat : she is said to be innocent. 

Monangoi does this by fear of the traders here ; and, as 
the people tell him, as soon as they are gone the vengeance 
he is earning by injustice on all sides will be taken : I 
told the chief that his head would be cut off as soon as 
the traders leave, and so it will be, and Kasessa's also. 

Three men went from Ivatomba to Ivasongo's to buy 
Yiramba, and a man was speared belonging to Kasongo, 
these three then fired into a mass of men who collected, 
one killed two, another three, and so on ; so now that place 
is shut up from traders, and all this country will be closed 
as soon as the Manyuema learn that guns are limited in 
their power of killing, and especially in the hands of slaves, 
who cannot shoot, but only make a noise. These Suaheli 
are the most cruel and bloodthirsty missionaries in existence, 
and withal so impure in talk and acts, spreading disease 
everywhere. The Lord sees it. 

2Sth December. — Moenembegg, the most intelligent of the 
two sons of Moenekuss, in power, told us that a man was 
killed and eaten a few miles from this yesterday: hunger 
was the reason assigned. On speaking of tainted meat, he 
said that the Manyuema put meat in water for two days to 
make it putrid and smell high. The love of high meat is the 
only reason I know for their cannibalism, but the practice is 



now hidden on account of the disgust that the traders ex- 
pressed against open man-eating when they first arrived. 

Lightning was very near us last night. The Manvuema 
say that when it is so loud fishes of large size fall with it, 
an opinion shared by the Arabs, but the large fish is really 
the Clarias Capensis of Smith, and it is often seen migrating 
in single file along the wet grass for miles: it is probably 
this that the Manvuema think falls from the lightning. 

The strangest disease I have seen in this country & seems 
really to be broken-heartedness, and it attacks free men 
who have been captured and made slaves. My attention 
was drawn to it when the elder brother of Syde bin Habib 
was killed in Eua by a night attack, from a spear being 
pitched through his tent into his side. Syde then vowed 
vengeance for the blood of his brother, and assaulted all 
he could find, killing the elders, and making the young 
men captives. He had secured a very large number, and 
they endured the chains until they saw the broad Kiver 
Lualaba roll between them and their free homes ; they 
then lost heart. Twenty-one were unchained as being now 
safe; however, all ran away at once, but eight, with many 
others still in chains, died in three days after crossing. 
They ascribed their only pain to the heart, and placed the 
hand correctly on the spot, though many think that the 
organ stands high up under the breast bone. Some slavers 
expressed surprise to me that they should die, seeing they 
had plenty to eat and no work. One fine boy of about 
twelve years was carried, and when about to expire, was 
kindly laid down on the side of the path, and a hole' dug 
to deposit the body in. He, too, said he had nothing the 
matter with him, except pain in his heart: as it attacks 
only the free (who are captured and never slaves), it seems 
to be really broken-hearts of which they die. 

[Livingstone's servants give some additional particulars 


in answer to questions put to them about this dreadful 
history. The sufferings endured by these unfortunate cap- 
tives, whilst they were hawked about in different directions, 
must have been shocking indeed ; many died because it 
Avas impossible for them to carry a burden on the head 
whilst marching in the heavy yoke or "taming stick," 
which weighs from 30 lbs. to 40 lbs. as a rule, and the 
Arabs knew that if once the stick were taken off, the 
captive would escape on the first opportunity. Children 
for a time would keep up with wonderful endurance, but 
it happened sometimes that the sound of dancing and the 
merry tinkle of the small drums would fall on their ears in 
passing near to a village ; then the memory of home and 
happy days proved too much for them ; they cried and 
sobbed, the " broken-heart " came on, and they rapidly sank. 
The adults as a rule came into the slave-sticks from 
treachery, and had never been slaves before. Very often the 
Arabs would promise a present of dried fish to villagers if 
they would act as guides to some distant point, and as soon 
as they were far enough away from their friends they were 
seized and pinned into the yoke from which there is no 
escape. These poor fellows would expire in the way the 
Doctor mentions, talking to the last of their wives and 
children who would never know what had become of them. 
On one occasion twenty captives succeeded in escaping as 
follows. Chained together by the neck, and in the custody 
of an Arab armed with a gun, they were sent off to collect 
wood ; at a given signal, one of them called the guard 
to look at something which he pretended he had found : 
when he stooped down they threw themselves upon him 
and overpowered him, and after he was dead managed to 
break the chain and make off in all directions.] 

Bice sown on 19th October was in ear in seventy days. A 
leopard killed my goat, and a gun set for him went off at 

1871.] THE BITER BIT. 95 

10 r.M. — the ball broke both hind legs and one fore leg, yet 
he had power to spring up and bite a man badly afterwards ; 
he was a male, 2 feet 4 inches at withers, and 6 feet 8 
inches from tip of nose to end of tail. 

1st January, 1871. — Father! help me to finish this 
work to Thy honour. 

Still detained at Bambarre, but a caravan of 500 muskets 
is reported from the coast : it may bring me other men and 

Rain daily. A woman was murdered without cause close 
by the camp ; the murderer said she was a witch and 
speared her : the body is exposed till the affair is settled, 
probably by a fine of goats. 

The Manyuema are the most bloody, callous savages I 
know ; one puts a scarlet feather from a parrot's tail on the 
ground, and challenges those near to stick it in the hair: 
he who does so must kill a man or woman ! 

Another custom is that none dare wear the skin of the 
musk cat, Ngawa, unless he has murdered somebody : guns 
alone prevent them from killing us all, and for no reason 

lQth January. — Ramadan ended last night, and it is 
probable my people and others from the coast will begin to 
travel after three days of feasting. It has been so rainy I 
could have done little though I had had people. 

22nd January. — A party is reported to be on the way 
hither. This is likely enough, but reports are so often false 
that doubts arise. Mohamad says he will give men when 
the party of Hassani comes, or when Dugumbe arrives. 

24:th January. — Mohamad mentioned this morning that 
Moene-mokaia, and Moeneghera his brother, brought about 
thirty slaves from Katanga to Ujiji, affected with swelled 
thyroid glands or " Goitre" and that drinking the water of 
Tanganyika proved a perfect cure to all in a very few days. 
Sometimes the swelling went down in two days after they 


began to use the water, in their ordinary way of cooking, 
washing, and drinking : possibly some ingredient of the hot 
fountain that flows into it affects the cure, for the people on 
the Lofubu, in Nsama's country, had the swelling. The 
water in bays is decidedly brackish, while the body of Tan- 
ganyika is quite fresh. 

The odour of putrid elephant's meat in a house kills 
parrots : the Manyuema keep it till quite rotten, but know 
its fatal effects on their favourite birds. 

27tli January. — Safari or caravan reported to be near, and 
my men and goods at Ujiji. 

28t7i January. — A safari, under Hassani and Ebed, 
arrived with news of great mortality by cholera (Toivny), at 
Zanzibar, and my " brother," whom I conjecture to be Dr. 
Kirk, has Mien. The men I wrote for have come to Ujiji, 
but did not know my whereabouts ; when told by Katomba's 
men they will come here, and bring my much longed for 
letters and goods. 70,000 victims in Zanzibar alone from 
rholera, and it spread inland to the Masoi and Ugogo ! 
Cattle shivered, and fell dead : the fishes in the sea died in 
great numbers ; here the fowls were first seized and died, 
but not from cholera, only from its companion. Thirty men 
perished in our small camp, made still smaller by all the 
able men being off trading at the Metamba, and how many 
Manyuema died we do not know ; the survivors became 
afraid of eating the dead. 

Formerly the Cholera kept along the seashore, now it 
goes far inland, and will spread all over Africa ; this we get 
from Mecca filth, for nothing was done to prevent the place 
being made a perfect cesspool of animals' guts and ordure of 
men.* A piece of skin bound round the chest of a man, and 

* The epidemic liere mentioned reached Zanzibar Island from the 
interior of Africa by way of the Masai caravan route and Pangani. 
Dr. Kirk says it again entered Africa from Zanzibar, and followed the 
course of the caravans to Ujiji and Manyuema. — Ed. 

1871.] MOSLEM MOEALS. 97 

half of it hanging down, prevents waste of strength, and he 
forgets and fattens. 

Ebed's party bring 200 frasilahs of all sorts of beads; 
they will cross Lualaba, and open a new field on the other, 
or Young's Lualaba : all Central Africa will soon be known : 
the evils inflicted by these Arabs are enormous, but pro- 
bably not greater than the people inflict on each other. 
Merere has turned against the Arabs, and killed one; 
robbing several others of all they had, though he has ivory 
sufficient to send down 7000 lbs. to the coast, and receive 
loads of goods for 500 men in return. He looks as if 
insane, and probably is so, and will soon be killed. His 
insanity may be the effect of pombe, of which he drinks 
largely, and his people may have told him that the Arabs 
were plotting with Goambari. He restored Mohamad's ivory 
and slaves, and sent for the other traders who had fled, 
saying his people had spoken badly, and he would repay all 

The Watuta (who are the same as the Mazitu) came 
stealing Banyamwezi cattle, and Mteza's men went out to 
them, and twenty-two were killed, but the Lewale's people 
did nothing. The Governor's sole anxiety is to obtain 
ivory, and no aid is rendered to traders. Seyed Suleiman 
the Wazeer is the author of the do-nothing policy, and 
sent away all the sepoys as too expensive, consequently 
the Wagogo plunder traders unchecked. It is reported 
that Egyptian Turks came up and attacked Mteza, but lost 
many people, and fled. The report of a Moslem Mission to 
his country was a falsehood, though the details given were 
circumstantial : falsehood is so common, one can believe 
nothing the Arabs say, unless confirmed by other evidence : 
they are the followers of the Prince of lies — Mohamad, 
whose cool appropriation of the knowledge gained at 
Damascus, and from the Jews, is perfectly disgusting. All 
his deeds were done when unseen by any witnesses. It is 



worth noticing that all admit the decadence of the Moslem 
power, and they ask how it is so fallen ? They seem sincere 
in their devotion and in teaching the Koran, but its mean- 
ing is comparatively hid from most of the Suaheli. The 
Persian Arabs are said to be gross idolators, and awfully 
impure. Earth from a grave at Kurbelow (?) is put in 
the turban and worshipped : some of the sects won't 
say " Amen." 

Moenyegumbe never drank more than a mouthful of 
pombe. When young, he could make his spear pass right 
through an elephant, and stick in the ground on the other 
side. He was a large man, and all his members were 
largely developed, his hands and fingers were all in pro- 
portion to his great height ; and he lived to old age Avith 
strength unimpaired: Goambari inherits his white colour 
and sharp nose, but not his wisdom or courage. Merere 
killed five of his own people for exciting him against 
the Arabs. The half-caste is the murderer of many 
of Charura's descendants. His father got a daughter of 
Moenyegumbe for courage in fighting the Babema of 

Cold-blooded murders are frightfully common here. Some 
kill people in order to be allowed to wear the red tail 
feathers of a parrot in their hair, 'and yet they are not 
ugly like the West Coast Negroes, for many men have as 
finely formed heads as could be found in London. We 
English, if naked, would make but poor figures beside the 
strapping forms and finely shaped limbs of Manyuema men 
and women. Their cannibalism is doubtful, but my obser- 
vations raise grave suspicions. A Scotch jury would say, 
" Not proven." The women are not guilty. 

4th February, 1871. — Ten of my men from the coast have 
come near to Bambarre, and will arrive to-day. I am ex- 
tremely thankful to hear it, for it assures me that my 
packet of letters was not destroyed ; they know at home 


by this time what has detained me, and the end to which I 

Only one letter reached, and forty are missing ! James 
was killed to-day by an arrow : the assassin was hid in the 
forest till my men going to buy food came up.* I propose 
to leave on the 12th. I have sent Dr. Kirk a cheque for 
Es. 4000 : great havoc was made by cholera, and in the 
midst of it my friend exerted himself greatly to get men 
off to me with goods ; the first gang of porters all died. 

8th February. — The ten men refusing to go north are 
influenced probably by Shereef, and my two ringleaders, 
who try this means to compel me to take them. 

9^ February. — The man who contrived the murder 
of James came here, drawn by the pretence that he was 
needed to lead a party against the villages, which he led 
to commit the outrage. His thirst for blood is awful : he 
was bound, and word sent to bring the actual murderers 
within three days, or he suffers death. He brought five 
goats, thinking that would smooth the matter over. 

11th February. — Men struck work for higher wages : I 
consented to give them six dollars a month if they behaved 
well ; if ill I diminish it, so we hope to start to-morrow. 
Another hunting quelled by Mohamad and me. 

The ten men sent are all slaves of the Banians, who are 
English subjects, and they come with a lie in their mouth : 
they will not help me, and swear that the Consul told 
them not to go forward, but to force me back, and they 
spread the tale all over the country that a certain letter 
has been sent to me with orders to return forthwith. They 
swore so positively that I actually looked again at Dr. Kirk's 
letter to see if his orders had been rightly understood by me. 
But for Mohamad Bogharib and fear of pistol-shot they 

* The men give indisputable proof that his body was eaten by the 
Manyuema who lay in ambush. — Ed. 

H 2 - 


would jrain their own and their Banian masters' end to 
baffle me completely ; they demand an advance of one 
dollar, or six dollars a month, though this is double free- 
man's pay at Zanzibar. Their two headmen, Shereef and 
Awathe, refused to come past Ujiji, and are revelling on 
my goods there. 

13th February. — Mabruki being seized with choleraic 
purging detains us to-day. I gave Mohamad five pieces 
Americano, five ditto Kanike,* and two frasilahs samisami 
beads. He gives me a note to Hassani for twenty thick 
copper bracelets. Yesterday crowds came to eat the meat 
of the man who misled James to his death spot : but we 
want the men who set the Mbanga men to shoot him : they 
were much disappointed when they found that no one was 
killed, and are undoubtedly cannibals. 

IQth, Friday. — Started to-day. Mabruki makiug himself 
out very ill, Mohamad roused him out by telling him I 
travelled when much worse. The chief gave me a goat, 
and Mohamad another, but in coming through the forest on 
the neck of the mountain the men lost three, and have to 
o-o back for them, and return to-morrow. Simon and Ibram 
were bundled out of the camp, and impudently followed me : 
when they came up, I told them to be off. 

17^ February. — Waiting at a village on the Western 
slope for the men to come up with the goats, if they have 
gone back to^the camp. Mohamad would not allow the 
deserters to remain among his people, nor would I. It 
would only be to imbue the minds of my men with their 
want of respect for all English, and total disregard of 
honesty and honour : they came after me with inimitable 
effrontery, believing that though I said I would not take 
them, they were so valuable, I was only saying what I knew 
to be false. The goats were [brought by a Manyuema man,. 

Kanike is a blue calico. 


who found one fallen into a pitfall and dead ; he ate it, 
and brought one of his own in lieu of it. I gave him 
ten strings of beads, and he presented a fowl in token of 

18th February. — Went on to a village on the Lulwa, and 
on the 19th reached Moenenigoi, who dissuaded me so 
earnestly against going to Moenekurumbo for^the cause of 
Molembalemba that I agreed not to venture. 

20th February. — To the ford with only one canoe now, as 
two men of Katomba were swept away in the other, and 
drowned. They would not sell the remaining canoe, so I 
go N.W. on foot to Moene Lualaba, where fine large canoes 
are abundant. The grass and mud are grievous, but my 
men lift me over the waters. 

21st February. — Arrived at Monandewa's village, situated 
on a high ridge between two deep and difficult gullies. 
These people are obliging and kind: the chief's wife made 
a fire for me in the evening unbidden. 

22nd February. — On N.W. to a high hill called Chibande 
a Yunde', with a spring of white water at the village on 
the top. Famine from some unknown cause here, but the 
people are cultivating now on the plain below with a 

23rd February.- — On to two large villages with many 
banana plants around, but the men said they were in fear 
of the traders, and shifted their villages to avoid them : 
we then went on to the village Kahombogola, with a feeble 
old man as chief. The country is beautiful and undu- 
lating : light-green grass covers it all, save at the brooks, 
where the eye is relieved by the dark-green lines of trees. 
Grass tears the hands and wets the extremities constantly. 
The soil is formed of the debris of granitic rocks ; rough 
and stony, but everywhere fertile. One can rarely get a 
bare spot to sit down and rest. 
.2±th February. — To a village near Lolande Kiver. Then 


across the Loengadye, sleeping on the bank of the Luka, 
and so to Mamohela, where we were welcomed by all the 
Arabs, and I got a letter from Dr. Kirk and another from 
the Sultan, and from Mohamad bin Nassib who was going 
to Karagwe : all anxious to be kind. Katoniba gave flour, 
nuts, fowls, and goat. A new way is opened to Kasongo's, 
much shorter than that I followed. I rest a few days, 
and then go on. 

25th February. — So we went on, and found that it was 
now known that the Lualaba flowed west-south-west, and 
that our course was to be west across this other great 
bend of the mighty river. I had to suspend my judgment, 
so as to be prepared to find it after all perhaps the Congo. 
No one knew anything about it except that when at 
Kasongo's nine days west, and by south it came sweeping- 
round and flowed north and north and by east. 

Katomba presented a young soko or gorillah that had been 
caught while its mother was killed; she sits eighteen inches 
high, has fine long black hair all over, which was pretty so 
long as it was kept in order by her dam. She is the least 
mischievous of all the monkey tribe I have seen, and 
seems to know that in me she has a friend, and sits 
quietly on the mat beside me. In walking, the first 
thing observed is that she does not tread on the palms of 
her hands, but on the backs of the second line of bones of 
the hands : in doing this the nails do not touch the ground, 
nor do the knuckles ; she uses the arms thus supported 
crutch fashion, and hitches herself along between them; 
occasionally one hand is put down before the other, and 
alternates with the feet, or she walks upright and holds 
up a hand to any one to carry her. If refused, she turns 
her face down, and makes grimaces of the most bitter 
human weeping, wringing her hands, and sometimes adding 
a fourth hand or foot to make the appeal more touching. 
Grass or leaves she draws around her to make a nest, and 

1871.] THE YOUNG SOKO. 103 

resents anyone meddling with her property. She is a most 
friendly little beast, and came up to me at once, making her 
chirrup of welcome, smelled my clothing, and held out her 
hand to be shaken. I slapped her palm without offence, 
though she winced. She began to untie the cord with 
which she was afterwards bound, with fingers and thumbs, 
in quite a systematic way, and on being interfered with by 
a man looked daggers, and screaming tried to beat him 
with her hands : she was afraid of his stick, and faced 
him, putting her back to me as a friend. She holds out her 
hand for people to lift her up and carry her, quite like a 
spoiled child ; then bursts into a passionate cry, somewhat 
like that of a kite, wrings her hands quite naturally, as if in 
despair. She eats everything, covers herself with a mat to 
sleep, and makes a nest of grass or leaves, and wipes her 
face with a leaf. 

I presented my double-barrelled gun which is at Ujiji to 
Katomba, as he has been very kind when away from Ujiji : 
I pay him thus for all his services. He gave me the soko, 
and will carry it to Ujiji for me ; I have tried to refund all 
that the Arabs expended on me. 

1st March, 1871. — I was to start this morning, but the 
Arabs asked me to take seven of their people going to buy 
biramba, as they know the new way : the offer was gladly 

2nd to 5th March. — Left Mamohela, and travelled over 
fine grassy plains, crossing in six hours fourteen running rills, 
from three to ten or fifteen feet broad, and from calf to thigh 
deep. Tree-covered mountains on both sides. The natives 
know the rills by names, and readily tell their courses, and 
which falls into which, before all go into the great Lualaba ; 
but without one as a guide, no one can put them in a map. 
We came to Monanbunda's villages, and spent the night. 
Our next stage was at Monangongo's. A small present of 
a few strings of beads satisfies, but is not asked : I give it 


invariably as acknowledgment for lodgings. The headman 
of our next stage hid himself in fear, as we were near to 
the scene o£ Bin Juma's unprovoked slaughter of five men, 
for tusks that were not stolen, but thrown down. Our path 
lay through dense forest, and again, on 5th, our march was 
in the same dense jungle of lofty trees and vegetation that 
touch our arms on each side. We came to some villages 
among beautiful tree-covered hills, called Basilange or 
Mobasilange. The villages are very pretty, standing on 
slopes. The main street generally lies east and west, to 
allow the bright sun to stream his clear hot rays from 
one end to the other, and lick up quickly the moisture 
from the frequent showers which is not drained off by the 
slopes. A little verandah is often made in front of the door, 
and here at dawn the family gathers round a fire, and, while 
enjoying the heat needed in the cold that always accom- 
panies the first darting of the light or sun's rays across the 
atmosphere, inhale the delicious air, and talk over their 
little domestic affairs. The various shaped leaves of the 
forest all around their village and near their nestlings are 
bespangled with myriads of dewdrops. The cocks crow 
vigorously, and strut and ogle ; the kids gambol and leap 
on the backs of their dams quietly chewing the cud ; other 
goats make believe fighting. Thrifty wives often bake their 
new clay pots in a fire, made by lighting a heap of grass 
roots : the next morning they extract salt from the ashes, 
and so two birds are killed with one stone. The beauty of 
this morning scene of peaceful enjoyment is indescribable. 
Infancy gilds the fairy picture with its own lines, and it is 
probably never forgotten, for the young, taken up from 
slavers, and treated with all philanthropic missionary 
care and kindness, still revert to the period of infancy as 
the finest and fairest they have known. They would go 
back to freedom and enjoyment as fast as would our own 
sons of the soil, and be heedless to the charms of hard 

1871.] THE " GOOD ONE." 105 

work and no play which we think so much better for them 
if not for us. 

In some cases we found all the villages deserted ; the 
people had fled at our approach, in dread of repetitions of 
the outrages of Arab slaves. The doors were all shut : 
a bunch of the leaves of reeds or of green reeds placed across 
them, means " no entrance here." A few stray chickens 
wander about wailing, having hid themselves while the rest 
were caught and carried off into the deep forest, and the 
still smoking fires tell the same tale of recent flight from 
the slave-traders. 

Many have found out that I am not one of their number, 
so in various cases they stand up and call out loudly, " Bo- 
longo, Bolongo!" "Friendship, Friendship!" They sell 
their fine iron bracelets eagerly for a few beads ; for (brace- 
lets seem out of fashion since beads came in), but they are 
of the finest quality of iron, and were they nearer Europe 
would be as eagerly sought and bought as horse-shoe nails 
are for the best gun-barrels. I overhear the Many ue ma 
telling each other that I am the " good one." I have no 
slaves, and I owe this character to the propagation of a good 
name by the slaves of Zanzibar, who are anything but good 
themselves. I have seen slaves belonging to the seven men 
now with us slap the cheeks of grown men who had offered 
food for sale ; it was done in sheer wantonness, till I threat- 
ened to thrash them if I saw it again ; but out of my sight 
they did it still, and when I complained to the masters they 
confessed that all the mischief was done by slaves ; for the 
Manyuema, on being insulted, lose temper and use their 
spears on the nasty curs, and then vengeance is taken with 
gims. Free men behave better than slaves ; the bondmen 
are not responsible. The Manyuema are far more beautiful 
than either the bond or free of Zanzibar ; I overhear the 
remark often, " If we had Manyuema wives what beautiful 
children we should beget." The men are usually handsome, 


and many of the women are very pretty ; hands, feet, limbs, 
and forms perfect in shape and the colour light-brown, but 
the orifices of the nose are widened by snuff-takers, who ram 
it up as far as they can with the finger and thumb : the 
teeth are not filed, except a small space between the two 
upper front teeth. 

5th March. — We heard to-day that Mohamad's people 
passed us on the west, with much ivory. I lose thus 
twenty copper rings I was to take from them, and all the 
notes they were to make for me of the rivers they crossed. 

6th March. — Passed through very large villages, with 
many forges in active work ; some men followed us, as if to 
fight, but we got them to turn peaceably : we don't know 
who are enemies, so many have been maltreated and had 
relatives killed. The rain of yesterday made the paths so 
slippery that the feet of all were sorely fatigued, and on 
coming to Manyara's, I resolved to rest on 7th near Mount 
Kimazi. I gave a cloth and beads in lieu of a fine fat goat 
from the chief, a clever, good man. 

9th March. — We marched about five hours across a grassy 
plain without trees — buga or prairie. The torrid sun, nearly 
vertical, sent his fierce rays down, and fatigued us all: 
we crossed two Sokoye streams by bridges, and slept at a 
village on a ridge of woodland overlooking Kasonga. After 
two hours this morning, we came to villages of this chief, 
and at one were welcomed by the Safari of Salem Mokadam, 
and I was given a house. Kasonga is a very fine young 
man, with European features, and " very clever and good." 
He is clever, and is pronounced good, because he eagerly 
joins the Arabs in marauding ! Seeing the advantage of fire- 
arms, he has bought four muskets. Mohamad's people were 
led by his, and spent all their copper for some fifty frasilahs 
of good ivory. From this party men have been sent over 
Lualaba, and about fifty frasilahs obtained : all praise 
Kasonga. We were now only six miles from Lualaba, and 


yet south of Mainohela ; this great river, in fact, makes a 
second great sweep to the west of some 130 miles, and there 
are at least 30' of southing; but now it comes rolling 
majestically to the north, and again makes even easting. 
It is a mighty stream, with many islands in it, and is never 
wadeable at any point or at any time of the year. 

10th March. — Mohamad's people are said to have gone to 
Luapanya, a powerful chief, who told them they were to buy 
all their ivory from him : he had not enough, and they 
wanted to go on to a people who have ivory door-posts ; 
but he said, " You shall go neither forward nor backwards, 
but remain here," and he then called an immense body of 
archers, and said, " You must fight these." The conse- 
quence was they killed Luapanya and many of his people, 
called Bahika, then crossed a very large river, the Morom- 
bya or Morombwe, and again the Pembo Eiver, but don't 
seem to have gone very far north. I wished to go from 
this in canoes, but Kasonga has none, so I must tramp for 
five or six days to Moene Lualaba to buy one, if I have 
credit with Abed. 

11th March. — I had a long, fierce oration from Amur, in 
which I was told again and again that I should be killed and 
eaten — the people wanted a " white one " to eat ! I needed 
200 guns; and "must not go to die." I told him that I was 
thankful for advice, if given by one who had knowledge, 
but his vehement threats were dreams of one who had never 
gone anywhere, but sent his slaves to kill people. He was 
only frightening my people, and doing me an injury. I told 
him that Baker had only twelve people, and came near 
to this: to this he replied "Were the people cannibals?" 
&c. &c. 

I left this noisy demagogue, after saying I thanked him 
for his warnings, but saw he knew not what he was saying. 
The traders from Ujiji are simply marauders, and their 
people worse than themselves, they thirst for blood more 


than for ivory, each longs to be able to tell a tale of blood, 
and the Manyuema are an easy prey. Hassani assaulted the 
people at Moene Lualaba's, and now they keep to the other 
bank, and I am forced to bargain with Kasonga for a canoe, 
and he sends to a friend for one to be seen on the loth. 
This Hassani declared to me that he would not begin hosti- 
lities, but he began nothing else ; the prospect of getting 
slaves overpowers all else, and blood flows in horrid streams. 
The Lord look on it ! Hassani will have some tale to tell 
Mohamad Bogharib. 

[At the outset of his explorations Livingstone fancied 
that there were degrees in the sufferings of slaves, and that 
the horrors perpetrated by the Portuguese of Tette were 
unknown in the system of slave hunting which the Arabs 
pursue : we now see that a further acquaintance with the 
slave-trade of the Interior has restored the balance of 
infamy, and that the same tale of murder and destruction is 
common wherever the traffic extends, no matter by whom it 
is carried on.] 

15th March. — Falsehood seems ingrained in their consti- 
tutions : no wonder that in all this region they have never 
tried to propagate Islamism ; the natives soon learn to hate 
them, and slaving, as carried on by the Kilwans and 
Ujijians, is so bloody, as to prove an effectual barrier 
against proselytism. 

My men are not come back : I fear they are engaged in 
some broil. In confirmation of what I write, some of the 
party here assaulted a village of Kasonga's, killed three men 
and captured women and children ; they pretended that 
they did not know them to be his people, but they did not 
return the captives. 

2(J/7t March. — I am heartsore, and sick of human blood. 

21st March. — Kasongo's brother's child died, and he asked 
me to remain to-day while he buried the dead, and he would 


give me a guide to-morrow ; being rainy I stop willingly. 
Dugumbe is said to purpose going down the river to Kana- 
gumbe Eiver to build on the land Kanagumbe, which is a 
loop formed by the river, and is large. He is believed to 
possess great power of divination, even of killing unfaithful 

22nd March,— I am detained another day by the sickness 
of one of the party. Very cold rain yesterday from the north- 
west. I hope to go to-morrow towards the Lakoni, or great 
market of this region. 

23rd March. — Left Kasongo, who gave me a goat and a 
guide. The country is gently undulating, showing green 
slopes fringed with wood, with grass from four to six feet. 
We reached Katenga's, about five miles off. There are 
many villages, and people passed us carrying loads of 
provisions, and cassava, from the chitoka or market. March.— Great rain in the night and morning, and 
sickness of the men prevented our march. 
25th March. — Went to Mazimwe, 1\ miles off. 
26th March.— -Went four miles and crossed the Kabwi- 
maji ; then a mile beyond Kahembai, which flows into the 
Kunda, and it into the Lualaba ; the country is open, and 
low hills appear in the north. We met a party from the 
traders at Kasenga, chiefly Matereka's people under Salem 
and Syde bin Sultan; they had eighty-two captives, and 
say they fought ten days to secure them and two of the 
Malongwana, and two of the Banyamwezi. They had about 
twenty tusks, and carried one of their men who broke his leo- 
in fighting ; we shall be safe only when past the bloodshed 
and murder. 

27th March.— We went along a ridge of land overhanging 
a fine valley of denudation, with well-cultivated hills in the 
distance (N.), where Hassani's feat of bloodshed was per- 
formed. There are many villages on the ridge, some rather 
tumbledown ones, which always indicate some misrule. Our 


march was about seven miles. A headman who went with 
us plagued another chief to give me a goat; I refused to 
take what was not given willingly, but the slaves secured 
it ; and I threatened our companion, Kama, with dismissal 
from our party if he became a tool in slave hands. The 
arum is common. 

28th March. — The Banian slaves are again trying com- 
pulsion — I don't know what for. They refused to take 
their bead rations, and made Chakanga spokesman : I could 
not listen to it, as he has been concocting a mutiny against 
me. It is excessively trying, and so many difficulties have 
been put in my way I doubt whether the Divine favour and 
will is on my side. 

We came six miles to-day, crossing many rivulets running 
to the Kunda, which also we crossed in a canoe ; it is almost 
thirty yards wide and deep : afterwards, near the village 
where we slept, we crossed the Luja about twenty yards 
wide, going into the Kunda and Lualaba. I am greatly 
distressed because there is no law here; they probably 
mean to create a disturbance at Abed's place, to which we 
are near : the Lord look on it. 

29th March. — Crossed the Liya, and next day the 
Moangoi, by two well-made wattle bridges at an island in 
its bed : it is twenty yards, and has a very strong current, 
which makes all the market people fear it. We then 
crossed the Molembe in a canoe, which is fifteen yards, but 
swelled by rains and many rills. Came 1\ miles to sleep 
at one of the outlying villages of Nyangwe: about sixty 
market people came past us from the Chitoka or market- 
place, on the banks of Lualaba ; they go thither at night, 
and come away about midday, having disposed of most of 
their goods by barter. The country is open, and dotted 
over with trees, chiefly a species of Bauhinia, that resists 
the annual grass burnings; there are trees along the 
watercourses, and many villages, each with a host of pigs. 


This region is low as compared with Tanganyika ; about 
2000 feet above the sea. 

The headman's house, in which I was lodged, contained 
the housewife's little conveniences, in the shape of forty 
pots, dishes, baskets, knives, mats, all of which she removed 
to another house : I gave her four strings of beads, and go 
on to-morrow. Crossed the Kunda Eiver and seven miles 
more brought us to Nyafigwe', where we found Abed and 
Hassani had erected their dwellings, and sent their people 
over Lualaba, and as far west as the Loeki or Lomanie. 
Abed said that my words against bloodshedding had stuck 
into him, and he had given orders to his people to give 
presents to the chiefs, but never fight unless actually 

31st March. — I went down to take a good look at the 
Lualaba here. It is narrower than it is higher up, but still 
a mighty river, at least 3000 yards broad, and always deep : 
it can never be waded at any point, or at any time of the 
year ; the people unhesitatingly declare that if any one 
tried to ford it, he would assuredly be lost. It has many 
large islands, and at these it is about 2000 yards or one 
mile. The banks are steep and deep: there is clay, and a 
yellow-clay schist in their structure ; the other rivers, as the 
Luya and Kunda, have gravelly banks. The current is 
about two miles an hour away to the north. 

( u2 ; 


The Chitoka or market gathering. The hroken watch. Improvises 
ink. Builds a new house at Nyangwe on the hank of the Lualaha. 
Marketing. Cannibalism. Lake Kamalondo. Dreadful effect of 
slaving. News of country across the Lualaha. Tiresome frustration. 
The Bakuss. Feeble health. Busy scene at market. Unable to 
procure canoes. Disaster to Arab canoes. Rapids in Lualaha. Pro- 
ject for visiting Lake Lincoln and the Lomame. Offers large reward 
fur canoes and men. The slave's mistress. Alarm of natives at market. 
Fiendish slaughter of women by Arabs. Heartrending scene. Death 
on land and in the river. Tagamoio's assassinations. Continued 
slaughter across the river. Livingstone becomes desponding. 

1st April, 1871. — The banks are well peopled, but one must 
see the gathering at the market, of about 3000, chiefly 
women, to judge of their numbers. They hold market one 
day, and then omit attendance here for three days, going- 
to other markets at other points in the intervals. It is a 
great institution in Manyuema : numbers seem to inspire 
confidence, and they enforce justice for each other. As a 
rule, all prefer to buy and sell in the market, to doing busi- 
ness anywhere else ; if one says, " Come, sell me that fowl 
or cloth," the reply is, " Come to the ' Chitoka,' or market- 

2nd April. — To-day the market contained over a thousand 
people, carrying earthen pots and cassava, grass cloth, fishes, 
and fowls; they were alarmed at my coming among them 
and were ready to flee, many stood afar off in suspicion ;. 
some came from the other side of the river with their goods. 
To-morrow market is held up river. 

3rd April. — I tried to secure a longitude by fixing a 


weight on the key of the watch, and so helping it on : I will 
try this in a quiet place to-morrow. The people all fear 
us, and they have good reason for it in the villainous 
conduct of many of the blackguard half-castes which alarms 
them : I cannot get a canoe, so I wait to see what will 
turn up. The river is said to overflow all its banks 
annually, as the Nile does further down. I sounded across 
yesterday. Near the bank it is 9 feet, the rest 15 feet, 
and one cast in the middle was 20 feet: between the 
islands 12 feet, and 9 feet again in shore: it is a mighty 
river truly. I took distances and altitudes alternately with 
a bullet for a weight on the key of the chronometer, taking- 
successive altitudes of the sun and distances of the moon. 
Possibly the first and last altitudes may give the rate 
of going, and the frequent distances between may give 
approximate longitude. 

4ih April. — Moon, the fourth of the Arabs, will appear 
in three or four days. This will be a guide in ascertaining 
the day of observing the lunars, with the weight. 

The Arabs ask many questions about the Bible, and 
want to know how many prophets have appeared, and pro- 
bably say that they believe in them all ; while we believe 
all but reject Mohamad. It is easy to drive them into a 
corner by questioning, as they don't know whither the 
inquiries lead, and they are not offended when their know- 
ledge is, as it were, admitted. When asked how many 
false prophets are known, they appeal to my knowledge, 
and evidently never heard of Balaam, the son of Beor, or 
of the 250 false prophets of Jezebel and Ahab, or of the 
many lying prophets referred to in the Bible. 

6th April. — 111 from drinking two cups of very sweet 
malofu, or beer, made from bananas : I shall touch it no 

1th April. — Made this ink with the seeds of a plant, 
called by the Arabs Zugifare ; it is known in India, and is 

VOL. II. i 


used here by the Manyuema to dye virambos and ornament 
faces and heads.* I sent my people over to the other side 
to cut wood to build a house for me ; the borrowed one 
has mud walls and floors, which are damp, foul, smelling, and 
unwholesome. I shall have grass walls, and grass and reeds 
on the floor of my own house ; the free ventilation will keep 
it sweet. This is the season called Masika, the finishing- 
rains, which we have in large quantities almost every night, 
and I could scarcely travel even if I had a canoe ; still it is 
trying to be kept back by suspicion, and by the wickedness 
of the wicked. 

Some of the Arabs try to be kind, and send cooked food 
every day : Abed is the chief donor. I taught him to 
make a mosquito-curtain of thin printed calico, for he had 
endured the persecution of these insects helplessly, except 
by sleeping on a high stage, when they were unusually bad. 
The Manyuema often bring evil on themselves by being 
untrustworthy. For instance, I paid one to bring a large 
canoe to cross the Lualaba, he brought a small one, 
capable of carrying three only, and after wasting some hours 
we had to put off crossing till next day. 

8th April. — Every headman of four or five huts is a 
mologhwe, or chief, and glories in being called so. There 
is no political cohesion. The Ujijian slavery is an ac- 
cursed system ; but it must be admitted that the Manyuema, 
too, have faults, the result of ignorance of other people: 
their isolation has made them as unconscious of danger 
in dealing with the cruel stranger, as little dogs in the 

* The reader will best judge of the success of the experiment by looking 
at a specimen of the writing. An old sheet of the Standard newspaper, 
made into rough copy-books, sufficed for paper in the absence of all other 
material, and by writing across the print no doubt the notes were toler- 
ably legible at the time. The colour of the decoction used instead of ink 
has faded so much that if Dr. Livingstone's handwriting had not at all 
times been beautifully clear and distinct it would have been impossible 
to decipher this part of his diary. — Ed. 

sa^aaAv 'cravcmvis am 

the year«*etn! _ 
and-jousiaerii^g HVw 
eks ag«! rt is tfurpAingVwhi 
ntended ■nee' the* illegitimate 
ddenC^actrnty /displayed, by the 
as not arisen- from the prices 
FraiE^and Meiry, fox. thege hav»? 
nceifhilfija all the ,pro(Jramuie6 
's bltU handicapping h^s ; -tle<ia 
xcepVWi. / Tb4W' f^allf*' is "fib 
infused into the natiunnl sport, 
orses still fcept in tftaining.1 Tike 
on — if the' 5 , weather Keeps openV- 
e as good racing \& tKSn wit- 
the JS*ajj»^Me£idows, wbQi w£re 
If the sun 
rIyVb-dM, tl 
tnK ^ursi 


lie (Form 

nkble *<f finish. 
afteJhooiUs operations, 
reijnce, (ami Hoi 
for th4 1UO: 

er— Vi 
e Handi 

'.ACK. B 

ase — Good 



\ . 


nded before the races commenced 

ng had been bright with an occa- 

. The Warwick pastures, where 

" sticky " and heavy going, but 

led ;f"winn^rs «.xtrl 
fy.fouf subs, 

Hake's L<ijp& of the* ^alley.^jjCttentmorj 
H - yvAjA. bib &\. A>- J 

;hej-|s VedM 4 yP, 7st. .1^. 
rs»Cbeddin gto/iy^r yraSfist j, 
l^R^Fhe Skiwper, 5 j^s, 8^ 
h» I ea#*»agJt The Skipp 
Jf'of^the^altey, and 5 
made pV»y, (followetf by' 

to f agst L 
of the.Jal 

whom came^'edayjlhe^kipjl 
Oie r«far. fclf_ *"*V up the 
yair, and after 
id yeda -beat 


XjS save^ 

(car 7st 
Boj __ 
1 M»t 
wel*** The 
d at >he 
Swelj wel 
"'intoijie strai 
aders lurposit 
arated , 

Br\ce si^tii } j 
vs eafttfVivith s 
Half a mile. Thirty subs. 
Mr. J. Wood's Northern Star, by Cape Flyaway — Star of 

India, 4 yrs, 7st 7lb fr. Wilson 

Mr. Head's Bonnie Katie, 3 yrs, 7st 101b Wyatt 

Mr. Stevens's Chateau Margaux, 4 yrs, 7st J. Clark 

Mr. W. Holman's Last Rose of Summer, 4 yrs, 7st 31b 

- — " — 's Plenipotentiary, 3 yrs, 7st Yinell 



1871.] THE CHITOKA. 115 

presence of lions. Their refusal to sell or lend canoes 
for fear of blame by each other will be ended by the 
party of Dugumbe, which has ten headmen, taking them 
by force ; they are unreasonable and bloody-minded towards 
each other : every Manyuema would like every other head- 
man slain; they are subjected to bitter lessons and sore 
experience. Abed went over to Mologkwe Kahembe and 
mixed blood with him ; he was told that two large canoes 
were hollowed out, and nearly ready to be brought for 
sale ; if this can be managed peaceably it is a great point 
gained, and I may get one at our Arabs' price, which may 
be three or four times the native price. There is no love 
lost among the three Arabs here. 

9th April. — Cut wood for my house. The Loeki is said by 
slaves who have come thence to be much larger than the 
Lualaba, but on the return of Abed's people from the west 
we shall obtain better information. 

10th April — Chitoka, or market, to-day. I counted up- 
wards of 700 passing my door. With market women it 
seems to be a pleasure of life to haggle and joke, and laugh 
and cheat: many come eagerly, and retire with careworn 
faces; many are beautiful, and many old; all carry very 
heavy loads of dried cassava and earthen pots, which they 
dispose of very cheaply for palm-oil, fish, salt, pepper, and 
relishes for their food. The men appear in gaudy lambas, 
and carry little save their iron wares, fowls, grass cloth, 
and pigs. 

Bought the fish with the long snouts : very good eating. 

12th April. — New moon last night ; fourth Arab month : 
I am at a loss for the day of the month. My new house 
is finished ; a great comfort, for the other was foul and full 
of vermin: bugs (Tapazi, or ticks), that follow wherever 
Arabs go, made me miserable, but the Arabs are insensible 
to them ; Abed alone had a niosquito-curtain, and he never 
could praise it enough. One of his remarks is, "If slaves 

i 2 


think you fear them, they will climb over you." I clothed 
mine for nothing, and ever after they have tried to ride 
roughshod over me, and mutiny on every occasion ! 

14th April. — Kahembe came over, and promises to bring 
a canoe ; but he is not to be trusted ; he presented Abed 
with two slaves, and is full of fair promises about the 
canoe, which he sees I am anxious to get. They all think 
that my buying a canoe means carrying war to the left 
bank ; and now my Banian slaves encourage the idea : " He 
does not wish slaves nor ivory," say they, " but a canoe, in 
order to kill Manyuema." Need it be wondered at that 
people, who had never heard of strangers or white men 
before I popped down among them, believed the slander ? 
The slaves were aided in propagating the false accusation 
by the half-caste Ujijian slaves at the camp. Hassani fed 
them every day ; and, seeing that he was a bigoted Moslem, 
they equalled him in prayers in his sitting-place seven or 
eight times a day ! They were adepts at lying, and the 
first Manyuema words they learned were used to propagate 

I have been writing part of a despatch, in case of meeting 
people from the French settlement on the Gaboon at Loeki, 
but the canoe affair is slow and tedious : the people think 
only of war : they are a bloody-minded race. 

15th April. — The Manyuema tribe, called Bagenya, 
occupy the left bank, opposite Nyangwe. A spring of brine 
rises in the bed of a river, named Lofubu, and this the 
Bayenga inspissate by boiling, and sell the salt at market. 
The Lomame is about ten days west of Lualaba, and very 
large; the confluence of Lomame, or Loeki, is about six 
days down below Nyangwe by canoe ; the river Nyanze is 
still less distant. 

16th April. — On the Nyanze stands the principal town 
and market of the chief, Zurampela. Bashid visited him, 
and got two slaves on promising to bring a war-party from 

1871.] LIFE AT NYANGWE. 117 

Abed against Chipange, who by similar means obtained 
the help of Salem Mokadam to secure eighty-two captives : 
Kashid will leave this as soon as possible, sell the slaves, 
and leave Zurampela to find out the fraud ! This deceit, 
which is an average specimen of the beginning of half-caste 
dealings, vitiates his evidence of a specimen of cannibalism 
which he witnessed ; but it was after a fight that the victims 
were cut up, and this agrees with the fact that the Manyuema 
eat only those who are killed in war. Some have averred 
that captives, too, are eaten, and a slave is bought with a 
goat to be eaten ; but this I very strongly doubt. 

17 th April. — Eainy. 

18^ April.— I found that the Lepidosiren is brought to 
market in pots with water in them, also white ants roasted, 
and the large snail, achetina, and a common snail : the 
Lepidosiren is called " senile." 

Abed went a long way to examine a canoe, but it was 
still further, and he turned back. 

19th April. — Dreary waiting, but Abed proposes to join and 
trade along with me : this will render our party stronger, 
and he will not shoot people in my company; we shall 
hear Katomba's people's story too. 

20th April. — Katomba a chief was to visit us yesterday, 
but failed, probably through fear. 

The chief Mokandira says that Loeki is small where it 
joins Lualaba, but another, which they call Lomame, is very 
much larger, and joins Lualaba too : rapids are reported 
on it. 

21st April — A common salutation reminds me of the 
Bechuana's " U le hatsi " (thou art on earth) ; " Ua tala " 
(thou lookest) ; " Ua boka," or byoka (thou awakest) ; " U ri 
ho " (thou art here) ; " U li koni " (thou art here) — about pure 
" Sichuana," and " Nya," No, is identical. The men here deny 
that cannibalism is common : they eat only those killed in 
war, and, it seems, in revenge, for, said Mokandira, " the meat 


is not nice ; it makes one dream of the dead man." Some 
west of Lualaba eat even those bought for the purpose of a 
feast ; but I am not quite positive on this point : all agree 
in saying that human flesh is saltish, and needs but little 
condiment. And yet they are a fine-looking race ; I would 
back a company of Manyuema men to be far superior in 
shape of head and generally in physical form too against the 
whole Anthropological Society. Many of the women are 
very light-coloured and very pretty ; they dress in a kilt of 
many folds of gaudy lambas. 

22nd April. — In Manyuema, here Kusi, Kunzi, is north ; 
Mhuru, south ; Nkanda, west, or other side Lualaba ; 
Mazimba, east. The people are sometimes confused in name 
by the directions ; thus Bankanda is only " the other side 
folk." The Bagenya Chimburu came to visit me, but I did 
not see him, nor did I know Moene Nyangwe till too late to 
do him honour ; in fact, every effort was made to keep me 
in the dark while the slavers of Ujiji made all smooth for 
themselves to get canoes. All chiefs claim the privilege of 
shaking hands, that is, they touch the hand held out with 
their palm, then clap two hands together, then touch again, 
and clap again, and the ceremony concludes : this frequency 
of shaking hands misled me when the great man came. 

2Aih April. — Old feuds lead the Manyuema to entrap 
the traders to fight: they invite them to go to trade, and 
tell them that at such a village plenty of ivory lies ; then 
when the trader goes with his people, word is sent that he 
is coming to fight, and he is met by enemies, who compel 
him to defend himself by their onslaught. We were nearly 
entrapped in this way by a chief pretending to guide us 
through the country near Basilange ; he would have landed 
us in a fight, but we detected his drift, changed our course 
so as to mislead any messengers he might have sent, and 
dismissed him with some sharp words. 

Lake Kamolondo is about twenty-five miles broad. The 

1871.] LAKE KAMOLONDO. 119 

Lufira at Katanga is a full bow-shot wide; it goes into 
Kamolondo. Chakomo is east of Lufira Junction. Kikonze 
Kalanza is on the west of it, and Mkana, or the underground 
dwellings, still further west : some are only two days from 
Katanga. The Chorwe people are friendly. Kamolondo is 
about ten days distant from Katanga. 

2oth April. — News came that four men sent by Abed 
to buy ivory had been entrapped, and two killed. The 
rest sent for aid to punish the murderers, and Abed wished 
me to send my people to bring the remaining two men back. 
I declined ; because, no matter what charges I gave, my 
Banian slaves would be sure to shed human blood. We can 
go nowhere but the people of the country ask us to kill 
their fellow-men, nor can they be induced to go to villages 
three miles off, because there, in all probability, live the 
murderers of fathers, uncles, or grandfathers — a dreadful 
state truly. The traders are as bloodthirsty every whit as 
the Manyuema, where no danger exists, but in most cases 
where the people can fight they are as civil as possible. 
At Moere Mpanda's, the son of Casembe, Mohamad Bog- 
harib left a debt of twenty-eight slaves and eight bars 
of copper, each seventy pounds, and did not dare to fire a 
shot because they saw they had met their match : here his 
headmen are said to have bound the headmen of villages 
till a ransom was paid in tusks ! Had they only gone 
three days further to the Babisa, to whom Moene-mokaia's 
men went, they would have got fine ivory at two rings a 
tusk, while they had paid from ten to eighteen. Here it is 
its sad a tale to tell as was that of the Manganja scattered 
and peeled by the Waiyau agents of the Portuguese of Tette. 
The good Lord look on it. 

26th April. — Chitovu called nine slaves bought by Abed's 
people from the Kuss country, west of the Lualaba, and asked 
them about their tribes and country for me. One, with his 
upper front teeth extracted, was of the tribe Maloba, on the 


other side of the Loeki, another comes from the Eiver 
Lombadzo, or Loinbazo, which is west of Loeki (this may 
be another name for the Lomame), the country is called 
Nanga, and the tribe Noiigo, chief Mpunzo. The Malobo 
tribe is under the chiefs Yunga and Lomadyo. Another 
toothless boy said that he came from the Lomame: the 
upper teeth extracted seem to say that the tribe have cattle ; 
the knocking out the teeth is in imitation of the animals 
they almost worship. No traders had ever visited them ; 
this promises ivory to the present visitors : all that is now 
done with the ivory there is to make rude blowing horns and 

21th April. — Waiting wearily and anxiously ; we cannot 
move people who are far off and make them come near with 
news. Even the owners of canoes say, " Yes, yes ; we shall 
bring them," but do not stir ; they doubt us, and my slaves 
increase the distrust by their lies to the Manyuema. 

28th April. — Abed sent over Manyuema to buy slaves 
for him and got a pretty woman for 300 cowries and a 
hundred strings of beads ; she can be sold again to an Arab 
for much more in ivory. Abed himself gave $130 for a 
woman-cook, and she fled to me when put in chains for some 
crime : I interceded, and she was loosed : I advised her not 
to offend again, because I could not beg for her twice. 

Hassani with ten slaves dug at the malachite mines of 
Katanga for three months, and gained a hundred frasilahs 
of copper, or 3500 lbs. We hear of a half-caste reaching 
the other side of Lomame, probably from Congo or Ambriz, 
but the messengers had not seen him. 

1st May, 1871. — Katomba's people arrived from the Babisa, 
where they sold all their copper at two rings for a tusk, and 
then found that abundance of ivory still remained : door- 
posts and house-pillars had been made of ivory which now 
was rotten. The people of Babisa kill elephants now and 
bring tusks by the dozen, till the traders get so many that 


in this case they carried them by three relays. They dress 
their hair like the Bashukulompo, plaited into upright 
basket helmets : no quarrel occurred, and great kindness was 
shown to the strangers. A river having very black water, 
the Nyengere, flows into Lualaba from the west, and it 
becomes itself very large : another river or water, Shamikwa, 
falls into it from the south-west, and it becomes still larger : 
this is probably the Lomame. A short-horned antelope is 

3rd May. — Abed informs me that a canoe will come 
in five days. Word Avas sent after me by the traders south 
of us not to aid me, as I was sure to die where I was going : 
the wish is father to the thought! Abed was naturally 
very anxious to get first into the Babisa ivory market, yet 
he tried to secure a canoe for me before he went, but he was 
too eager, and a Manyuema man took advantage of his 
desire, and came over the river and said that he had one 
hollowed out, and he wanted goats and beads to hire people 
to drag it down to the water. Abed on my account advanced 
five goats, a thousand cowries, and many beads, and said that 
he would tell me what he wished in return : this was debt, 
but I was so anxious to get away I was content to take 
the canoe on any terms. However, it turned out that 
the matter on the part of the headman whom Abed trusted 
was all deception : he had no canoe at all, but knew of 
one belonging to another man, and wished to get Abed 
and me to send men to see it — in fact, to go with their 
guns, and he would manage to embroil them with the real 
owner, so that some old feud should be settled to his satisfac- 
tion. On finding that I declined to be led into his trap, he 
took a female slave to the owner, and on his refusal to sell 
the canoe for her, it came out that he had adopted a system 
of fraud to Abed. He had victimized Abed, who was 
naturally inclined to believe his false statements, and get 
off to the ivory market. His people came from the Kuss 


country in the west with sixteen tusks, and a great many 
slaves bought and not murdered for. The river is rising- 
fast, and bringing down large quantities of aquatic grass, 
duckweed, &c. The water is a little darker in colour 
than at Cairo. People remove and build their huts 
on the higher forest lands adjacent. Many white birds 
(the paddy bird) appear, and one Ibis religiosa ; they pass 

The Bakuss live near Lomame ; they were very civil and 
kind to the strangers, but refused passage into the country. 
At my suggestion, the effect of a musket-shot was shown on 
a goat : they thought it supernatural, looked up to the 
clouds, and offered to bring ivory to buy the charm that 
could draw lightning down. When it was afterwards 
attempted to force a path, they darted aside on seeing the 
Banyamwezi's followers putting the arrows into the bow- 
strings, but stood in mute amazement looking at the guns, 
which mowed them down in large numbers. They thought 
that muskets were the insignia of chieftainship. Their 
chiefs all go with a long straight staff of rattan, having a 
quantity of black medicine smeared on each end, and no 
weapons in their hands : they imagined that the guns were 
carried as insignia of the same kind ; some, jeering in the 
south, called them big tobacco-pipes ; they have no fear on 
seeing a gun levelled at them. 

They use large and very long spears very expertly in 
the long grass and forest of their country, and are terrible 
fellows among themselves, and when they become ac- 
quainted with firearms will be terrible to the strangers 
who now murder them. The Manyuema say truly, " If it 
were not for your guns, not one of you would ever return 
to your country." The Bakuss cultivate more than the 
southern Manyuema, especially Pennisetum and dura, or 
Holcus sorghum ; common coffee is abundant, and they use 
it, highly scented with vanilla, which must be fertilized by 


insects ; they hand round cups of it after meals. Pine- 
apples too are abundant. They bathe regularly twice a 
day : their houses are of two storeys. The women have 
rather compressed heads, but very pleasant countenances; 
and ancient Egyptian, round, wide-awake eyes. Their 
numbers are prodigious ; the country literally swarms with 
people, and a chief's town extends upwards of a mile. But 
little of the primeval forest remains. Many large pools of 
standing water have to be crossed, but markets are held 
every eight or ten miles from each other, and to these the 
people come from far, for the market is as great an insti- 
tution as shopping is with the civilized. Illicit intercourse 
is punished by the whole of the offender's family being- 

The Bakuss smelt copper from the ore and sell it very 
cheaply to the traders for beads. The project of going in 
canoes now appeared to the half-castes so plausible, that 
they all tried to get the Bagenya on the west bank to 
lend them, and all went over to mix blood and make 
friends with the owners, then all slandered me as not to be 
trusted, as they their blood-relations were; and my slaves 
mutinied and would go no further. They mutinied three 
times here, and Hassani harboured them till I told him 
that, if an English officer harboured an Arab slave he 
would be compelled by the Consul to refund the price, 
and I certainly would not let him escape ; this frightened 
him ; but I was at the mercy of slaves who had no honour, 
and no interest in going into danger. 

16th May. — Abed gave me a frasilah of Matunda beads, 
and I returned fourteen fathoms of fine American sheet- 
ing, but it was an obligation to get beads from one whose 
wealth depended on exchanging beads for ivory. 

16^ May. — At least 3000 people at market to-day, and 
my going among them has taken away the fear engendered 
by the slanders of slaves and traders, for all are pleased to 


tell me the names of the fishes and other things. Lepido- 
sirens are caught by the neck and lifted out of the pot to 
show their fatness. Camwood ground and made into flat 
cakes for sale and earthen balls, such as are eaten in the 
disease safura or earth-eating, are offered and there is quite 
a roar of voices in the multitude, haggling. It was pleasant 
to be among them compared to being with the slaves, who 
were all eager to go back to Zanzibar : some told me that 
they were slaves, and required a free man to thrash them, 
and proposed to go back to Ujiji for one. I saw no hope of 
getting on with them, and anxiously longed for the arrival of 
Dugumbe ; and at last Abed overheard them plotting my de- 
struction. " If forced to go on, they would watch till the first 
difficulty arose with the Manyuema, then fire off their guns, 
run away, and as I could not run as fast as they, leave me to 
perish." Abed overheard them speaking loudly, and ad- 
vised me strongly not to trust myself to them any more, as 
they would be sure to cause my death. He was all along a 
sincere friend, and I could not but take his words as well- 
meant and true. 

18th May. — Abed gave me 200 cowries and some green 
beads. I was at the point of disarming my slaves and 
driving them away, when they relented, and professed to 
be willing to go anywhere ; so, being eager to finish my 
geographical work, I said I would run the risk of their 
desertion, and gave beads to buy provisions for a start 
north. I cannot state how much I was worried by these 
wretched slaves, who did much to annoy me, with the 
sympathy of all the slaving crew. When baffled by un- 
toward circumstances the bowels plague me too, and dis- 
charges of blood relieve the headache, and are as safety- 
valves to the system. I was nearly persuaded to allow Mr. 
Syme to operate on me when last in England, but an old 
friend told me that his own father had been operated on by 
the famous John Hunter, and died in consequence at the 

1871.] MARKET-DAY. 125 

early age of forty. His advice saved me, for this complaint 
has been my safety-valve. 

The Zingifure, or red pigment, is said to be a cure for 
itch common among both natives and Arab slaves and Arab 

20th May. — Abed called Kalonga the headman, who 
beguiled him as I soon found, and delivered the canoe he 
had bought formally to me, and went off down the Lualaba 
on foot to buy the Babisa ivory. I was to follow in the 
canoe and wait for him in the Eiver Luera, but soon I 
ascertained that the canoe was still in the forest, and did 
not belong to Kalonga. On demanding back the price he 
said, " Let Abed come and I will give it to him ;" then when 
I sent to force him to give up the goods, all his village fled 
into the forest : I now tried to buy one myself from the 
Bagenya, but there was no chance ; so long as the half-caste 
traders needed any they got all — nine large canoes, and I 
could not secure one. 

2Mh May. — The market is a busy scene — everyone is 
in dead earnest — little time is lost in friendly greetings; 
vendors of fish run about with potsherds full of snails 
or small fishes or young CI arias eajoensis smoke-dried and 
spitted on twigs, or other relishes to exchange for cassava 
roots dried after being steeped about three days in water — 
potatoes, vegetables, or grain, bananas, flour, palm-oil, fowls, 
salt, pepper ; each is intensely eager to barter food for 
relishes, and makes strong assertions as to the goodness or 
badness of everything : the sweat stands in beads on their 
faces — cocks crow briskly, even when slung over the shoulder 
with their heads hanging down, and pigs squeal. Iron 
knobs, drawn out at each end to show the goodness of the 
metal, are exchanged for cloth of the Muabe palm. They 
have a large funnel of basket-work below the vessel holding 
the wares, and slip the goods down if they are not to be 
seen. They deal fairly, and when differences arise they are 


easily settled by the men interfering or pointing to me : 
they appeal to each other, and have a strong sense of 
natural justice. With so much food changing hands 
amongst the three thousand attendants much benefit is 
derived ; some come from twenty to twenty-five miles. 
The men flaunt about in gaudy-coloured lambas of many 
folded kilts — the woinen work hardest — the potters slap 
and ring their earthenware all round, to show that there 
is not a single flaw in them. I bought two finely shaped 
earthen bottles of porous earthenware, to hold a gallon each, 
for one string of beads, the women carry huge loads of them 
in their funnels above the baskets, strapped to the shoulders 
and forehead, and their hands are full besides ; the roundness 
of the vessels is wonderful, seeing no machine is used : no 
slaves could be induced to carry half as much as they do 
willingly. It is a scene of the finest natural acting ima- 
ginable. The eagerness with which all sorts of assertions 
are made — the eager earnestness with which apparently all 
creation, above, around, and beneath, is called on to attest the 
truth of what they allege — and then the intense surprise 
and withering scorn cast on those who despise their goods : 
but they show no concern when the buyers turn up their 
noses at them. Little girls run about selling cups of water 
for a few small fishes to the half-exhausted wordy com- 
batants. To me it was an amusing scene. I could not 
understand the words that flowed off their glib tongues, but 
the gestures were too expressive to need interpretation. 

27th May. — Hassani told me that since he had come, no 
Manyuema had ever presented him with a single mouth- 
ful of food, not even a potato or banana, and he had made 
many presents. Going from him into the market I noticed 
that one man presented a few small fishes, another a sweet 
potato and a piece of cassava, and a third two small fishes, 
but the Manyuema are not a liberal people. Old men and 
women who remained in the half-deserted villages we passed 


through in corning north, often ran forth to present me 
with bananas, but it seemed through fear ; when I sat down 
and ate the bananas they brought beer of bananas, and I 
paid for all. A stranger in the market had teu human 
under jaw-bones hung by a string over his shoulder: on 
inquiry he professed to have killed and eaten the owners, 
and showed with his knife how he cut up his victim. When 
I expressed disgust he and others laughed. I see new faces 
every market-day. Two nice girls were trying to sell their 
venture, which was roasted white ants, called " Gumbe." 

30th May. — The river fell four inches during the last four 
days ; the colour is very dark brown, and large quantities of 
aquatic plants and trees float down. Mologhwe, or chief 
Ndambo, came and mixed blood with the intensely bigoted 
Moslem, Hassani : this is to secure the nine canoes. He next 
went over to have more palaver about them, and they do not 
hesitate to play me false by detraction. The Manyuema, 
too, are untruthful, but very honest ; we never lose an 
article by them : fowls and goats are untouched, and if a 
fowl is lost, we know that it has been stolen by an Arab 
slave. When with Mohamad Bogharib, we had all to keep 
our fowls at the Manyuema villages to prevent them being 
stolen by our own slaves, and it is so here. Hassani denies 
complicity with them, bnifc it is quite apparent that he and 
others encourage them in mutiny. 

5th June, 1871. — The river rose again six inches and fell 
three. Rain nearly ceased, and large masses of fleecy clouds 
float down here from the north-west, with accompanying cold. 

1th June. — I fear that I must march on foot, but the mud 
is forbidding. 

11th June. — New moon last night, and I believe Dugumbe 
will leave Kasonga's to-day. River down three inches. 

lAth June. — Hassani got nine canoes, and put sixty- 
three persons in three: I cannot get one. Dugumbe re- 
ported near, but detained by his divination, at which he is 


an expert ; hence his native name is " Molembalemba "— 
" writer, writing." 

16^ June. — The high winds and drying of soap and 
sugar tell that the rains are now over in this part. 

ISih June. — Dugurnbe arrived, but passed to Moene 
Nyarigwe's, and found that provisions were so scarce and 
dear there, as compared with our market, that he was fain 
to come back to us. He has a large party and 500 guns. 
He is determined to go into new fields of trade, and has all 
his family with him, and intends to remain six or seven 
years, sending regularly to Ujiji for supplies of goods. 

20th June. — Two of Dugumbe's party brought presents of 
four large fundos of beads each. All know that my goods 
are unrighteously detained by Shereef and they show me 
kindness, which I return by some fine calico which I have. 
Among the first words Dugurnbe said to me were, " Why 
your own slaves are your greatest enemies : I will buy you 
a canoe, but the Banian slaves' slanders have put all the 
Manyuema against you." I knew that this was true, and 
that they were conscious of the sympathy of the Ujijian 
traders, who hate to have me here. 

24:th June. — Hassani's canoe party in the river were foiled 
by narrows, after they had gone down four days. Kocks 
jut out on both sides, not opposite, but alternate to each 
other; and the vast mass of water of the great river 
jammed in, rushes round one promontory on to another, and 
a frightful whirlpool is formed in which the first canoe went 
and was overturned, and five lives lost. Had I been there, 
mine would have been the first canoe, for the traders would 
have made it a point of honour to give me the precedence 
(although actually to make a feeler of me), while they 
looked on in safety. The men in charge of Hassani's canoes 
were so frightened by this accident that they at once re- 
solved to return, though they had arrived in the country 
of the ivory : they never looked to see whether the canoes 


could be dragged past the narrows, as anyone else would 
have done. No better luck could be expected after all their 
fraud and duplicity in getting the canoes ; no harm lay in 
obtaining them, but why try to prevent me getting one ? 

2~th June. — In answer to my prayers for preservation, 
I was prevented going down to the narrows, formed by a 
dyke of mountains cutting across country, and jutting a 
little ajar, which makes the water in an enormous mass 
wheel round behind it helplessly, and if the canoes reach 
the rock against which the water dashes, they are almost 
certainly overturned. As this same dyke probably cuts 
across country to Lomame, my plan of going to the con- 
fluence and then up won't do, for I should have to go up 
rapids there. Again, I was prevented from going down 
Luamo, and on the north of its confluence another cataract 
mars navigation in the Lualaba, and my safety is thereby 
secured. We don't always know the dangers that we are 
guided past. 

28th June. — The river has fallen two feet : dark brown 
water, and still much wreck floating down. 

Eight villages are in flames, set fire to by a slave of 
Syde bin Habib, called Manilla, who thus shows his blood 
friends of the Bagenya how well he can fight against the 
Mohombo, whose country the Bagenya want ! The stragglers 
of this camp are over on the other side helping Manilla, 
and catching fugitives and goats. The Bagenya are fisher- 
men by taste and profession, and sell the produce of their 
nets and weirs to those who cultivate the soil, at the 
different markets. Manilla's foray is for an alleged debt 
of three slaves, and ten villages are burned. 

oOth June. — Hassani pretended that he was not aware 
of Manilla's foray, and when I denounced it to Manilla 
himself, he showed that he was a slave, by cringing and 
saying nothing except something about the debt of three 



1st July, 1871. — I made known my plan to Duguinbe, 
which was to go west with his men to Lomame, then by 
his aid buy a canoe and go up Lake Lincoln to Katanga 
and the fountains, examine the inhabited caves, and return 
here, if he would let his people bring me goods from Ujiji ; 
he again referred to all the people being poisoned in mind 
against me, but was ready to do everything in his power for 
my success. My own people persuaded the Bagenya not to 
sell a canoe : Hassani knows it all, but swears that he did 
not join in the slander, and even points up to Heaven in 
attestation of innocence of all, even of Manilla's foray. 
Mohamadans are certainly famous as liars, and the false- 
hood of Mohamad has been transmitted to his followers in 
a measure unknown in other religions. 

2nd July. — The upper stratum of clouds is from the 
north-west, the lower from the south-east ; when they mix 
or change places the temperature is much lowered, and fever 
ensues. The air evidently comes from the Atlantic, over the 
low swampy lands of the West Coast. Morning fogs show 
that the river is warmer than the air. 

4th July. — Hassani off down river in high dudgeon at 
the cowards who turned after reaching the ivory country. 
He leaves them here and goes himself, entirely on land. 
I gave him hints to report himself and me to Baker, should 
he meet any of his headmen. 

bill July. — The river has fallen three feet in all, that is 
one foot since 27th June. 

I offer Dugumbe $2000, or 400Z., for ten men to replace 
the Banian slaves, and enable me to go up the Lomame to 
Katanga and the underground dwellings, then return and 
go up by Tanganyika to Ujiji, and I added that I would 
give all the goods I had at Ujiji besides : he took a few 
days to consult with his associates. 

6th July. — Mokandira, and other headmen, came with 
a present of a pig and a goat on my being about to 

1871.] A HARD MISTRESS. 131 

depart west. I refused to receive them till my return, and 
protested against the slander of my wishing to kill people, 
which they all knew, but did not report to me : this refusal 
and protest will ring all over the country. 

7th July. — I was annoyed by a woman frequently beating 
a slave near my house, but on my reproving her she came 
and apologized. I told her to speak softly to her slave, as 
she was now the only mother the girl had ; the slave came 
from beyond Lomame, and was evidently a lady in her own 
land ; she calls her son Mologwe, or chief, because his father 
was a headman. 

Dugumbe advised my explaining my plan of procedure 
to the slaves, and he evidently thinks that I wish to carry 
it towards them with a high hand. I did explain all the 
exploration I intended to do : for instance, the fountains 
of Herodotus — beyond Katanga — Katanga itself, and the 
underground dwellings, and then return. They made no 
remarks, for they are evidently pleased to have me knuck- 
ling down to them ; when pressed on the point of proceeding, 
they say they will only go Avith Dugumbe's men to the 
Lomame, and then return. River fallen three inches since 
the 5th. 

10th July. — Manyuema children do not creep, as Euro- 
pean children do, on their knees, but begin by putting- 
forward one foot and using one knee. Generally a Man- 
yuema child uses both feet and both hands, but never 
both knees : one Arab child did the same ; he never crept, 
but got up on both feet, holding on till he could walk. 
New moon last night of seventh Arab month. 
11th July. — I bought the different species of fish brought 
to market, in order to sketch eight of them, and compare 
them with those of the Nile lower down : most are the same 
as in Nyassa. A very active species of Glanis, of dark 
olive-brown, was not sketched, but a spotted one, armed with 
-offensive spikes in the dorsal and pectoral fins, was taken. 

k 2 


Sesamum seed is abundant just now and cakes are made 
of ground-nuts, as on the West Coast. Dugumbe's horde 
tried to deal in the market in a domineering way. " I shall 
buy that," said one. " These are mine," said another ; " no 
one must touch them but me," but the market-women 
taught them that they could not monopolize, but deal 
fairly. They are certainly clever traders, and keep each 
other in countenance, they stand by each other, and will 
not allow overreaching, and they give food astonishingly 
cheap : once in the market they have no fear. 

12th and 13th July. — The Banian slaves declared before 
Dugumbe that they would go to the River Lomame, 
but no further : he spoke long to them, but they will not 
consent to go further. When told that they would thereby 
lose all their pay, they replied, " Yes, but not our lives," and 
they walked off from him muttering, which is insulting to 
one of his ra,nk. I then added, " I have goods at Ujiji ; I 
don't know how many, but they are considerable, take 
them all, and give me men to finish my work ; if not 
enough, I will add to them, only do not let me be forced 
to return now I am so near the end of my undertaking." 
He said he would make a plan in conj miction with his- 
associates, and report to me. 

14&h July. — I am distressed and perplexed what to do so- 
as not to be foiled, but all seems against me. 

15th July. — The reports of guns on the other side of the 
Lualaba all the morning tell of the people of Dugumbe 
murdering those of Kimburu and others who mixed blood 
with Manilla. " Manilla is a slave, and how dares he to 
mix blood with chiefs who ought only to make friends 
with free men like us " — this is their complaint. Kimburu 
gave Manilla three slaves, and he sacked ten villages in 
token of friendship ; he jiroposed to give Dugumbe nine 
slaves in the same operation, but Dugumbe's people destroy 
his villages, and shoot and make his people captives to- 


punish Manilla; to make an impression, in fact, in the 
country that they alone are to be dealt with — " make 
friends with us, and not with Manilla or anyone else" — 
such is what they insist upon. 

About 1500 people came to market, though many villages 
of those that usually come from the other side were now in 
flames, and every now and then a number of shots were fired 
on the fugitives. 

It was a hot, sultry day, and when I went into the 
market I saw Adie and Manilla, and three of the men who 
had lately come with Dugumbe. I was surprised to see 
these three with their guns, and felt inclined to reprove 
them, as one of my men did, for bringing weapons into the 
market, but I attributed it to their ignorance, and, it being- 
very hot, I was walking away to go out of the market, when 
I saw one of the fellows haggling about a fowl, and seizing 
hold of it. Before I had got thirty yards out, the discharge 
of two guns in the middle of the crowd told me that slaughter 
had begun : crowds dashed off from the place, and threw 
down their wares in confusion, and ran. At the same time 
that the three opened fire on the mass of people near the 
upper end of the market-place volleys were discharged from 
a party down near the creek on the panic-stricken women, 
who dashed at the canoes. These, some fifty or more, were 
jammed in the creek, and the men forgot their paddles in the 
terror that seized all. The canoes were not to be got out, 
for the creek was too small for so many ; men and women, 
wounded by the balls, poured into them, and leaped and 
scrambled into the water, shrieking. A long line of heads 
in the river showed that great numbers struck out for an 
island a full mile off: in going towards it they had to put 
the left shoulder to a current of about two miles an hour ; if 
they had struck away diagonally to the opposite bank, the 
current would have aided them, and, though nearly three 
miles off, some would have gained land : as it was, the heads 


above water showed the long line of those that Mould 
inevitably perish. 

Shot after shot continued to be fired on the helpless and 
perishing. Some of the long line of heads disappeared 
quietly ; whilst other poor creatures threw their arms high,, 
as if appealing to the great Father above, and sank. One 
canoe took in as many as it could hold, and all paddled with 
hands and arms : three canoes, got out in haste, picked up 
sinking friends, till all went down together, and disappeared. 
One man in a long canoe, which could have held forty or 
fifty, had clearly lost his head ; he had been out in the 
stream before the massacre began, and now paddled up 
the river nowhere, and never looked to the drowning. By- 
and-bye all the heads disappeared ; some had turned down, 
stream towards the bank, and escaped. Dugumbe put people 
into one of the deserted vessels to save those in the water,, 
and saved twenty-one, but one woman refused to be taken 
on board from thinking that she was to be made a slave of; 
she preferred the chance of life by swimming, to the lot of a 
slave : the Bagenya women are expert in the water, as they 
are accustomed to dive for oysters, and those who went down 
stream may have escaped, but the Arabs themselves esti- 
mated the loss of life at between 330 and 400 souls. The 
shooting-party near the canoes were so reckless, they killed 
two of their own people ; and a Banyamwezi follower, who 
got into a deserted canoe to plunder, fell into the water, 
went down, then came up again, and down to rise no more. 

My first impulse was to pistol the murderers, but Dugumbe 
protested against my getting into a blood-feud, and I was 
thankful afterwards that I took his advice. Two wretched 
Moslems asserted " that the firing was done by the people 
of the English ; " I asked one of them why he lied so, and he 
could utter no excuse : no other falsehood came to his aid as 
he stood abashed before me, and so telling him not to telL 
palpable falsehoods, I left him gaping. 

1871.] TAGAMOIO. 135 

After the terrible affair in the water, the party of Taga- 
nioio, who was the chief perpetrator, continued to fire on 
the people there and fire their villages. As I write I 
hear the loud wails on the left bank over those who are 
there slain, ignorant of their many friends now in the depths 
of Lualaba. Oh, let Thy kingdom come ! No one will ever 
know the exact loss on this bright sultry summer morning, 
it gave me the impression of being in Hell. All the slaves 
in the camp rushed at the fugitives on land, and plundered 
them : women were for hours collecting and carrying loads 
of what had been thrown down in terror. 

Some escaped to me, and were protected : Dugunibe saved 
twenty-one, and of his own accord liberated them, they were 
brought to me, and remained over night near my house. One 
woman of the saved had a musket-ball through the thigh, 
another in the arm. I sent men with our flag to save some, for 
without a flag they might have been victims, for Tagamoio's 
people were shooting right and left like fiends. I counted 
twelve villages burning this morning. I asked the question 
of Dugumbe and others, " Now for what is all this murder ? ' 
All blamed Manilla as its cause, and in one sense he was the 
cause; but it is hardly credible that they repeat it is in 
order to be avenged on Manilla for making friends with 
headmen, he being a slave. I cannot believe it fully. The 
wish to make an impression in the country as to the 
importance and greatness of the new comers was the most 
potent motive ; but it was terrible that the murdering of so 
many should be contemplated at all. It made me sick at 
heart. Who could accompany the people of Dugumbe and 
Tagamoio to Lomame and be free from blood-guiltiness ? 

I proposed to Dugumbe to catch the murderers, and 
hang them up in the market-place, as our protest against 
the bloody deeds before the Manyuema. If, as he and 
others added, the massacre was committed by Manilla's 
people, he would have consented; but it was done by 


Tagamoio's people, and others of this party, headed by 
Dugumbe. This slaughter was peculiarly atrocious, inas- 
much as we have always heard that women coming to or 
from market have never been known to be molested : even 
when two districts are engaged in actual hostilities, " the 
women," say they, " pass among us to market unmolested," 
nor has one ever been known to be plundered by the men. 
These Nigger Moslems are inferior to the Manyuema in 
justice and right. The people under Hassani began the 
superwickedness of capture and pillage of all indiscrimi- 
nately. Dugumbe promised to send over men to order 
Tagamoio's men to cease firing and burning villages ; they 
remained over among the ruins, feasting on goats and fowls 
all night, and next day (16th) continued their infamous 
work till twenty-seven villages were destroyed. 

16th July. — I restored upwards of thirty of the rescued 
to their friends : Dugumbe seemed to act in good faith, and 
kept none of them ; it was his own free will that guided 
him. Women are delivered to their husbands, and about 
thirty-three canoes left in the creek are to be kept for the 
owners too. 

12 a.m. — Shooting still going on on the other side, and 
many captives caught. At 1 p.m. Tagamoio's people began 
to cross over in canoes, beating their drums, firing their 
guns, and shouting, as if to say, " See the conquering heroes 
come ; " they are answered by the women of Dugumbe's 
camp lullilooing, and friends then fire off their guns in joy. 
I count seventeen villages in flames, and the smoke goes 
straight up and forms clouds at the top of the pillar, showing- 
great heat evolved, for the houses are full of carefully- 
prepared firewood. Dugumbe denies having sent Tagamoio 
on this foray, and Tagamoio repeats that he went to punish 
the friends made by Manilla, who, being a slave, had no 
right to make war and burn villages, that could only be 
done by free men. Manilla confesses to me privately that 


lie did -wrong in that, and loses all his beads and many- 
friends in consequence. 

2 p.m. — An old man, called Kabobo, came for his old wife ; 
I asked her if this were her husband, she went to him, and 
put her arm lovingly around him, and said " Yes." I gave 
her five strings of beads to buy food, all her stores being 
destroyed with her house ; she bowed down, and put her 
forehead to the ground as thanks, and old Kabobo did the 
same : the tears stood in her eyes as she went off. Taga- 
moio caught 17 women, and other Arabs of his party, 27 ; 
dead by gunshot, 25. The heads of two headmen were 
brought over to be redeemed by their friends with slaves. 

3 P.M. — Many of the headmen who have been burned out 
by the foray came over to me, and begged me to come back 
with them, and appoint new localities for them to settle in 
again, but I told them that I was so ashamed of the com- 
pany in which I found myself, that I could scarcely look 
the Manyuema in the face. They had believed that I 
wished to kill them — what did they think now ? I could 
not remain among bloody companions, and would flee away, 
I said, but they begged me hard not to leave until they 
were again settled. 

The open murder perpetrated on hundreds of unsuspecting 
women fills me with unspeakable horror : I cannot think of 
going anywhere with the Tagamoio crew; I must either 
go down or up Lualaba, whichever the Banian slaves choose. 

4 p.m. — -Dugumbe saw that by killing the market people 
he had committed a great error, and speedily got the chiefs 
who had come over to me to meet him at his house, and 
forthwith mix blood : they were in bad case. I could not 
remain to see to their protection, and Dugumbe, being the 
best of the whole horde, I advised them to make friends, 
and then appeal to him as able to restrain to some extent 
his infamous underlings. One chief asked to have his wife 
.and daughter restored to him first, but generally they were 


cowed, and the fear of death was on them. Dugmnbe said 
to me, " I shall do my utmost to get all the captives, but he 
must make friends now, in order that the market may not 
be given up." Blood was mixed, and an essential condition 
was, " You must give us chitoka," or market. He and most 
others saw that in theoretically punishing Manilla, they 
had slaughtered the very best friends that strangers had 
The Banian slaves openly declare that they will go only to 
Lomame, and no further. Whatever the Ujijian slavers may 
pretend, they all hate to have me as a witness of their cold- 
blooded atrocities. The Banian slaves would like to go 
with Tagamoio, and share in his rapine and get slaves. I 
tried to go down Lualaba, then up it, and west, but with 
bloodhounds it is out of the question. I see nothing for it 
but to go back to XJjiji for other men, though it will throw 
me out of the chance of discovering the fourth great Lake in 
the Lualaba line of drainage, and other things of great value. 

At last I said that I would start for XJjiji, in three days, 
on foot. I wished to speak to Tagamoio about the captive 
relations of the chiefs, but he always ran away when he saw 
me coming. 

11th July. — All the rest of Dugumbe's party offered me a 
share of every kind of goods they had, and pressed me not 
to be ashamed to tell them what I needed. I declined 
everything save a little gunpowder, but they all made pre- 
sents of beads, and I was glad to return equivalents in cloth. 
It is a sore affliction, at least forty-five days in a straight 
line — equal to 300 miles, or by the turnings and windings 
600 English miles, and all after feeding and clothing the 
Banian slaves for twenty-one months ! But it is for the best 
though ; if I do not trust to the riffraff of XJjiji, I must wait 
for other men at least ten months there. With help from 
above I shall yet go through Bua, see the underground 
excavations first, then on to Katanga, and the four ancient 
fountains eight days beyond, and after that Lake Lincoln. k 

1871.] AGONY OF MIND. 139 

18th July. — The murderous assault on the market people 
felt to me like Gehenna, without the fire and brim- 
stone ; but the heat was oppressive, and the firearms pour- 
ing their iron bullets on the fugitives, was not an inapt 
representative of burning in the bottomless pit. 

The terrible scenes of man's inhumanity to man brought 
on severe headache, which might have been serious had it 
not been relieved by a copious discharge of blood ; I was 
laid up all yesterday afternoon, with the depression the 
bloodshed made, — it filled me with unspeakable horror. 
"Don't go away," say the Manyuema chiefs to me; but 
I cannot stay here in agony. 

19th July. — Dugumbe sent me a fine goat, a maneh 
of gunpowder, a maneh of fine blue beads, and 230 
cowries, to buy provisions in the way. I proposed to leave 
a doti Merikano and one of Kanike to buy specimens of 
workmanship. He sent me two very fine large Manyuema 
swords, and two equally fine spears, and said that I must not 
leave anything ; he would buy others with his own goods, 
and divide them equally with me : he is very friendly. 

Eiver fallen 4^ feet since the 5th ult. 

A few market people appear to-day, formerly they came 
in crowds : a very few from the west bank bring salt to 
buy back the baskets from the camp slaves, which they 
threw away in panic, others carried a little food for sale, 
about 200 in all, chiefly those who have not lost relatives : 
one very beautiful woman had a gunshot wound in her 
upper arm tied round with leaves. Seven canoes came 
instead of fifty ; but they have great tenacity and hopeful- 
ness, an old established custom has great charms for them, 
and the market will again be attended if no fresh outrage is 
committed. No canoes now come into the creek of death, 
but land above, at Ntambwe's village : this creek, at the 
bottom of the long gentle slope on which the market was 
held, probably led to its selection. 


A young Manyuema man worked for one of Dugumbe's 
people preparing a space to build on; when tired, he 
refused to commence to dig a pit, and was struck on the 
loins with an axe, and soon died : he was drawn out of the 
way, and his relations came, wailed over him, and buried 
him : they are too much awed to complain to Dugumbe ! ! 

( 141 ) 


Leaves for Ujiji. Dangerous journey through forest. The Manyuema 
understand Livingstone's kindness. Zanzibar slaves. Kasongo's. 
Stalactite caves. Consequences of eating parrots. III. Attacked in 
the forest. Providential deliverance. Another extraordinary escape. 
Taken for Mohamad Bogharib. Running the gauntlet for five hours. 
Loss of property. Reaches place of safety. 111. Mamohela. To the 
Luamo. Severe disappointment. Recovers. Severe marching. 
Reaches Ujiji. Despondency. Opportune arrival of Mr. Stanley. 
Joy and thankfulness of the old traveller. Determines to examine 
north end of Lake Tanganyika. They start. Reach the Lusize. No 
outlet. " Theoretical discovery " of the real outlet. Mr. Stanley ill. 
Returns to Ujiji. Leaves stores there. Departure for Unyanyembe 
with Mr. Stanley. Abundance of game. — Attacked by bees. Serious 
illness of Mr. Stanley. Thankfulness at reaching Unyanyembe. 

20th July, 1871. — I start back for Ujiji. All Dugumbe's 
people came to say good bye, and convoy me a little way. 
I made a short march, for being long inactive it is unwise 
to tire oneself on the first day, as it is then difficult to get 
over the effects. 

21st July. — One of the slaves was sick, and the rest 
falsely reported him to be seriously ill, to give them time 
to negotiate for women with whom they had cohabited : 
Dugumbe saw through the fraud, and said " Leave him to 
me : if he lives, I will feed him ; if he dies, we will bury him r 
do not delay for any one, but travel in a compact body, as 
straji'O'lers now are sure to be cut off." He lost a woman of 
his party, who lagged behind, and seven others were killed 
besides, and the forest hid the murderers. I was only too 
anxious to get away quickly, and on the 22nd started off at 


daylight, and went about six miles to the village of Mank- 
wara, where I spent the night when coming this way. The 
chief Mokandira convoyed us hither: I promised him a 
cloth if I came across from Lomame. He wonders much at 
the underground houses, and never heard of them till I told 
him about them. Many of the gullies which were running 
fast when we came were now dry. Thunder began, and a 
few drops of rain fell. 

23rd-24:th July. — We crossed the Eiver Kmida, of fifty 
yards, in two canoes, and then ascended from the valley of 
denudation, in which it flows to the ridge Lobango. Crowds 
followed, all anxious to carry loads for a few beads. Several 
market people came to salute, who knew that we had no 
hand in the massacre, as we are a different people from the 
Arabs. In going and coming they must have a march of 25 
miles with loads so heavy no slave would carry them. They 
speak of us as " good : " the anthropologists think that to 
be spoken of as wicked is better. Ezekiel says that the 
Most High put His comeliness upon Jerusalem : if He does 
not impart of His goodness to me I shall never be good : if 
He does not put of His comeliness on me I shall never be 
comely in soul, but be like these Arabs in whom Satan has 
full sway — the god of this world having blinded their eyes. 

25th July. — We came over a beautiful country yester- 
day, a vast hollow of denudation, with much cultivation, 
intersected by a ridge some 300 feet high, on which 
the villages are built : this is Lobango. The path runs 
along the top of the ridge, and we see the fine country 
below all spread out with different shades of green, as on a 
map. The colours show the shapes of the different planta- 
tions in the great hollow drained by the Kunda. After 
crossing the fast flowing Kahembai, which flows into the 
Kunda, and it into Lualaba, we rose on to another inter- 
secting ridge, having a great many villages burned by 
Matereka or Salem Mokadam's people, since we passed them 


in our course N.W. They had slept on the ridge after we 
saw them, and next morning, in sheer wantonness, fired their 
lodgings, — their slaves had evidently carried the fire along 
from their lodgings, and set fire to houses of villages in 
their route as a sort of horrid Moslem Nigger joke ; it was 
done only because they could do it without danger of punish- 
ment : it was such fun to make the Mashense, as they call 
all natives, houseless. Men are worse than beasts of prey, 
if indeed it is lawful to call Zanzibar slaves men. It is 
monstrous injustice to compare free Africans living under 
their own chiefs and laws, and cultivating their own free 
lands, with what slaves afterwards become at Zanzibar and 

26th July. — Came up out of the last valley of denu- 
dation — that drained by Kahembai, and then along a level 
land with open forest. Four men passed us in hot haste to 
announce the death of a woman at their village to her rela- 
tions living at another. I heard of several deaths lately of 
dysentery. Pleurisy is common from cold winds from N.W. 
Twenty-two men with large square black shields, capable 
of completely hiding the whole person, came next in a 
trot to receive the body of their relative and all her gear to 
carry her to her own home for burial : about twenty women 
followed them, and the men waited under the trees till they 
should have wound the body up and wept over her. They 
smeared their bodies with clay, and their faces with soot. 
Beached our friend Kama. 

27th July. — Left Kama's group of villages and went 
through many others before we reached Kasongo's, and 
were welcomed by all the Arabs of the camp at this place. 
Bought two milk goats reasonably, and rest over Sunday. 
(2Sth and 29th). They asked permission to send a party 
with me for goods to Ujiji ; this will increase our numbers, 
and perhaps safety too, among the justly irritated people 
between this and Bambarre. All are enjoined to help me, 


and of course I must do the same to them. It is colder 
here than at Nyangwe. Kasongo is off guiding an ivory or 
slaving party, and doing what business he can on his own 
account ; he has four guns, and will be the first to maraud 
on his own account. 

30th July. — They send thirty tusks to Ujiji, and seven- 
teen Manyuema volunteers to carry thither and back : these 
are the very first who in modern times have ventured fifty 
miles from the place of their birth. I came only three 
miles to a ridge overlooking the Eiver Shokoye, and slept 
at village on a hill beyond it. 

31st July. — Passed through the defile between Mount 
Kimazi and Mount"] Kijila. Below the cave with stalac- 
tite pillar in its door a fine echo answers those who feel 
inclined to shout to it. Come to Mangala's numerous 
villages, and two slaves being ill, rest on Wednesday. 
1st August, 1871. — A large market assembles close to us. 
2nd August. — Left Mangala's, and came through a great 
many villages all deserted on our approach on account of 
the vengeance taken by Dugumbe's party for the murder 
of some of their people. Kasongo's men appeared eager 
to plunder their own countrymen: I had to scold and 
threaten them, and set men to Avatch their deeds. Plan- 
tains are here very abundant, good, and cheap. Came to 
Kittette, and lodge in a village of Loembo. About thirty 
foundries were passed ; they are very high in the roof, and 
thatched with leaves, from which the sparks roll off as sand 
would. Rain runs off equally well. 

3rd August. — Three slaves escaped, and not to abandon 
ivory we wait a day, Kasongo came up and filled their 

I have often observed effigies of men made of wood in 
Manyuema ; some of clay are simply cones with a small 
hole in the top ; on asking about them here, I for the 
first time obtained reliable information. They are called 

1871.] SIGNS OF DANGER. 145 

Bathata — fathers or ancients — and the name of each is 
carefully preserved. Those here at Kittette were evidently 
the names of chiefs, Molenda being the most ancient, 
whilst Mbayo Yamba, Kamoanga, Kitambwe, Noiigo, Au- 
lumba, Yenge Yenge, Simba Mayaiiga, Loembwe, are more 
recently dead. They were careful to have the exact pro- 
nunciation of the names. The old men told me that on 
certain occasions they offer goat's flesh to them: men eat 
it, and allow no young person or women to partake. The 
flesh of the parrot is only eaten by very old men. They 
say that if eaten by young men their children will have 
the waddling gait of the bird. They say that originally 
those who preceded Molenda came from Kongolakokwa, 
which conveys no idea to my mind. It was interesting to 
get even this little bit of history here. (Nkoiigolo = Deity ; 
Nkongolokwa as the Deity.) 

■ith August. — Came through miles of villages all burned 
because the people refused a certain Abdullah lodgings ! 
The men had begun to re-thatch the huts, and kept out of 
our way, but a goat was speared by some one in hiding, and 
we knew danger was near. Abdullah admitted that he had 
no other reason for burning them than the unwillingness 
of the people to lodge him and his slaves without payment, 
with the certainty of getting their food stolen and utensils 

bill and 6th August. — Through many miles of palm- 
trees and plantains to a Boma or stockaded village, where 
we slept, though the people were evidently suspicious and 

1th August. — To a village, ill and almost every step in 
pain. The people all ran away, and appeared in the distance 
armed, and refused to come near — then came and threw 
stones at us, and afterwards tried to kill those who went 
for water. We sleep uncomfortably, the natives watching 
us all round. Sent men to see if the way was clear. 

VOL. ir. L 


8th August. — They would come to no parley. They knew 
tlieir advantage, and the wrongs they had suffered from 
Bin Juma and Mohamad's men when they threw down 
the ivory in the forest. In passing along the narrow path 
with a wall of dense vegetation touching each hand, we 
came to a point where an ambush had been placed, and 
trees cut down to obstruct us while they speared us ; but 
for some reason it was abandoned. Nothing could be de- 
tected ; but by stooping down to the earth and peering up 
Cowards the sun, a dark shade could sometimes be seen : 
this was an infuriated savage, and a slight rustle in the 
dense vegetation meant a spear. A large spear from my 
right lunged past and almost grazed my back, and stuck 
firmly into the soil. The two men from whom it came 
appeared in an opening in the forest only ten yards off 
and bolted, one looking back over his shoulder as he ran. 
xVs they are expert with the spear I don't know how it 
missed, except that he was too sure of his aim and the 
good hand of God was upon me. 

I was behind the main body, and all were allowed 
to pass till I, the leader, who was believed to be Moha- 
mad Bogharib, or Kolokolo himself, came up to the point 
where they lay. A red jacket they had formerly seen 
me wearing was proof to them that I was the same that 
sent Bin Juma to kill five of their men, capture eleven 
women and children, and twenty-five goats. Another spear 
was thrown at me by an unseen assailant, and it missed me 
by about a foot in front. Guns were fired into the dense 
mass of forest, but with no effect, for nothing could be 
seen; but we heard the men jeering and denouncing us 
close by : two of our party were slain. 

Coming to a part of the forest cleared for cultivation 
1 noticed a gigantic tree, made still taller by growing 
on an anthill 20 feet high ; it had fire applied near its- 
roots, I heard a crack which told that the fire had done 

1871.] NARROW ESCAPES. 147 

its work, but felt no alarm till I saw it come straight 
towards me : I ran a few paces back, and down it came 
to the ground one yard behind me, and breaking into seve- 
ral lengths, it covered me with a cloud of dust. Had the 
branches not previously been rotted off, I could scarcely 
have escaped. 

Three times in one day was I delivered from impending 

My attendants, who were scattered in all directions, came 
running back to me, calling out, " Peace ! peace ! you will 
finish all your work in spite of these people, and in spite 
of everything." Like them, I took it as an omen of good 
success to crown me yet, thanks to the " Almighty Preserver 
of men." 

We had five hours of running the gauntlet, waylaid 
by spearmen, who all felt that if they killed me they 
would be revenging the death of relations. From each 
hole in the tangled mass we looked for a spear ; and each 
moment expected to hear the rustle which told of deadly 
weapons hurled at us. I became weary with the constant 
strain of danger, and — as, I suppose, happens with soldiers 
on the field of battle — not courageous, but perfectly indif- 
ferent whether I were killed or not. 

When at last we got out of the forest and crossed the 
Liya on to the cleared lands near the villages of Monan- 
bundwa, we lay down to rest, and soon saw Muanampunda 
coming, walking up in a stately manner unarmed to meet us. 
He had heard the vain firing of my men into the bush, 
and came to ask what was the matter. I explained the mis- 
take that Munangonga had made in supposing that I was 
Kolokolo, the deeds of whose men he knew, and then we 
went on to his village together. 

In the evening he sent to say that if I would give him 
all my people who had guns, he would call his people 
together, burn off all the vegetation they could fire, and 

l 2 


punish our enemies, bringing me ten goats instead of the 
three milch goats I had lost. I again explained that the 
attack was made by a mistake in thinking I was Mohamad 
Bogharib, and that I had no wish to kill men: to join in 
his old feud would only make matters worse. This he could 
perfectly understand. 

I lost all my remaining calico, a telescope, umbrella, and 
five spears, by one of the slaves throwing down the load 
and taking up his own bundle of country cloth. 

9th August. — Went on towards Mamohela, now deserted 
by the Arabs. Monanponda convoyed me a long way, and 
at one spot, with grass all trodden down, he said, " Here 
we killed a man of Moezia and ate his body." The meat 
cut up had been seen by Dugumbe. 

19th Atigust. — In connection Avith this affair the party 
that came through from Mamalulu foimd that a great 
fight had taken place at Muanampunda's, and they saw the 
meat cut up to be cooked with bananas. They did not 
like the strangers to look at their meat, but said, " Go on, 
and let our feast alone," they did not want to be sneered at. 
The same Muanampunda or Monambonda told me frankly 
that they ate the man of Moezia : they seem to eat their 
foes to inspire courage, or in revenge. One point is very 
remarkable ; it is not want that has led to the custom, for 
the country is full of food : nobody is starved of fari- 
naceous food; they have maize, dura, pennisetum, cassava 
and sweet potatoes, and for fatty ingredients of diet, the 
palm-oil, ground-nuts, sessamum, and a tree whose fruit 
yields a fine sweet oil : the saccharine materials needed are 
found in the sugar-cane, bananas, and plantains. 

Goats, sheep, fowls, dogs, pigs, abound in the villages, whilst 
the forest affords elephants, zebras, buffaloes, antelopes, and in 
the streams there are many varieties of fish. The nitrogenous 
ingredients are abundant, and they have dainties in palm- 
toddy, and tobacco or Bange: the soil is so fruitful that 


mere scraping off the weeds is as good as ploughing, so that 
the reason for cannibalism does not lie in starvation or in 
want of animal matter, as was said to be the case with the 
New Zealanders. The only feasible reason I can discover 
is a depraved appetite, giving an extraordinary craving for 
meat which we call " high." They are said to bury a dead 
body for a couple of days in the soil in a forest, and in that 
time, owing to the climate, it soon becomes putrid enough 
for the strongest stomachs. 

The Lualaba has many oysters in it with very thick shells. 
They are called Mahessi, and at certain seasons are dived 
for by the Bagenya women : pearls are said to be found in 
them, but boring to string them has never been thought of. 
Kanone, Ibis religiosa. TJriiko, Kuss name of coffee. 

The Manyuema are so afraid of guns, that a man borrows 
one to settle any dispute or claim : he goes with it over 
his shoulder, and quickly arranges the matter by the 
pressure it brings, though they all know that he could not 
use it. 

Gulu, Deity above, or heaven. Mamvu, earth or below. 
Gulu is a person, and men, on death, go to him. NJcoba. 
lightning. Nkongolo, Deity (?). Kula or Nkula, salt spring- 
west of Nyangwe. Kaluncla, ditto. Kiria, rapid down river. 
Kirila, islet in sight of Nyangwe. Magoya, ditto. 

Note. — The chief Zurampela is about N.W. of Nyangwe, 
and three days off. The Luive River, of very red water, is 
crossed, and the larger Mabila River receives it into its very 
dark water before Mabila enters Lualaba. 

A ball of hair rolled in the stomach of a lion, as calculi 
are, is a great charm among the Arabs : it scares away 
other animals, they say. 

Lion's fat smeared on the tails of oxen taken through 
a country abounding in tsetse, or buiigo, is a sure pre- 
ventive ; when I heard of this, I thought that lion's fat would 
be as difficult of collection as gnat's brains or mosquito 


tongues, but I was assured that many lions are killed on 
the Basango highland, and they, in common with all beasts 
there, are extremely fat : so it is not at all difficult to buy a 
calabash of the preventive, and Banyamwezi, desirous of 
taking cattle to the coast for sale, know the substance, and 
use it successfully (?). 

11th August — Came on by a long march of six 
hours across plains of grass and watercourses, lined with 
beautiful trees, to Kassessa's, the chief of Mamohela, who 
has helped the Arabs to scourge several of his countrymen 
for old feuds : he gave them goats, and then guided them 
by night to the villages, where they got more goats and 
many captives, each to be redeemed with ten goats more. 
During the last foray, however, the people learned that every 
shot does not kill, and they came up to the party with bows 
and arrows, and compelled the slaves to throw down their 
guns and powder-horns. They would have shown no mercy 
had Manyuema been thus in slave power ; but this is a 
beginning of the end, which will exclude Arab traders from 
the country. I rested half a day, as I am still ill. I do 
most devoutly thank the Lord for sparing my life three 
times in one day. The Lord is good, a stronghold in the 
day of trouble, and He knows them that trust in Him. 

[The brevity of the following notes is fully accounted 
for: Livingstone was evidently suffering too severely to 
write more.] 

12th A ugust.— Mamohela camp all burned off. We sleep 
at Mamohela village. 

\Wi August. — At a village on the bank of Biver Lolindi. 
I am suffering greatly. A man brought a young, nearly full- 
fledged, kite from a nest on a tree : this is the first case of 
their breeding, that I am sure of, in this country : they are 
migratory into these intertropical lands from the south, 


l'ith August. — Across many brisk burns to a village on 
the side of a mountain range. First rains 12th and 14th, 
gentle ; but near Luamo, it ran on the paths, and caused 

Ibth August. — To Muananibonyo's. Golungo, a bush buck, 
with stripes across body, and two rows of spots along the 
sides (?) 

16th August. — To Luanio River. Very ill with bowels. 

17th August. — Cross river, and sent a message to my 
friend. Katomba sent a bountiful supply of food back. 

ISth August. — Reached Katomba, at Moenemgoi's, and 
was welcomed by all the heavily-laden Arab traders. They 
carry their trade spoil in three relays. Kenyengere attacked 
before I came, and 150 captives were taken and about 100 
■slain ; this is an old feud of Moenemgoi, which the Arabs 
took up for their own gain. No news whatever from XJj i j i , 
and M. Bogharib is still at Bambarre, with all my letters. 

19th-20th August. — Best from weakness. (21st August.) 
Up to the palms on the west of Mount Kanyima Pass. 
(22nd August.) Bambarre. (28th August.) Better and thank- 
ful. Katomba's party has nearly a thousand frasilahs of 
ivory, and Mohamad's has 300 frasilahs. 

29th August. — 111 all night, and remain. (30th August.) 
Ditto, ditto; but go on to Monandenda's on River 

31st August. — Up and half over the mountain range, (1st 
September) and sleep in dense forest, with several fine 
running streams. 

2nd September, 1871. — Over the range, and down on to a 
marble-capped hill, with a village on top. 

3rd September. — Equinoctial gales. On to Lohombo. 

5th September. — To Kasangangazi's. (6th September.) Rest. 
(1th September.) Mamba's. Rest on 8th. (9th September.) 
Ditto ditto. People falsely accused of stealing ; but I dis- 
proved it to the confusion of the Arabs, who wish to be 


able to say, " the people of the English steal too." A very 
rough road from Kasangangazi's hither, and several running- 
rivulets crossed. 

10^ September. — Manyuema boy followed us, but I insisted 
on his father's consent, which was freely given : marching- 
proved too hard for him, however, and in a few days he 

Down into the valley of the Kapemba through beautiful 
undulating country, and came to village of Amru : this is 
a common name, and is used as " man," or " comrade," or 
" mate." 

11 th September. — Up a very steep high mountain range y 
Moloni or Mononi, and down to a village at the bottom on 
the other side, of a man called Molembu. 

12th September. — Two men sick. Wait, though I am 
now comparatively sound and well. Dura flour, which 
we can now procure, he^s to strengthen me : it is nearest 
to wheaten flour ; maize meal is called " cold," and not so 
wholesome as the Holcus sorghum or dura. A lengthy march 
through a level country, with high mountain ranges on each 
hand; along that on the left our first path lay, and it was 
very fatiguing. We came to the Eivulet Kalangai. I had 
hinted to Mohamad that if he harboured my deserters, it 
might go hard with him ; and he came after me for two 
marches, and begged me not to think that he did encourage 
them. They came impudently into the village, and I had 
to drive them out : I suspected that he had sent them. I 
explained, and he gave me a goat, which I sent back for. 

13th September. — This march back completely used up 
the Manyuema boy : he could not speak, or tell what he 
wanted cooked, when he arrived. I did not see him go back, 
and felt sorry for the poor boy, who left us by night. People 
here would sell nothing, so I was glad of the goat. 

Iteli September. — To Pyanamosinde's. (loth September.) 
To Karungamagao's ; very fine undulating green country. 


(16/7/ and 11th September.) Best, as we could get food 
to buy. (18th September.) To a stockaded village, where 
the people ordered us to leave. We complied, and went 
out half a mile and built our sheds in the forest : I like 
sheds in the forest much better than huts in the villages, 
for we have no mice or vermin, and incur no obligation. 

IQth September. — Found that Barua are destroying all the 
Manyuema villages not stockaded. 

20th September. — We came to Kunda's on the River Ka- 
temba, through great plantations of cassava, and then to a 
woman chief's, and now regularly built our own huts apart 
from the villages, near the hot fountain called Kabila which 
is about blood-heat, and flows across the path. Crossing this 
we came to Mokwaniwa's, on the River Gombeze, and met a 
caravan, under Nassur Masudi, of 200 guns. He presented 
a fine sheep, and reported that Seyed Majid was dead — he 
had been ailing and fell from some part of his new house at 
Darsalam, and in three days afterwards expired. He was a 
true and warm friend to me and did all he could to aid me 
with his subjects, giving me two Sultan's letters for the 
purpose. Seyed Burghash succeeds him; this change causes 
anxiety. Will Seyed Burghash's goodness endure now that 
he has the Sultanate ? Small-pox raged lately at Ujiji. 

22nd September. — Caravan goes northwards, and we rest, 
and eat the sheep kindly presented. 

23rcZ September. — We now passed through the country 
of mixed Barua and Baguha, crossed the River Longumba 
twice and then came near the great mountain mass on west 
of Tanganyika. From Mokwaniwa's to Tanganyika is about 
ten good marches through open forest. The Guha people 
are not very friendly ; they know strangers too well to show 
kindness : like Manyuema, they are also keen traders. I 
was sorely knocked up by this march from Nyangwe back 
to Ujiji. In the latter part of it, I felt as if dying on my 
feet. Almost every step was in pain, the appetite failed,. 


and a little bit of meat caused violent diarrhoea, whilst the 
mind, sorely depressed, reacted on the body. All the 
traders were returning successful : I alone had failed and 
experienced worry, thwarting, baffling, when almost in sight 
of the end towards which I strained. 

3rd October. — I read the whole Bible through four times 
whilst I was in Manyuema. 

8th October. — The road covered with angular fragments of 
quartz was very sore to my feet, which are crammed into 
ill-made French shoes. How the bare feet of the men and 
women stood out, I don't know; it was hard enough on mine 
though protected by the shoes. We marched in the after- 
noons where water at this season was scarce. The dust of the 
march caused ophthalmia, like that which afflicted Speke : 
this was my first touch of it in Africa. We now came to 
the Lobumba Eiver, which flows into Tanganyika, and then 
to the village Loanda and sent to Kasanga, the Guha chief, 
for canoes. The Longmnba rises, like the Lobumba, in the 
mountains called Kabogo West. We heard great noises, as 
if thunder, as far as twelve days off, which were ascribed to 
Kabogo, as if it had subterranean caves into which the 
waves rushed with great noise, and it may be that the 
Lungumba is the outlet of Tanganyika : it becomes the 
Luasse further down, and then the Luamo before it joins 
the Lualaba : the country slopes that way, but I was too ill 
to examine its source. 

9th October. — On to islet Kasenge. After much delay 
got a good canoe for three dotis, and on loth October went 
to the islet Kabiziwa. 

18th October. — Start for Kabogo East, and 19th reach it 

8 A.M. 

20th October. — Eest men. 
22nd October.— To Kombola. 

23rd October. — At dawn, off and go to Ujiji. Welcomed 
by all the Arabs, particularly by Moenyegkere. I was 


now reduced to a skeleton, but the market being held 
daily, and all kinds of native food brought to it, I hoped 
that food and rest would soon restore me, but in the 
evening my people came and told me that Shereef had sold 
off all my goods, and Moenyeghere confirmed it by saying, 
" We protested, but he did not leave a single yard of calico 
out of 3000, nor a string of beads out of 700 lbs." This 
was distressing. I had made up my mind, if I could not get 
people at Ujiji, to wait till men should come from the coast, 
but to wait in beggary was what I never contemplated, and 
I now felt miserable. Shereef was evidently a moral idiot, 
for he came without shame to shake hands with me, and 
when I refused, assumed an air of displeasure, as having 
been badly treated ; and afterwards came with his " Bal- 
ghere," good-luck salutation, twice a day, and on leaving 
said, " I am going to pray," till I told him that were I an 
Arab, his hand and both ears would be cut off for thieving, 
as he knew, and I wanted no salutations from him. In my 
distress it was annoying to see Shereef's slaves passing from 
the market with all the good things that my goods had 

2-ith October, — My property had been sold to Shereef's 
friends at merely nominal prices. Syed bin Majid, a good 
man, proposed that they should be returned, and the ivory 
be taken from Shereef; but they would not restore stolen 
property, though they knew it to be stolen. Christians 
would have acted differently, even those of the lowest classes. 
I felt in my destitution as if I were the man who went down 
from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves ; but I 
could not hope for Priest, Levite, or good Samaritan to come 
by on either side, but one morning Syed bin Majid said 
to me, " Now this is the first time we have been alone toge- 
ther ; I have no goods, but I have ivory ; let me, I pray 
you, sell some ivory, and give the goods to you." This was 
encouraging ; but I said, " Not yet, but by-and-bye." I had 


still a few barter goods left, which I had taken the precau- 
tion to deposit with Mohamad bin Saleh before going to 
Manyuema, in case of returning in extreme need. But when 
my spirits were at their lowest ebb, the good Samaritan was 
close at hand, for one morning Susi came running at the 
top of his speed and gasped out, " An Englishman ! I see 
him ! " and off he darted to meet him. The American flag 
at the head of a caravan told of the nationality of the 
stranger. Bales of goods, baths of tin, huge kettles, cooking- 
pots, tents, &c, made me think " This must be a luxurious 
traveller, and not one at his wits' end like me." (28th Octo- 
ber.) It was Henry Moreland Stanley, the travelling corre- 
spondent of the New York Herald, sent by James Gordon 
Bennett, junior, at an expense of more than 4000?., to obtain 
accurate information about Dr. Livingstone if living, and if 
dead to bring home my bones. The news he had to tell to 
one who had been two full years without any tidings from 
Europe made my whole frame thrill. The terrible fate that 
had befallen France, the telegraphic cables successfully laid 
in the Atlantic, the election of General Grant, the death of 
good Lord Clarendon — my constant friend, the proof that 
Her Majesty's Government had not forgotten me in voting 
10007. for supplies, and many other points of interest, revived 
emotions that had lain dormant in Manyuema. Appetite 
returned, and instead of the spare, tasteless, two meals a day, 
I ate four times daily, and in a week began to feel strong. 
I am not of a demonstrative turn ; as cold, indeed, as we- 
islanders are usually reputed to be, but this disinterested 
kindness of Mr. Bennett, so nobly carried into effect by 
Mr. Stanley, was simply overwhelming. I really do feel 
extremely grateful, and at the same time I am a little 
ashamed at not being more worthy of the generosity. 
Mr. Stanley has done his part with untiring energy ; good 
judgment in the teeth of very serious obstacles. His help- 
mates turned out depraved blackguards, who, by their 


excesses at Zanzibar and elsewhere, had ruined their consti- 
tutions, and prepared their systems to be fit provender for 
the grave. They had used up their strength by wickedness, 
and were of next to no service, but rather downdrafts and 
unbearable drags to progress. 

16^ November, 1871. — As Tanganyika explorations are 
said by Mr. Stanley to be an object of interest to Sir 
Roderick, we go at his expense and by his men to the 
north of the Lake. 

[Dr. Livingstone on a previous occasion wrote from the 
interior of Africa to the effect that Lake Tanganyika poured 
its waters into the Albert Nyanza Lake of Baker. At the 
time perhaps he hardly realized the interest that such an 
.announcement was likely to occasion. He was now shown 
the importance of ascertaining by actual observation whether 
the junction really existed, and for this purpose he started 
with Mr. Stanley to explore the region of the supposed con- 
necting link in the North, so as to verify the statements of 
the Arabs.] 

16th Novemher. — Four hours to Chigoma. 

20th and 21st November. — Passed a very crowded population, 
the men calling to us to land to be fleeced and insulted by 
way of Mahonga or Mutuari : they threw stones in rage, and 
one, apparently slung, lighted close to the canoe. We came 
on until after dark, and landed under a cliff to rest and cook, 
but a crowd came and made inquiries, then a few more came 
as if to investigate more perfectly : they told us to sleep, 
and to-morrow friendship should be made. We put our 
luggage on board and set a watch on the cliff. A number 
of men came along, cowering behind rocks, which then 
aroused suspicion, and we slipped off quietly ; they called 
after us, as men baulked of their prey. We went on five 
hours and slept, and then this morning came on to Magala, 


where the people are civil, but Mukamba had war with 
some one. The Lake narrows to about ten miles, as the 
western mountains come towards the eastern range, that 
being about N.N.W. magnetic. Many stumps of trees 
killed by water show an encroachment by the Lake on 
the east side. A transverse range seems to shut in the 
north end, but there is open country to the east and west 
of its ends. 

2-ith November. — To Point Kizuka in Mukamba's country. 
A Molongwana came to us from Mukamba and asserted most 
positively that all the water of Tanganyika flowed into the 
River Lusize, and then on to Ukerewe of Mteza ; nothing- 
could be more clear than his statements. 

25th November. — We came on about two hours to some vil- 
lages on a high bank where Mukamba is living. The chief, 
a young good-looking man like Mugala, came and welcomed 
us. Our friend of yesterday now declared as positively as 
before that the water of Lusize flowed into Tanganyika, and 
not the way he said yesterday ! I have not the smallest doubt 
but Tanganyika discharges somewhere, though we may be 
unable to find it. Lusize goes to or comes from Luanda 
and Karagwe. This is hopeful, but I suspend my judgment. 
War rages between Mukamba and Wasmashanga or I T as- 
masane, a chief between this and Lusize : ten men were 
killed of Mukamba's people a few days ago. Vast numbers 
of fishermen ply their calling night and day as far as we 
can see. Tanganyika closes in except at one point N. and 
by W. of us. The highest point of the western range, 
about 7000 feet above the sea, is Sumburuza. We are to 
go to-morrow to Luhinga, elder brother of Mukamba, near 
Lusize, and the chief follows us next day. 

26th November. — Sunday. Mr. Stanley has severe fever. 
I gave Mukamba 9 dotis and 9 fundos. The end of Tan- 
ganyika seen clearly is rounded off about 4' broad from 
east to west. 


21th November. — Mr. Stanley is better. We started at sun- 
set westwards, then northwards for seven hours, and at 4 a.m. 
reached Lohinga, at the mouth of the Lusize. 

28^ November. — Shot an Ibis religiosa. In the afternoon 
Luhinga, the superior of Mukambe, came and showed himself 
very intelligent. He named eighteen rivers, four of which 
enter Tanganyika, and the rest Lusize : all come into, none 
leave Tanganyika.* Lusize is said to rise in Kwangeregere 
in the Kivo lagoon, between and Luanda. Nya- 
bungu is chief of Mutumbe. Luhinga is the most intel- 
ligent and the frankest chief we have seen here. 

29th November. — We go to see the Lusize River in a canoe. 
The mouth is filled with large reedy sedgy islets : there are 
three branches, about twelve to fifteen yards broad, and one 
fathom deep, with a strong current of 2' per hour : water 
discoloured. The outlet of the Lake is probably by the 
Lorigumba River into Lualaba as the Luamo, but this as 
yet must be set down as a " theoretical discovery." 

30*^ November. — A large present of eggs, flour, and a sheep 
came from Mukamba. Mr. Stanley went round to a bay in 
the west, to which the mountains come sheer down. 

1st December, 1871, Friday. — Latitude last night 
3' 18' 3" S. I gave fifteen cloths to Lohinga, which 
pleased him highly. Kuansibura is the chief who lives 
near Kivo, the lagoon from which the Lusize rises : thev 
say it flows under a rock. 

2nd December. — 111 from bilious attack. 

Zrd December. — Better and thankful. Men went off to 
bring Mukamba, whose wife brought us a handsome present 
of milk, beer, and cassava. She is a good-looking young- 
woman, of light colour and full lips, with two children of 
eight or ten years of age. We gave them cloths, and she 

* Thus the question of the Lusize was settled at once : the previous 
notion of its outflow to the north proved a myth. — Ed. 


asked beads, so we made them a present of two fimdos. By 
lunars I was one day wrong to-day. 

ith December. — Very heavy rain from north all night. 
Baker's Lake cannot be as near as he puts it in his map, for 
it is unknown to Lohinge. He thinks that he is a hundred 
years old, but he is really about forty-five ! Namataranga 
is the name of birds which float high in air in large flocks. 

5th December. — We go over to a point on our east. The 
bay is about 12' broad : the mountains here are very 
beautiful. We visited the chief Mukamba, at his village 
five miles north of Lohinga's ; he wanted us to remain a 
few days, but I declined. We saw two flocks of Ibis 
religiosa, numbering in all fifty birds, feeding like geese. 

6th December. — Bemain at Luhinga's. 

7th December. — Start and go S.W. to Lohanga : passed the 
point where Speke turned, then breakfasted at the market- 

8th December. — Go on to Mukamba ; near the boundary of 
Babembe and Bavira. We pulled six hours to a rocky islet, 
with two rocks covered with trees on its western side. The 
Babembe are said to be dangerous, on account of having 
been slaughtered by the Malongwana. The Lat. of these 
islands is 3° 41' S. 

9th December. — Leave New York Herald Islet and go S. 
to Lubumba Cape. The people now are the Basansas along 
the coast. Some men here were drunk and troublesome : 
we gave them a present and left them about 4^ in afternoon 
and went to an islet at the north end in about three hours, 
good pulling, and afterwards in eight hours to the eastern 
shore ; this makes the Lake, say, 28 or 30"miles broad. We 
coasted along to Mokungos and rested. 

10th December. — Kisessa is chief of all the islet Mozima. 
His son was maltreated at Ujiji and died in consequence ; 
this stopped the dura trade, and we were not assaulted 
because not Malongwana. 

1871.] THEY LEAVE UJIJI. 161 

11th December. — Leave Mokungo at 6 a.m. and coast along 
(Jij hours to Sazzi. 

12th December. — Mr. Stanley ill -with fever. Off, and 
after three hours, stop at Masambo village. 

13th December. — Mr. Stanley better. Go on to Ujiji. 
Mr. Stanley received a letter from Consul Webb (American) 
of 11th June last, and telegrams from Aden up to 29th 

14:th December. — Many people off to fight Mirambo at 
Unyanyembe : their wives promenade and weave green 
leaves for victory. 

loth December.— At Ujiji. Getting ready to march east 
for my goods. 

16th December. — Engage paddlers to Tongwe and a guide. 

Vlih December. — S. 18th.— Writing. 19th-2Qth.— Still 
writing despatches. Packed up the large tin box with 
Manyuema swords and spear heads, for transmission home 
by Mr. Stanley. Two chronometers and two watches — 
anklets of Nzige and of Manyuema. Leave with Mohamad 
bin Saleh a box with books, shirts, paper, &c. ; also large 
and small beads, tea, coffee and sugar. 

21st December. — Heavy rains for planting now. 

22nd December. — Stanley ill of fever. 

23rd December. — Do. very ill. Rainy and uncomfortable. 

2Mli December. — S. 25th. — Christmas. I leave here one 
bag of beads in a skin, 2 bags of Sungo mazi 746 and 
756 blue. Gardner's bag of beads, soap 2 bars in 3 boxes 
(wood). 1st, tea and matunda; 2nd, wooden box, paper 
and shirts; 3rd, iron box, shoes, quinine, 1 bag of coffee, 
sextant stand, one long wooden box empty. These are left 
with Mohamad bin Saleh at Ujiji, Christmas Day, 1871. 
Two bags of beads are already here and table cloths. 

26th December. — Had but a sorry Christmas yesterday. 

27th December. — Mem. To send Moenyeghere some coffee 
and tell his wishes to Masudi. 

VOL. II. m 


21th December. — Left Ujiji 9 a.m., and crossed goats, 
donkeys, and men over Luiche. Sleep at the Malagarasi. 

29 th December.- — Crossed over the broad bay of the 
Malagarasi to Kagonga and sleep. 

30th December.- — Pass Viga Point, red sandstone, and 
cross the bay of the Eiver Lugufu and Nkala village, and 
transport the people and goats : sleep. 

31st December. — Send for beans, as there are no provisions 
in front of this. Brown water of the Lugufu bent away 
north: the high wind is S.W. and W. Having provisions 
we went round Munkalu Point. The water is slightly dis- 
coloured for a mile south of it, but brown water is seen on 
the north side of bay bent north by a current. 

1st January, 1872. — May the Almighty help me to finish 
my work this year for Christ's sake ! We slept in Mosehezi 
Bay. I was storm-stayed in Kifwe Bay, which is very 
beautiful — still as a millpond. We found 12 or 13 hippo- 
potami near a high bank, but did not kill any, for our balls 
are not hardened. It is high rocky tree-covered shore, with. 
rocks bent and twisted wonderfully ; large slices are worn 
off the land with hillsides clad with robes of living green, 
yet very, very steep. 

2nd January. — A very broad belt of large tussocks of 
reeds lines the shore near Mount Ivibanga or Boumba. We 
had to coast along to the south. Saw a village nearly 
afloat, the people having there taken refuge from their 
enemies. There are many hippopotami and crocodiles in 
Tanganyika. A river 30 yards wide, the Kibanga, flows in 
strongly. We encamped on an open space on a knoll and 
put up flags to guide our land party to us. 

3rd January. — We send off to buy food. Mr. Stanley 
shot a fat zebra, its meat was very good. 

4th January. — Tbe Ujijians left last night with their 
canoes. I gave them 14 fundos of beads to buy food on 
the way. We are now waiting for our land party. I gave 

1872.] ABUNDANCE OF GAME. 163 

headmen here at Burimba 2 dotis and a Kitamba. Men 
arrived yesterday or 4^ days from the Lugufu. 

5th January. — Mr. Stanley is ill of fever. I am engaged 
in copying notes into my journal. All men and goats 
arrived safely. 

6th January. — Mr. Stanley better, and we prepare to go. 

1th January. — Mr. Stanley shot a buffalo at the end of 
<onr first march up. East and across the hills. The Eiver 
Luajere is in front. We spend the night at the carcase 
■of the buffalo. 

8th January. — We crossed the river, which is 30 yards 
wide and rapid. It is now knee and waist deep. The 
country is rich and beautiful, hilly and tree-covered, 
reddish soil, and game abundant. 

dth January. — Bainy, but we went on E. and N.N.E. 
through a shut-in valley to an opening full of all kinds 
of game. Buffalo cows have calves now : one was wounded. 
Bain came down abundantly. 

10th January. — Across a very lovely green country of 
open forest all fresh, and like an English gentleman's 
park. Game plentiful. Tree-covered mountains right and 
left, and much brown haematite on the levels. Course E. A 
range of mountains appears about three miles off on our right. 

11th January. — Off through open forest for three hours 
east, then cook, and go on east another three hours, over 
very rough rocky, hilly country. Biver Mtambahu. 

12th January. — Off early, and pouring rain came down ; 
;as we advance the country is undulating. We cross a 
rivulet 15 yards wide going north, and at another of 3 
yards came to a halt; all wet and uncomfortable. 

The people pick up many mushrooms and manendinga 
.roots, like turnips. There are buffaloes near us in great 

13th January. — Fine morning. Went through an un- 
dulating hilly country clothed with upland trees for three 

M 2 


hours, then breakfast in an open glade, with bottom of 
rocks of brown hrematite, and a hole with rain-water in it. 
We are over 1000 feet higher than Tanganyika. It became 
cloudy, and we finished our march in a pouring rain, at a 
rivulet thickly clad with aquatic trees on banks. Course 

14th January. — Another fine morning, but miserably 
wet afternoon. We went almost 4' E.S.E., and crossed 
a strong rivulet 8 or 10 yards wide : then on and up to 
a ridge and along the top of it, going about south. We 
had breakfast on the edge of the plateau, looking down into 
a broad lovely valley. We now descended, and saw many 
reddish monkeys, which made a loud outcry : there was 
much game, but scattered, and we got none. Miserably 
wet crossing another stream, then up a valley to see a 
deserted Boina or fenced village. 

15th January. — Along a valley with high mountains on 
each hand, then up over that range on our left or south. At 
the top some lions roared. We then went on on high laud, 
and saw many hartebeests and zebra, but did not get one, 
though a buffalo was knocked over. We crossed a rivulet, 
and away over beautiful and undulating hills and vales, 
covered with many trees and jambros fruit. Sleep at a 
running rill. 

16th January. — -A very cold night after long-continued 
and heavy rain. Our camp was among brakens. Went 
E. and by S. along the high land, then we saw a village 
down in a deep valley into which we descended. Then 
up another ridge in a valley and along to a village well 
cultivated — up again 700 feet at least, and down to Merera's 
village, hid in a mountainous nook, about 140 huts with 
doors on one side. The valleys present a lovely scene of 
industry, all the people being eagerly engaged in weeding 
and hoeing to take advantage of the abundant rains which, 
have drenched us every afternoon. 

[1872.] ATTACKED BY BEES. 165 

17 'ill January. — We remain at Merera's to buy food for 
our men and ourselves. 

18^ January. — March, but the Mirongosi wandered and 
led us round about instead of S.S.E. We came near some 
tree-covered hills, and a river Monya Mazi — Mtamba River 
in front. I have very sore feet from bad shoes. 

19th January. — Went about S.E. for four hours, and 
crossed the Mbamba River and passed through open forest. 
There is a large rock in the river, and hills thickly tree- 
covered, 21 East and West, down a steep descent and camp. 
Came down Eiver Mpokwa over rough country with sore feet, 
to ruins of a village Basivira and sleep. 21st. — Rest. 
22nd. — Rest. Mr. Stanley shot two zebras yesterday, and 
a she giraffe to-day, the meat of the giraffe was 1000 lbs. 
weight, the two zebras about 800 lbs. 

23rd January. — Rest. Mr. Stanley has fever. 24ih. — 
Ditto. 2oth. — -Stanley ill. 2Qth. — Stanley better and off. 

26th January. — -Through low hills N.E. and among bam- 
boos to open forest — on in undulating bushy tract to a 
river with two rounded hills east, one having three mush- 
room-shaped trees on it. 

21th January. — On across long land waves and the only 
bamboos east of Mpokwa Rill to breakfast. In going on a 
swarm of bees attacked a donkey Mr. Stanley bought for 
me, and instead of galloping off, as did the other, the fool 
of a beast rolled down, and over and over. I did the same, 
then ran, dashed into a bush like an ostrich pursued, then ran 
whisking a bush round my head. They gave me a sore 
head and face, before I got rid of the angry insects : I never 
saw men attacked before : the donkey was completely 
knocked up by the stings on head, face, and lips, and died 
in two days, in consequence. We slept in the stockade of 

2&th January. — We crossed the river and then away E. 
to near a hill. Crossed two rivers, broad and marshy, and 


deep with elephants plunging. Bain almost daily, hut less- 
in amount now. Bombay says his greatest desire is to- 
visit Speke's grave ere he dies : he has a square head with. 
the top depressed in the centre. 

29th January. — We ascended a ridge, the edge of a flat 
basin with ledges of dark brown sandstone, the brim of 
ponds in which were deposited great masses of brown hamia- 
tite, disintegrated into gravel, flat open forest with short 
grass. We crossed a rill of light-coloured water three times 
and reached a village. After this in H hour we came to< 

30^ January. — At Merera's, the second of the name.. 
Much rain and very heavy ; food abundant. Baniayamwezi 
and Yukonongo people here. 

Slst January. — Through scraggy bush, then open forest 
with short grass, over a broad rill and on good path to- 
village Mwaro ; chief Kamirambo. 

1st February, 1872. — We met a caravan of Syde bin. 
Habib's people yesterday who reported that Mirambo has- 
offered to repay all the goods he has robbed the Arabs of, all 
the ivory, powder, blood, &c, but his offer was rejected. 
The country all around is devastated, and Arab force is at 
Simba's. Mr. Stanley's man Shaw is dead. There is very 
great mortality by small-pox amongst the Arabs and at the 
coast. We went over flat upland forest, open and bushy,, 
then down a deep descent and along N.E. to a large tree at 
a deserted stockade. 

2nd February. — Away over ridges of cultivation and 
elephant's footsteps. Cultivators all swept away by Basavira. 
Very many elephants feed here. We lost our trail and sent 
men to seek it, then came to the camp in the forest. 
Lunched at rill running into Ngombe Nullah. 

Ukamba is the name of the Tsetse fly here. 

3rd February. — Mr. Stanley has severe fever, with great 
pains in the back and loins : an emetic helped him a 


little, but resin of jalap would have cured him quickly. 
Rainy all day. 

4th February. — Mr. Stanley so ill that we carried him in 
a cot across flat forest and land covered with short grass 
for three hours, about north-east, and at last found a path, 
which was a great help. As soon as the men got 
under cover continued rains began. There is a camp of 
Malongwana here. 

5th February. — Off at 6 a.m. Mr. Stanley a little better, 
but still carried across same level forest ; we pass water in 
pools, and one in hsematite. Saw a black rhinoceros, and 
come near people. 

6th February. — Drizzly morning, but we went on, and in 
two hours got drenched with cold N.W. rain : the paths full 
of water we splashed along to our camp in a wood. Met 
a party of native traders going to Mwara. 

1th February. — Along level plains, and clumps of forest, 
and hollows filled at present with water, about N.E., to 
a large pool of Ngombe Nullah. Send off two men to 
Unyanyembe for letters and medicine. 

8th February. — Removed from the large pool of the nullah, 
about an hour north, to where game abounds. Saw giraffes 
and zebras on our way. The nullah is covered with lotus- 
plants, and swarms with crocodiles. 

9th February. — Remained for game, but we were unsuc- 
cessful. An eland was shot by Mr. Stanley, but it was lost. 
Departed at 2 p.m., and reached Manyara, a kind old chief. 
The country is flat, and covered with detached masses of 
forest, with open glades and flats. 

10th February. — Leave Manyara and pass along the same 
park-like country, with but little water. The rain sinks into 
the sandy soil at once, and the collection is seldom seen. 
After a hard tramp we came to a pool by a sycamore-tree, 
28 feet 9 inches in circumference, with broad fruit-laden 
branches. Ziwane. 


11th February. — Rain nearly all night. Scarcely a clay 
lias passed without rain and thunder since we left Tangan- 
yika. Across a flat forest again, meeting a caravan for Ujiji. 
The grass is three feet high, and in seed. Eeach Chikuru, 
a stockaded village, with dura plantations around it and 
pools of rain-water. 

I'lth February. — -Rest. 

loth February. — Leave Chikuru, and wade across an open 
flat with much standing-water. They plant rice on the 
wet land round the villages. Our path lies through an 
open forest, where many trees are killed for the sake of the 
bark, which is used as cloth, and for roofing and beds. Mr. 
Stanley has severe fever. 

1-lth February. — Across the same flat open forest, with 
scraggy trees and grass three feet long in tufts. Came to a 
Boma. N. E. Gunda. 

15th February. — Over the same kind of country, where 
the water was stagnant, to camp in the forest. 

16th February. — Camp near Kigando, in a rolling country 
with granite knolls. 

17th February. — Over a country, chiefly level, with stag- 
nant water ; rounded hills were seen. Cross a rain torrent 
and encamp in a new Boma, Magonda. 

18^ February. — Go through low tree-covered , hills of 
granite, with blocks of rock sticking out : much land 
cultivated, and many villages. The country now opens out 
and we come to the Tembe,* in the midst of many 
straggling villages. Unyanyembe. Thanks to the Al- 

* Tembe, a flat-roofed Arab house. 

( 109 ) 


Determines to continue his work. Proposed route. Befits. Robberies 
discovered. Mr. Stanley leaves. Parting messages. Mteza's people 
arrive. Ancient geography. Tabora. Description of the country. 
The Banyamwezi. A Baganda bargain. The population of Unyan- 
yembe. The Mirambo war. Thoughts on Sir S. Baker's policy. The 
cat and the snake. Finn faith. Feathered neighbours. Mistaken 
notion concerning mothers. Prospects for missionaries. Halima. 
News of other travellers. Chuma is married. 

Bv the arrival of the fast Eainadan on the 14th November, 
and a Nautical Almanac, I discovered that I was on that 
date twenty-one days too fast in my reckoning. Mr. Stanley 
used some very strong arguments in favour of my going 
home, recruiting my strength, getting artificial teeth, and 
then returning to finish my task ; but my judgment said, 
" All your friends will wish you to make a complete work of 
the exploration of the sources of the Nile before you retire." 
My daughter Agnes says, " Much as I wish you to come 
home, I would rather that you finished your work to your 
own satisfaction than return merely to gratify me." Rightly 
and nobly said, my darling Nannie. Vanity whispers pretty 
loudly, " She is a chip of the old block." My blessing on 
her and all the rest. 

It is all but certain that four full-grown gushing fountains 
rise on the watershed eight days south of Katanga, each of 
which at no great distance off becomes a large river ; and 
two rivers thus formed flow north to Egypt, the other two 
south to Inner Ethiopia ; that is, Lufira or Bartle Frere's 


River, flows into Kamolondo, and that into Webb's Lualaba. 
the main line of drainage. Another, on the north side of 
the sources, Sir Paraffin Young's Lualaba, flows through 
Lake Lincoln, otherwise named Chibungo and Lomame, and 
that too into Webb's Lualaba. Then Liambai Fountain,. 
Palinerston's, forms the Upper Zambesi ; and the Lunga 
(Lunga), Oswell's Fountain, is the Kafue ; both flowing into 
Inner Ethiopia. It may be that these are not the fountains 
of the Nile mentioned to Herodotus by the secretary of 
Minerva, in Sals, in Egypt; but they are worth discovery,, 
as in the last hundred of the seven hundred miles of the 
watershed, from which nearly all the Nile springs do un- 
questionably arise. 

I propose to go from Unyanyembe to Fipa ; then round 
the south end of Tanganyika, Tambete, or Mbete ; then 
across the Chambeze, and round south of Lake Bangweolo, 
and due west to the ancient fountains ; leaving the under- 
ground excavations till after visiting Katanga. This route 
Avill serve to -certify that no other sources of the Nile can 
come from the south without being seen by me. No one- 
will cut me out after this exploration is accomplished; 
and may the good Lord of all help me to show myself one 
of His stout-hearted servants, an honour to my children,, 
and, perhaps, to my country and race. 

Our march extended from 26th December, 1871, till 18th 
February, 1872, or fifty-four days. This was over 300 miles,, 
and thankful I am to reach Unyanyembe, and the Teinbe 

I find, also, that the two headmen selected by the 
notorious, but covert slave-trader, Ludha Damji, have been 
plundering my stores from the 20th October, 1870, to 18th 
February, 1872, or nearly sixteen months. One has died of 
small-pox, and the other not only plundered my stores, but 
has broken open the lock of Mr. Stanley's storeroom, and 
plundered his goods. He declared that all my goods were 


safe, but when the list was referred to, and the goods counted, 
and he was questioned as to the serious loss, he at last 
remembered a bale of seven pieces of merikano, and three 
kanike — or 304 yards, that he evidently had hidden. On 
questioning him about the boxes brought, he was equally 
ignorant, but at last said, " Oh ! I remember a box of 
brandy where it went, and every one knows as well as I." 

18th February, 1872. — This, and Mr. Stanley's goods being- 
found in his possession, make me resolve to have done with 
him. My losses by the robberies of the Banian employed 
slaves are more than made up by Mr. Stanley, who has given 
me twelve bales of calico ; nine loads = fourteen and a half 
bags of beads ; thirty-eight coils of brass wire ; a tent ; boat ; 
bath ; cooking pots ; twelve copper sheets ; air beds ; 
trowsers ; jackets, &c. Indeed, I am again quite set up, 
and as soon as he can send men, not slaves, from the coast 
I go to my work, with a fair prospect of finishing it. 

19^ February. — Rest. Receive 38 coils of brass wire 
from Mr. Stanley, 14^ bags of beads, 12 copper sheets, 
a strong canvas tent, boat-trowsers, nine loads of calico, 
a bath, cooking pots, a medicine chest, a good lot of tools, 
tacks, screw nails, copper nails, books, medicines, paper, tar, 
many cartridges, and some shot. 

20th February. — To my great joy I got four flannel shirts 
from Agnes, and I was delighted to find that two pairs of 
fine English boots had most considerately been sent by my 
friend Mr. Waller. Mr. Stanley and I measured the calico 
and found that 733| yards were wanting, also two frasilahs 
of samsam, and one case of brandy. Othman pretended 
sickness, and blamed the dead men, but produced a bale of 
calico hidden in Thani's goods; this reduced the missing 
quantity to 436^ yards. 

21st February. — Heavy rains. I am glad we are in 
shelter. Masudi is an Arab, near to Ali bin Salem at 
Bagaraoio. Bushir is an Arab, for whose slave he took a 


bale of calico. Masudi took this Cliirongozi, who is not a 
slave, as a pagazi or porter. Robbed by Bushir at the 5th 
camp from Bagamoio. Othman confessed that he knew of 
the sale of the box of brandy, and brought also a shawl 
which he had forgotten: I searched him, and found Mr. 
Stanley's stores which he had stolen. 

22nd February. — Service this morning, and thanked 
God for safety thus far. Got a packet of letters from an 

23rd February. — Send to Governor for a box which he 
has kept for four years : it is all eaten by white ants : two 
fine guns and a pistol are quite destroyed, all the wood-work 
being eaten. The brandy bottles were broken to make it 
appear as if by an accident, but the corks being driven in, 
-and corks of maize cobs used in their place, show that a 
thief has drunk the brandy and then broken the bottles. 
The tea was spoiled, but the china was safe, and the cheese 

2-ith February. — Writing a despatch to Lord Granville 
against Banian slaving, and in favour of an English native 
settlement transfer. 

25th February. — A number of Batusi women came to-day 
asking for presents. They are tall and graceful in form, 
with well-shaped small heads, noses, and mouths. They are 
the chief owners of cattle here. The war with Mirambo is 
still going on. The Governor is ashamed to visit me. 

26th February. — Writing journal and despatch. 

27th February. — Moene-mokaia is ill of heart disease and 
liver abscess. I sent him some blistering fluid. To-day we 
hold a Christmas feast. 

28th February. — AVriting journal. Syde bin Salem called ; 
he is a China-looking man, and tried to be civil to us. 

5th March, 1872. — My friend Moene-mokaia came yester- 
day ; he is very ill of abscess in liver, which has burst in- 
ternally. I gave him some calomel and jalap to open his 


bowels. He is very weak ; his legs are swollen, but body* 

6th March. — Repairing tent, and receiving sundry stores. 
Moenemokaia died. 

1th March. — Received a machine for filling cartridges. 

8th and 9th March. — Writing. 

10th March. — -Writing. Gave Mr. Stanley a cheque for 
5000 rupees on Stewart and Co., Bombay. This 500Z. is 
to be drawn if Dr. Kirk has expended the rest of the 1000?. 
If not, then the cheque is to be destroyed by Mr. Stanley. 

12th March.— Writing. 

loth March. — Finished my letter to Mr. Bennett of the 
New York Herald, and Despatch No. 3 to Lord Granville. 

11th March. — Mr. Stanley leaves. I commit to his care 
my journal sealed with five seals : the impressions on them 
are those of an American gold coin, anna, and half anna, 
and cake of paint with royal arms. Positively not to be 

[We must leave each heart to know its own bitterness, as 
the old explorer retraces his steps to the Tembe at Kwihara,. 
there to hope and pray that good fortune may attend his 
companion of the last few months on his journey to the 
coast ; whilst Stanley, duly impressed with the importance 
of that which he can reveal to the outer world, and laden 
with a responsibility which by this time can be fully com- 
prehended, thrusts on through every difficulty. 

There is nothing for it now but to give Mr. Stanley 
time to get to Zanzibar, and to shorten by any means at 
hand the anxious period which must elapse before evidence 
can arrive that he has carried out the commission entrusted 
to him. 

As we shall see, Livingstone was not without some 
material to afford him occupation. Distances were calcu- 
lated from native report ; preparations were pushed on for 


the coming journey to Lake Bangweolo ; apparatus was set 
in order. Travellers from all quarters dropped in from 
time to time : each contributed something about his own 
land ; whilst waifs and strays of news from the expedition 
sent by the Arabs against Mirambo kept the settlement 
.alive. To return to his Diary. 

How much seems to lie in their separating, when we 
remember that with the last shake of the hand, and the last 
adieu, came the final parting between Livingstone and all 
that could represent the interest felt by the world in his 
travels, or the sympathy of the white man !] 

15th March. — Writing to send after Mr. Stanley by 
two of his men, who wait here for the purpose. Copied 
line of route, observations from Kabuire to Casembe's, the 
second visit, and on to Lake Bangweolo ; then the experi- 
ment of weight on watch-key at Nyafigwe and Lusize. 

16th March. — Sent the men after Mr. Stanley, and two 
of mine to bring his last words, if any. 

[Sunday was kept in the quiet of the Tembe, on the 
17th March. Two days after, and his birthday again comes 
round — that day which seems always to have carried with 
it such a special solemnity. He has yet time to look back 
on his marvellous deliverances, and the venture he is about 
to launch forth upon.] 

19th March. — Birthday. My Jesus, my king, my life, 

my all ; I again dedicate my whole self to Thee. Accept 

me, and grant, Gracious Father, that ere this year is 

gone I may finish my task. In Jesus' name I ask it. 

Amen, so let it be. -r. T 

David Livingstone. 

[Many of his astronomical observations were copied out at 
this time, and minute records taken of the rainfall. Books 
saved up against a rainy day were read in the middle of 
the " Masika " and its heavy showers.] 

1872.] PARTING WORDS. 175 

21 st March. — Bead Baker's book. It is artistic and 
•clever. He does good service in exploring the Nile slave- 
trade ; I hope he may be successful in suppressing it. 

The Batusi are the cattle herds of all this Unyanyembe 
region. They are very polite in address. The women have 
small compact, well-shaped heads and pretty faces ; colour, 
brown ; very pleasant to speak to ; well-shaped figures, with 
small hands and feet ; the last with high insteps, and springy 
altogether. Plants and grass are collected every day, and a 
fire with much smoke made to fumigate the cattle and keep 
off flies: the cattle like it, and the valleys are filled 
with smoke in the evening in consequence. The Baganda 
are slaves in comparison; black, with a tinge of copper- 
colour sometimes ; bridgeless noses, large nostrils and lips, 
but well-made limbs and feet. 

[We see that the thread by which he still draws back a 
lingering word or two from Stanley has not parted yet.] 

25th March. — Susi brought a letter back from Mr. 
Stanley. He had a little fever, but I hope he will go on 

26th March. — Rain of Masika chiefly by night. The 
Masika of 1871 began on 23rd of March, and ended 30th 
of April. 

21th March. — Beading. Very heavy rains. 

2Sth March. — Moenyembegu asked for the loan of a 
" doti." He is starving, and so is the war-party at M'Futu ; 
chaining their slaves together to keep them from running 
away to get food anywhere. 

29th, 30th, 31st March. — Very rainy weather. Am reading 
' Mungo Park's Travels ;' they look so truthful. 

1st April, 1872. — Read Young's 'Search after Livingstone;' 
thankful for many kind words about me. He writes like a 

2nd April. — Making a sounding-line out of lint left by 


Mr. Stanley. Whydah birds are now building their nests. 
The cock-bird brings fine grass seed-stalks off the top of 
my Tembe. He takes the end inside the nest and pulls it 
all in, save the ear. The hen keeps inside, constantly 
arranging the grass with all her might, sometimes making 
the whole nest move by her efforts. Feathers are laid in 
after the grass. 

4th April. — We hear that Dugumbe's men have come 
to ITjiji with fifty tusks. He went down Lualaba with three 
canoes a long way and bought much ivory. They were not 
molested by Monangungo as we were. 

My men whom I had sent to look for a book left by 
accident in a hut some days' journey off came back stopped 
by a flood in their track. Copying observations for Sir T. 

8th April. — An Arab called Seyed bin Mohamad Magibbe 
called. He proposes to go west to the country west of Ka- 
tanga (Urange). 

[It is very interesting to find that the results of the visit 
paid by Speke and Grant to Mteza, King of Uganda, have 
already become well marked. As we see, Livingstone was 
at Unyanyembe when a large trading party dropped in on 
their way back to the king, who, it will be remembered, 
lives on the north-western shores of the Victoria Nyassa.] 

9th April, — About 150 Waganga of Mteza carried a pre- 
sent to Seyed Burghash, Sultan of Zanzibar, consisting of 
ivory and a young elephant.* He spent all the ivory in 
buying return presents of gunpowder, guns, soap, brandy, 
jrin, &c, and thev have stowed it all in this Tembe. 

* This elephant was subsequently sent by Dr. Kirk to Sir Philip 
Wodehouse, Governor of Bombay. When in Zanzibar it was perfectly 
tame. We understand it is now in the possession of Sir Solar Jung, to 
■whom it was presented by Sir Philip Wodehouse. — Ed. 


This morning they have taken everything out to see if any- 
thing is spoilt. They have hundreds of packages. 

One of the Baganda told me yesterday that the name of 
the Deity is Dubale in his tongue. 

15th April. — Hung up the sounding-line on poles 1 fathom 
apart and tarred it. 375 fathoms of 5 strands. 

Ptolemy's geography of Central Africa seems to say that 
the science was then (second century a.d.) in a state of de- 
cadence from what was known to the ancient Egyptian 
priests as revealed to Herodotus 600 years before his day 
(or say B.C. 440). They seem to have been well aware by 
the accounts of travellers or traders that a great number of 
springs contributed to the origin of the Nile, but none could 
be pointed at distinctly as the " Fountains," except those I 
long to discover, or rather rediscover. Ptolemy seems to 
have gathered up the threads of ancient explorations, and 
made many springs (six) flow into two Lakes situated East 
and West of each other — the space above them being un- 
known. If the Victoria Lake were large, then it and the 
Albert would probably be the Lakes which Ptolemy meant, 
and it would be pleasant to call them Ptolemy's sources, 
rediscovered by the toil and enterprise of our countrymen 
Speke, Grant, and Baker — but unfortunately Ptolemy has 
inserted the small Lake " Coloe," nearly where the Victoria 
Lake stands, and one cannot say where his two Lakes are. 
Of Lakes Victoria, Bangweolo, Moero, Kamolondo — Lake 
Lincoln and Lake Albert, which two did he mean ? The 
science in his time was in a state of decadence. Were two 
Lakes not the relics of a greater number previously known ? 
What says the most ancient map known of Sethos II.'s time ? 

16th April. — Went over to visit Sultan bin Ali near 
Tabora — country open, plains sloping very gently down 
from low rounded granite hills covered with trees. Pounded 
masses of the light grey granite crop out all over them, but 
many are hidden by the trees : Tabora slopes down from 



some of the same liills that overlook Kwihara, where I live. 
At the bottom of the slope swampy land lies, and during 
the Masika it is flooded and runs westwards. The sloping- 
plain on the North of the central drain is called Kaze — that 
on the South is Tabora, and this is often applied to the 
whole space between the hills north and south. Sultan bin 
Ali is very hospitable. He is of the Bedawee Arabs, and a 
famous marksman with his long Arab gun or matchlock. 
He often killed hares with it, always hitting them in the 
head. He is about sixty-five years of age, black eyed, six 
feet high and inclined to stoutness, and his long beard is 
nearly all grey. He provided two bountiful meals for self 
and attendants. 

Called on Mohamad bin Nassur— recovering from sick- 
ness. He presented a goat and a large quantity of guavas. 
He gave the news that came from Dugumbe's underling 
Nserere, and men now at Ujiji ; they went S.W. to country 
called Noinbe, it is near Una, and where copper is smelted. 
After I left them on account of the massacre at Nyaiigwe, 
they bought much ivory, but acting in the usual Arab way, 
plundering and killing, they aroused the Bakuss' ire, and 
as they are very numerous, about 200 were killed, and none 
of Dugumbe"s party. They brought fifty tusks to Ujiji. 
We dare not pronounce positively on any event in life, but 
this looks like prompt retribution on the perpetrators of the 
horrible and senseless massacre of Nyaiigwe. It was not 
vengeance by the relations of the murdered ones we saw 
shot and sunk in the Lualaba, for there is no communication 
between the people of Nyaiigwe and the Bakuss or people of 
Nombe of Lomame — that massacre turned my heart com- 
pletely against Dugumbe's people. To go with them to 
Lomame as my slaves were willing to do, was so repugnant 
I preferred to return that weary 400 or 600 miles to Ujiji. 
I mourned over my being baffled and thwarted all the way, 
but tried to believe that it was all for the best — this news 


shows that had I gone with these people to Lomanie, I could 
not have escaped the Bakuss spears, for I could not have run 
like the routed fugitives. I was prevented from, going in 
order to save me from death. Many escapes from danger I 
am aware of : some make me shudder, as I think how near 
to death's door I came. But how many more instances 
of Providential protecting there may be of which I know 
nothing ! But I thank most sincerely the good Lord of all 
for His goodness to me. 

18$. April. — I pray the good Lord of all to favour me 
so as to allow me to discover the ancient fountains of 
Herodotus, and if there is anything in the underground 
excavations to confirm the precious old documents (ra 
/3l/3\Io), the Scriptures of truth, may He permit me to 
bring it to light, and give me wisdom to make a proper 
use of it. 

Some seem to feel that their own importance in the 
community is enhanced by an imaginary connection with a 
discovery or discoverer of the Nile sources, and are only too 
happy to figure, if only in a minor part, as theoretical dis- 
coverers — a theoretical discovery being a contradiction in 

The cross has been used — not as a Christian emblem 
certainly, but from time immemorial as the form in which 
the copper ingot of Katanga is moulded — this is met with 
quite commonly, and is called Handiple Mahandi. Our 
capital letter I (called Vigera) is the large form of the bars 
of copper, each about 60 or 70 lbs. weight, seen all over 
Central Africa and from Katanga. 

19th April. — A roll of letters and newspapers, apparently, 
came to-day for Mr. Stanley. The messenger says he 
passed Mr. Stanley on the way, who said, "Take this to 
the Doctor;" this is erroneous. The Prince of Wales is 
reported to be dying of typhoid fever : the Princess Louise 
has hastened to his bedside. 

N 2 


20th April. — Opened it on 20th, and found nine 'New 
York Heralds ' of December 1 — 9, 1871, and one letter for 
Mr. Stanley, which I shall forward, and one stick of tobacco. 

21st April. — Tarred the tent presented by Mr. Stanley. 

23rd April. — Visited Kwiknru, and saw the chief of all 
the Banyamwezi (around whose Boma it is), about sixty 
years old, and partially paralytic. He told me that he had 
gone as far as Katanga by the same Fipa route I now 
propose to take, when a little boy following his father, who 
was a great trader. 

The name Banyamwezi arose from an ivory ornament of 
the shape of the new moon hung to the neck, with a horn 
reaching round over either shoulder. They believe that they 
came from the sea-coast, Mombas (?) of old, and when people 
inquired for them they said, " We mean the men of the moon 
ornament." It is very popular even now, and a large 
amount of ivory is cut down in its manufacture ; some are 
made of the curved tusks of hippopotami. The Banyamwezi 
have turned out good porters, and they do most of the 
carrying work of the trade to and from the East Coast ; they 
are strong and trustworthy. One I saw carried six frasilahs, 
or 200 lbs., of ivory from Unyanyembe to the sea-coast. 

The prefix " Nya " in Nyamwezi seems to mean place 
or locality, as Mya does on the Zambesi. If the name 
referred to the " moon ornament," as the people believe, the 
name would be Ba or Wamwezi, but Banyamwezi means 
probably the Ba — they or people — Nya, place — Mwezi, 
moon, people of the moon locality or moon-land. 

Unyanyembe, place of hoes. 


Unyangoma, place of drums. 

Nyangurue, place of pigs. 



It must be a sore affliction to be bereft of one's reason, and 

1872.] CAUSES OF FEVER. 181 

the more so if the insanity takes the form of uttering 
thoughts which in a sound state we drive from us as impure. 

25th and 26th April. — A touch of fever from exposure. 

27th April. — Better, and thankful. Zahor died of small- 
pox here, after collecting much ivory at Fipa and Urungu. 
It is all taken up by Lewale.* 

The rains seem nearly over, and are succeeded by very 
cold easterly winds; these cause fever by checking the 
perspiration, and are well known as eminently febrile. The 
Arabs put the cause of the fever to the rains drying up. In 
my experience it is most unhealthy during the rains if one 
gets wet; the chill is brought on, the bowels cease to act, 
and fever sets in. Now it is the cold wind that operates, 
and possibly this is intensified by the malaria of the drying- 
up surface. A chill from bathing on the 25th in cold water 
gave me a slight attack. 

1st May, 1872. — Unyanyembe : bought a cow for 11 dotis 
of merikano (and 2 kanike for calf), she gives milk, and this 
makes me independent. 

Headman of the Baganda from whom I bought it said, " I 
go off to pray." He has been taught by Arabs, and is the 
first proselyte they have gained. Baker thinks that the 
first want of Africans is to teach them to ivant. Interesting, 
seeing he was bored almost to death by Kamrasi wanting 
everything he had. 

Bought three more cows and calves for milk, they give 
a good quantity enough for me and mine, and are small 
shorthorns : one has a hump — two black with white spots and 
one white — one black with white face ; the Baganda were 
well pleased with the prices given, and so am I. Finished 
a letter for the New York Herald, trying to enlist American 
zeal to stop the East Coast slave-trade : I pray for a blessing 
on it from the All-Gracious. 

* Lewale appears to be the title by which the Governor of the town is 


[Through a coincidence a singular interest attaches to 
this entry. The concluding words of the letter he refers 
to are as follows : — ] 

" All I can add in my loneliness is, may Heaven's rich 
blessing come down on everyone, American, English, or Turk, 
who will help to heal the open sore of the world." 

[It was felt that nothing could more palpably represent 
the man, and this quotation has consequently been inscribed 
upon the tablet erected to his memory near his grave in 
Westminster Abbey. It was noticed some time after select- 
ing it that Livingstone wrote these words exactly one year 
before his death, which, as we shall see, took place on the 
1st May, 1873.] 

3rd May. — The entire population of Unyanyembe called 
Arab is eighty males, many of these are country born, and 
are known by the paucity of beard and bridgeless noses, 
as compared with men from Muscat ; the Muscatees are 
more honourable than the mainlanders, and more brave — 
altogether better looking and better everyway. 

If we say that the eighty so-called Arabs here have 
twenty dependants each, 1500 or 1600 is the outside popu- 
lation of Unyanyembe in connection with the Arabs. It 
is called an ivory station, that means simply that elephant's 
tusks are the chief articles of trade. But little ivory 
comes to market, every Arab who is able sends bands of 
his people to different parts to trade : the land being free 
they cultivate patches of maize, dura, rice, beans, &c, and 
after one or two seasons, return with what ivory they may 
have secured. Ujiji is the only mart in the country, and it 
is chiefly for oil, grain, goats, salt, fish, beef, native produce 
of all sorts, and is held daily. A few tusks are sometimes 
brought, but it can scarcely be called an ivory mart for that. 
It is an institution begun and carried on by the natives in 

1872.] AKAB TACTICS. 183 

spite of great drawbacks from unjust Arabs. It resembles 
the markets of Manyuerna, but is attended every day by 
about 300 people. No dura lias been brought lately to 
Ujiji, because a Belooch man found the son of the chief 
of Mbwara Island peeping in at his women, and beat the 
young man, so that on returning home he died. The 
Mbwara people always brought much grain before that, 
but since that affair never come. 

The Arabs send a few freemen as heads of a party of 
slaves to trade. These select a friendly chief, and spend at 
least half these goods brought in presents on • him, and in 
buying the best food the country affords for themselves. It 
happens frequently that the party comes back nearly empty 
handed, but it is the Banians that lose, and the Arabs are 
not much displeased. This point is not again occupied if it 
has been a dead loss. 

4th May. — Many palavers about Mirambu's death having 
taken place and being concealed. Arabs say that he is a 
brave man, and the war is not near its end. Some northern 
natives called Bagoye get a keg of powder and a piece of 
cloth, go and attack a village, then wait a month or so 
eating the food of the captured place, and come back for 
stores again : thus the war goes on. Prepared tracing paper 
to draw a map for Sir Thomas Maclear. Lewale invites 
me to a feast. 

7th May. — New moon last night. Went to breakfast 
with Lewale. He says that the Mirambo war is virtually 
against himself as a Seyed Majid man. They wish to have 
him removed, and this would be a benefit. 

The Banyamwezi told the Arabs that they did not want 
them to go to fight, because Avhen one Arab was killed all 
the rest ran away and the army got frightened. 

" Give us your slaves only and we will fight," say they. 

A Magohe man gave charms, and they pressed Mirambo 
.sorely. His brother sent four tusks as a peace-offering, and 


it is thought that the end is near. His mother was plun- 
dered, and lost all her cattle. 

9th May. — No fight, though it was threatened yesterday : 
they all like to talk a great deal before striking a blow. 
They believe that in the multitude of counsellors there is- 
safety. Women singing as they pound their grain into 
meal, — "Oh, the march of Bwanamokolu to Katanga! Oh, 
the march to Katanga and back to XJjiji ! — Oh, oh, oh ! " 
Bwanamokolu means the great or old gentleman. Batusi 
women are very keen traders, and very polite and plea sing- 
in their address and pretty way of speaking. 

I don't know how the great loving Father will bring all 
out right at last, but He knows and will do it. 

The African's idea seems to be that they are within the 
power of a power superior to themselves — apart from and in- 
visible : good ; but frequently evil and dangerous. This may 
have been the earliest religious feeling of dependence on 
a Divine power without any conscious feeling of its nature. 
Idols may have come in to give a definite idea of superior 
power, and the primitive faith or impression obtained by 
Revelation seems to have mingled with their idolatry 
without any sense of incongruity. (See Micah in Judges.)* 

The origin of the primitive faith in Africans and others, 
seems always to have been a divine influence on their dark 
minds, which has proved persistent in all ages. One portion 
of primitive belief — the continued existence of departed 
spirits — seems to have no connection whatever with dreams, 
or, as we should say, with " ghost seeing," for great agony is 
felt in prospect of bodily mutilation or burning of the body 
after death, as that is believed to render return to one's 
native land impossible. They feel as if it would shut 
them off from all intercourse with relatives after death. 
They would lose the power of doing good to those once 

* Judges xviii. 


loved, and evil to those who deserved their revenge. Take 
the case of the slaves in the yoke, singing songs of hate and 
revenge against those who sold them into slavery. Thev 
thought it right so to harbour hatred, though most of the 
party had been sold for crimes — adultery, stealing, &c. — 
which they knew to be sins. 

If Baker's expedition should succeed in annexing the 
valley of the Nile to Egypt, the question arises, — Would 
not the miserable condition of the natives, when subjected 
to all the atrocities of the White Nile slave-traders, be 
worse under Egyptian dominion? The villages would be 
farmed out to tax-collectors, the women, children and boys 
carried off into slavery, and the free thought and feeling of 
the population placed under the dead weight of Islam. Bad 
as the situation now is, if Baker leaves it matters will grow 
worse. It is probable that actual experience will correct the 
fancies he now puts forth as to the proper mode of dealing 
with Africans. 

10th May. — Hamees Wodin Tagh, my friend, is reported 
slain by the Makoa of a large village he went to fio-ht. 
Other influential Arabs are killed, but full information has 
not yet arrived. He was in youth a slave, but by energy 
and good conduct in trading with the Masai and far south 
of Nyassa, and elsewhere, he rose to freedom and wealth. 
He had good taste in all his domestic arrangements, and 
seemed to be a good man. He showed great kindness to 
me on my arrival at Chitimbwa's. 

ll*7i May. — A serpent of dark olive colour was found 
dead at my door this morning, probably killed by a cat. 
Puss approaches very cautiously, and strikes her claws into 
the head with a blow delivered as quick as lightning ; 
then holds the head down with both paws, heedless of the 
wriggling mass of coils behind it ; she then bites the neck 
and leaves it, looking with interest to the disfigured head, as 
if she knew that therein had lain the hidden power of mis- 


chief. She seems to possess a little of the nature of the 
Ichneumon, which was sacred in Egypt from its destroying 
serpents. The serpent is in pursuit of mice when killed by 

12th May. — Singeri, the headman of the Baganda here, 
offered me a cow and calf yesterday, but I declined, as we 
were strangers both, and this is too much for me to take. 
I said that I would take ten cows at Mtesa's if he offered 
them. I gave him a little medicine (arnica) for his wife, 
whose face A\as burned by smoking over gunpowder. Again 
he pressed the cow and calf in vain. 

The reported death of Hamees Wodin Tagh is con- 
tradicted. It was so circumstantial that I gave it credit, 
though the false reports in this land are one of its most 
marked characteristics. They are " enough to spear a 

13th May. — He will keep His word — the gracious One, 
full of grace and truth — no doubt of it. He said, " Him 
that cometh unto me, I will in nowise cast out," and 
" Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name I will give it." He 
will keep His word : then I can come and humbly present 
my petition, and it will be all right. Doubt is here in- 
admissible, surely. 

D. L. 

Ajala's people, sent to buy ivory in Uganda, were coming 
back with some ten tusks and were attacked at Ugalla by 
robbers, and one free man slain : the rest threw everything 
down and fled. They came here with their doleful tale 

14th May. — People came from Ujiji to-day, and report that 
many of Mohamad Bogharib's slaves have died of small-pox 
— Fundi and Suliman amongst them. Others sent out to 
get firewood have been captured by the Waha. Mohamad's 
chief slave, Othman, went to see the cause of their losses 
and received a spear in the back, the point coming out at 


liis breast. It is scarcely possible to tell how many of the 
slaves have perished since they were bought or captured, 
but the loss has been grievous. 

Lewale off to Mfutu to loiter and not to fight. The 
Bagoye don't wish Arabs to come near the scene of action, 
because, say they, " When one Arab is killed all the rest 
run away, and they frighten us thereby. Stay at M'futu ; 
we will do all the fighting." This is very acceptable 

16th May.— A. man came from Ujiji to say one of the 
party at Kasongo's reports that a marauding party went 
thence to the island of Bazula north of them. They ferried 
them to an island, and in coming back they were assaulted 
by the islanders in turn. They speared two in canoes 
shoving off, and the rest, panic-struck, took to the water, and 
thirty-five were slain. It was a just punishment, and shows 
what the Manyuema can do, if aroused to right their wrongs. 
No news of Baker's party ; but Abed and Hassani are said 
to be well, and far down the Lualaba. Nassur Masudi is at 
Kasongo's, probably afraid by the Zula slaughter to go 
further. They will shut their own market against themselves. 
Lewale sends off letters to the Sultan to-day. I have no 
news to send, but am waiting wearily. 

11th May.- — Ailing. Making cheeses for the journey : 
good, but sour rather, as the milk soon turns in this 
climate, and we don't use rennet, but allow the milk to 
coagulate of itself, and it does thicken in half a day. 

18th-19th May.- — One of Dugumbe's men came to-day 
from Ujiji. He confirms the slaughter of Matereka's people, 
but denies that of Dugumbe's men. They went to Lomame 
about eleven days west, and found it to be about the size of 
Luamo ; it comes from a Lake, and goes to Lualaba, near 
the Kisingite, a cataract. Dugumbe then sent his people 
down Lualaba, where much ivory is to be obtained. They 
secured a great deal of copper — 1000 thick bracelets — on 


the south-west of Nyangwe, and some ivory, hut not so 
much as they desired. No news of Ahed. Lomame water 
is black, and hlack scum comes up in it. 

20th May. — Better. Very cold winds. The cattle of the 
Batusi were captured hy the Arabs to prevent them going- 
off with the Baganda : my four amongst them. I sent over 
for them and they were returned this morning. Thirty-five 
of Mohamad's slaves died of small-pox. 

21st May. — The genuine Africans of this region have 
flattened nose-bridges ; the higher grades of the tribes have 
prominent nose-bridges, and are on this account greatly 
admired by the Arabs. The Batusi here, the Balunda of 
Casembe, and Itawa of Nsama, and many Manyuema have 
straight noses, but every now and then you come to districts 
in which the bridgeless noses give the air of the low English 
bruiser class, or faces inclining to King Charles the 
Second's spaniels. The Arab progeny here have scanty 
beards, and many grow to a very great height — tall, gaunt 
savages; while the Muscatees have prominent nose-bridges, 
good beards, and are polite and hospitable. 

I wish I had some of the assurance possessed by others, 
but I am oppressed with the apprehension that after all it 
may turn out that I have been following the Congo ; and 
who would risk being put into a cannibal pot, and converted 
into black man for it ? 

22nd May. — Baganga are very black, with a tinge of 
copper colour in some. Bridgeless noses all. 

23rd May. — There seems but little prospect of Christianity 
spreading by ordinary means among Mohamadans. Their 
pride is a great obstacle, and is very industriously nurtured 
by its votaries. No new invention or increase of power on 
the part of Christians seems to disturb the self-complacent 
belief that ultimately all power and dominion in this world 
will fall into the hands of Moslems. Mohamad will appear 
at last in glory, with all his followers saved by him.. 

1872.] THE WHYDAH BIRDS. ' 189 

When Mr. Stanley's Arab boy from Jerusalem told the 
Arab bin Saleh that he was a Christian, he was asked, 
" Why so, don't you know that all the world will soon be 
Mohamadan ? Jerusalem is ours ; all the world is ours, 
and in a short time we shall overcome all." Theirs are 
great expectations ! 

A family of ten Whydah birds {Vidua purpurea) come 
to the pomegranate-trees in our yard. The eight young 
ones, full-fledged, are fed by the dam, as young pigeons are. 
The food is brought up from the crop without the bowing 
-and bending of the pigeon. They chirrup briskly for food : 
the dam gives most, while the redbreastecl cock gives one 
or two, and then knocks the rest away. 

24:th May. — Speke at Kasenge islet inadvertently made 
a general statement thus : " The mothers of these savage 
people have infinitely less affection than many savage beasts 
of my acquaintance. I have seen a mother bear, galled by 
frequent shots, obstinately meet her death by repeatedly 
returning under fire whilst endeavouring to rescue her young 
from the grasp of intruding men. But here, for a simple 
loin-cloth or two, human mothers eagerly exchanged their 
little offspring, delivering them into perpetual bondage to 
my Beluch soldiers." — Speke, pp. 234, 5. For the sake of 
the little story of " a bear mother," Speke made a general 
assertion on a very small and exceptional foundation. Fre- 
quent inquiries among the most intelligent and far-travelled 
Arabs failed to find confirmation of this child-selling, except 
in the very rare case of a child cutting the upper front teeth 
before the under, and because this child is believed to be 
"moiko" (unluchj), and certain to bring death into the 
family. It is called an Arab child, and sold to the first 
Arab, or even left at his door. This is the only case the 
Arabs know of child-selling. Speke had only two Beluch 
soldiers with him, and the idea that they loaded themselves 
with infants, at once stamps the tale as fabulous. He may 


have seen one sold, an extremely rare and exceptional case ; 
but the inferences drawn are just like that of the French- 
man who thought the English so partial to suicide in 
November, that they might be seen suspended from trees. 
in the common highways. 

In crossing Tanganyika three several times I was detained 
at the islet Iiasenge about ten weeks in all. On each occa- 
sion Arab traders were present, all eager to buy slaves, but 
none were offered, and they assured me that they had never 
seen the habit alleged to exist by Speke, though they had 
heard of the "unlucky" cases referred to. Everyone has 
known of poor little foundlings in England, but our mothers 
are not credited with less affection than she-bears. 

I would say to missionaries, Come on, brethren, to the real 
heathen. You have no idea how brave you are till you try. 
Leaving the coast tribes, and devoting yourselves heartily 
to the savages, as they are called, you will find, with some 
drawbacks and wickednesses, a very great deal to admire 
and love. Many statements made about them require 
confirmation. You will never see women selling their 
infants : the Arabs never did, nor have I. An assertion of 
the kind was made by mistake. 

Captive children are often sold, but not by their mothers. 
Famine sometimes reduces fathers to part with them, but 
the selling of children, as a general practice, is quite un- 
known, and, as Speke put it, quite a mistake. 

25th and 26th May.— Cold weather. Lewale sends for all 
Arabs to make a grand assault, as it is now believed that 
Mirambo is dead, and only his son, with few people, remains. 
Two Whydah birds, after their nest was destroyed several 
times, now try again in another pomegranate-tree in the 
yard. They put back their eggs, as they have the power 
to do, and build again. 

The trout has the power of keeping back the ova when 
circumstances are unfavourable to their deposit. She can 


quite absorb the whole, but occasionally the absorbents 
have too much to do ; the ovarium, and eventually the 
whole abdomen, seems in a state of inflammation, as when 
they are trying to remove a mortified human limb; and 
the poor fish, feeling its strength leaving it, true to instinct, 
goes to the entrance to the burn where it ought to have 
spawned, and, unable to ascend, dies. The defect is pro- 
bably the want of the aid of a milter. 

27th May. — Another pair of the kind (in which the cock 
is redbreasted) had ten chickens, also rebuilds afresh. The 
red cock-bird feeds all the brood. Each little one puts 
his head on one side as he inserts his bill, chirruping 
briskly, and bothering him. The young ones lift up a 
feather as a child would a doll, and invite others to do the 
same, in play. So, too, with another pair. The cock skips 
from side to side with a feather in his bill, and the hen is 
pleased: nature is full of enjoyment. Near Kasanganga's 
I saw boys shooting locusts that settled on the ground 
with little bows and arrows. 

Cock Whydah bird died in the night. The brood came 
and chirruped to it for food, and tried to make it feed them, 
as if not knowing death ! 

A wagtail dam refused its young a caterpillar till it had 
been killed — she ran away from it, but then gave it when 
ready to be swallowed. The first smile of an infant with its 
toothless gums is one of the pleasantest sights in nature. 
It is innocence claiming kinship, and asking to be loved in 
its helplessness. 

28^ May. — Many parts of this interior land present 
most inviting prospects for well-sustained efforts of private 
benevolence. Karague, for instance, with its intelligent 
friendly chief Paimainyika (Speke's Eumanika), and Bou- 
ganda, with its teeming population, rain, and friendly chief, 
who could easily be swayed by an energetic prudent mis- 
sionary. The evangelist must not depend on foreign support 


other than an occasional supply of beads and calico ; coffee 
is indigenous, and so is sugar-cane. When detained by 
ulcerated feet in Manyueraa I made sugar by pounding the 
cane in the common wooden mortar of the country, squeez- 
ing out the juice very hard and boiling it till thick; the 
defect it had was a latent acidity, for which I had no lime, 
and it soon all fermented. I saw sugar afterwards at Ujiji 
made in the same way, and that kept for months. Wheat and 
rice are cultivated by the Arabs in all this upland region ; 
the only thing a missionary needs in order to secure an 
abundant supply is to follow the Arab advice as to the 
proper season for sowing. Pomegranates, guavas, lemons and 
oranges are abundant in Unyanyembe ; mangoes flourish, 
and grape vines are beginning to be cultivated ; papaws 
grow everywhere. Onions, radishes, pumpkins and water- 
melons prosper, and so would most European vegetables, if 
the proper seasons were selected for planting, and the most 
important point attended to in bringing the seeds. These 
must never be soldered in tins or put in close boxes ; a 
process of sweating takes place when they are confined, as in 
a box or hold of the ship, and the power of vegetating is 
destroyed, but garden seeds put up in common brown 
paper, and hung in the cabin on the voyage, and not 
exposed to the direct rays of the sun afterwards, I have 
found to be as good as in England. 

It would be a sort of Eobinson Crusoe life, but with 
abundant materials for surrounding oneself with comforts, 
and improving the improvable among the natives. Clothing 
would require but small expense : four suits of strong- 
tweed served me comfortably for five years. Woollen 
clothing is the best ; if all wool, it wears long and prevents 
chills. The temperature here in the beginning of winter 
ranges from 62° to 75° Fahr. In summer it seldom goes 
above 84°, as the country generally is from 3600 to 4000 
feet high. Gently undulating plains with outcropping 

1872.] HALIMA. 103 

tree-covered granite hills on the ridges and springs in 
valleys will serve as a description of the country. 

29th May. — Halima ran away in a quarrel with Ntaoeka : I 
went over to Sultan bin Ali and sent a note after her, but 
she came back of her own accord, and only wanted me to 
come outside and tell her to enter. I did so, and added, 
"You must not quarrel again." She has been extremely 
good ever since I got her from Katombo or Moene-inokaia : 
I never had to reprove her once. She is always very atten- 
tive and clever, and never stole, nor would she allow her 
husband to steal. She is the best spoke in the wheel ; 
this her only escapade is easily forgiven, and I gave her 
a warm cloth for the cold, by way of assuring her that 
I had no grudge against her. I shall free her, and buy 
her a house and garden at Zanzibar, when we get there.* 
Smokes or haze begins, and birds, stimulated by the cold, 
build briskly. 

30th May, Sunday. — Sent over to Sultan bin Ali, to write 
another note to Lewale, to say first note not needed. 

31st May. — The so-called Arab war Avith Mirambo drags 
its slow length along most wearily. After it is over then we 
shall get Banyamwezi pagazi in abundance. It is not now 
known whether Mirambo is alive or not : some say that he 
died long ago, and his son keeps up his state instead. 

In reference to this Nile source I have been kept in 
perpetual doubt and perplexity. I know too much to be 
positive. Great Lualaba, or Lualubba, as Manyuema sa}~, 
may turn out to be the Congo and Nile, a shorter river after 
all — the fountains flowing north and south seem in favour 
of its being the Nile. Great westing is in favour of the 
Congo. It would be comfortable to be positive like Baker. 
" Every drop from the passing shower to the roaring moun- 

* Halima followed the Doctor's remains to Zanzibar. It tloes seem 
hard that his death leaves her long services entirely unrequited. — Ed. 


tain torrent must fall into Albert Lake, a giant at its 
birth." How soothing to he positive. 

1st June, 1872. — Visited by Jemadar Hamees from Ka- 
tanga, who gives the following information. 

Unyanyembe, Tuesday. — Hamees bin Jumaadarsabel, a 
Beluch, came here from Katanga to-day. He reports that 
the three Portuguese traders, Jao, Domasiko, and Domasho, 
came to Katanga from Matiamvo. They bought quantities 
of ivory and returned : they were carried in Mashilahs * by 
slaves. This Hamees gave them pieces of gold from the 
rivulet there between the two copper or malachite hills from 
which copper is dug. He says that Tipo Tipo is now at 
Katanga, and has purchased much ivory from Kayomba or 
Kayombo in Rua. He offers to guide me thither, going 
first to Merere's, where Amran Masudi has now the upper 
hand, and Merere offers to pay all the losses he has caused 
to Arabs and others. Two letters were sent by the Portu- 
guese to the East Coast, one is in Amran's hands. Hamees 
Wodin Tagh is alive and well. These Portuguese went 
nowhere from Katanga, so that they have not touched the 
sources of the Nile, for which I am thankful. 

Tipo Tipo has made friends with Merosi, the Monyarnweze 
headman at Katanga, by marrying his daughter, and has 
formed the plan of assaulting Casembe in conjunction with 
him because Casembe put six of Tipo Tipo's men to death. 
He will now be digging gold at Katanga till this man 
returns with gunpowder. 

[Many busy calculations are met with here which are too 
involved to be given in detail. At one point we see a rough 
conjecture as to the length of the road through Fipa.] 

On looking at the projected route by Merere's I see 

The Portuguese name for palanquin. 

1872.] CALCULATIONS. 195 

that it will be a saving of a large angle into Fipa = 350 
into Basango country S.S.W. or S. and by W., this comes 
into Lat. 10' S., and from this W.S.W. 400' to Long, of 
Katanga, skirting Bangweolo S. shore in 12° S. = the whole 
distance = 750', say 900'. 

[Further on we see that he reckoned on his work occupy- 
ing him till 1874.] 

If Stanley arrived the 1st of May at Zanzibar : — allow 
= 20 days to get men and settle with them = May 20th, 
men leave Zanzibar 22nd of May = now 1st of June. 

On the road may be 10 days 

Still to come 30 days, June ... 30 „ 

Ought to arrive 10th or 15th of July 40 „ 

14th of June = Stanley being away now 3 months ; say he 
left Zanzibar 24th of May = at Aden 1st of June = Suez 8th 
of June, near Malta 14th of June. 

Stanley's men may arrive in July next. Then engage 
pagazi half a month = August, 5 months of this year will 
remain for journey, the whole of 1873 will be swallowed 
up in work, but in February or March, 1874, please the 
Almighty Disposer of events, I shall complete my task and 

2nd June. — A second crop here, as in Angola. The 
lemons and pomegranates are flowering and putting out 
young fruits anew, though the crops of each have just been 
gathered. Wheat planted a month ago is now a foot high, 
and in three months will be harvested. The rice and 
dura are being reaped, and the hoes are busy getting 
virgin land ready. Beans, and Madagascar underground 
beans, voandzeia and ground-nuts are ripe now. Mangoes 
.are formed ; the weather feels cold, min. 62°, max. 74°, and 

o 2 


stimulates the birds to pair and build, though they are of 
broods scarcely weaned from being fed by their parents. 
Bees swarm and pass over us. Sky clear, with fleecy clouds 
here and there. 

1th June.— Sultan bin Ali called. He says that the path 
by Fipa is the best, it has plenty of game, and people are 
friendly.* By going to Amran I should get into the 
vicinity of Merere, and possibly be detained, as the country 
is in a state of war. The Beluch would naturally wish to 
make a good thing of me, as he did of Speke. I gave him 
a cloth and arranged the Sungomaze beads, but the box and 
beads weigh 140 lbs., or two men's loads. I visited Lewale. 
Heard of Baker going to Unyoro Water, Lake Albert. 
Lewale praises the road by Moeneyungo and Merere, and 
says he will give a guide, but he never went that way. 

10th June. — Othman, our guide from Ujiji hither, called 
to-day, and says positively that the way by Fipa is decidedly 
the shortest and easiest : there is plenty of game, and the 
people are- all friendly. He reports that Mirambo's head- 
man, Merungwe, was assaulted and killed, and all his food, 
cattle, and grain used. Mirambo remains alone. He has, 
it seems, inspired terror in the Arab and Banyamwezi mind 
by his charms, and he will probably be allowed to retreat 
north by flight, and the war for a season close ; if so, we 
shall get plenty of Banyamwezi pagazi, and be off, for 
which I earnestly long and pray. 

13th June.- — Sangara, one of Mr. Stanley's men, returned 
from Bagamoio, and reports that my caravan is at Ugogo. 
He arrived to-day, and reports that Stanley and the 
American Consul acted like good fellows, and soon got a 
party of over fifty off, as he heard while at Bagamoio, and 
he left. The main bodv, he thinks, are in Ugogo. He 

* It will be seen that this was fully confirmcil afterwards by Living- 
stone's men : the fact may be of importance to future travellers. — Ed. 

1872.] NEWS OF HIS MEN. 197 

came on with the news, but the letters were not delivered 
to him. I do most fervently thank the good Lord of all 
for His kindness to me through these gentlemen. The 
men will come here about the end of this month. Bombay 
happily pleaded sickness as an excuse for not re-engaging, 
as several others have done. He saw that I got a clear 
view of his failings, and he could not hope to hoodwink me. 

After Sangara came, I went over to Kukuru to see what 
the Lewale had received, but he was absent at Tabora. A 
great deal of shouting, firing of guns, and circumgyration 
by the men who had come from the war just outside the 
stockade of Nkisiwa (which is surrounded by a hedge of 
dark euphorbia and stands in a level hollow) was going on 
as we descended the gentle slope towards it. Two heads 
had been put up as trophies in the village, and it was 
asserted that Marukwe, a chief man of Mirambo, had been 
captured at Uvinza, and his head would soon come too. It 
actually did come, and was put up on a pole. 

I am most unfeignedly thankful that Stanley and Webb 
have acted nobly. 

l±th June. — On 22nd June Stanley was 100 days gone : 
he must be in London now. 

Seyed bin Mohamad Margibbe called to say that he was 
going off towards Katanga to-morrow by way of Amran. 
I feel inclined to go by way of Fipa rather, though I should 
much like to visit Merere. By the bye, he says too that 
the so-called Portuguese had filed teeth, and are therefore 

loth June. — Lewale doubts Sangara on account of having 
brought no letters. Nothing can be believed in this land 
unless it is in black and white, and but little even then ; 
the most circumstantial details are often mere figments of 
the brain. The one half one hears may safely be called 
false, and the other half doubtful or not proven. 

Sultan bin Ali doubts Sangara's statements also, but says, 


" Let us wait and see the men arrive, to confirm or reject 
them." I incline to belief, because he says that he did 
not see the men, but heard of them at Bagamoio. 

16^ June. — Nsare chief, Msalala, came selling from 
Sakuma on the north — a jocular man, always a favourite 
with the ladies. He offered a hoe as a token of friendship, 
but I bought it, as we are, I hope, soon going off, and it 
clears the tent floor and ditch round it in wet weather. 

Mirambo made a sortie against a headman in alliance 
with the Arabs, and was quite successful, which shows that 
he is not so much reduced as reports said. 

Boiling points to-day about 9 a.m. There is a full degree 

of difference between boiling in an open pot and in Casella's 


205° -1 open pot 

206° -1 Casella 

69° air. 

About 200 Baguha came here, bringing much ivory and 
palm oil for sale because there is no market nor goods at 
XT j i j i for the produce. A few people came also from 
Buganda, bringing four tusks and an invitation to Seyed 
Burghash to send for two housefuls of ivory which Mteza 
has collected. 

l&th June. — Sent over a little quinine to Sultan bin 
Ali — he is ailing of fever — and a glass of " Moiko " the 
shameful ! 

The Ptolemaic map defines people according to their 
food. The Elephantophagi, the Struthiophagi, the Ichthyo- 
phagi, and Anthropophagi. If we followed the same sort of 
classification our definition would be the drink, thus : — the 
tribe of stout-guzzlers, the roaring potheen-fuddlers, the 
whisky-fishoid-drinkers, the vin-ordinaire bibbers, the lager- 
beer-swillers, and an outlying tribe of the brandy cocktail 

[His keen enjoyment in noticing the habits of animals 


and birds serves a good purpose whilst waiting wearily 
and listening to disputed rumours concerning the Zanzibar 
porters. The little orphan birds seem to get on somehow 
or other ; perhaps the Englishman's eye was no bad pro- 
tection, and his pity towards the fledglings was a good 
lesson, we will hope, to the children around the Tembe at 
Kwihara— ] 

19th June. — Whydahs, though full fledged, still gladly 
take a feed from their dam, putting down the breast to the 
ground and cocking up the bill and chirruping in the 
most engaging manner and winning way they know. She 
still gives them a little, but administers a friendly shove off 
too. They all pick up feathers or grass, and hop from side 
to side of their mates, as if saying, " Come, let us play at 
making little houses." The wagtail has shaken her young 
quite off, and has a new nest. She warbles prettily, very 
much like a canary, and is extremely active in catching 
flies, but eats crumbs of bread-and-milk too. Sun-birds visit 
the pomegranate flowers and eat insects therein too, as well 
as nectar. The young whydah birds crouch closely to- 
gether at night for heat. They look like a woolly ball on a 
branch. By day they engage in pairing and coaxing each 
other. They come to the same twig every night. Like 
children they try and lift heavy weights of feathers above 
their strength. 

[How fully he hoped to reach the hill from which he 
supposed the Nile to flow is shown in the following words 
written at this time : — ] 

I trust in Providence still to help me. I know the four 
rivers Zambesi, Kafue, Luapula, and Lomame, their foun- 
tains must exist in one region. 

An influential Muganda is dead of dysentery : no medi- 
cine had any effect in stopping the progress of the disease. 


This is much colder than his country. Another is blind 
from ophthalmia. 

Great hopes are held that the war which has lasted 
a full year will now be brought to a close, and Mirambo 
either be killed or flee. As he is undoubtedly an able man, 
his flight may involve much trouble and guerilla warfare. 

Clear cold weather, and sickly for those who have only 
thin clothing, and not all covered. 

The women work very hard in providing for their 
husbands' kitchens. The rice is the most easily prepared 
grain : three women stand round a huge wooden mortar with 
pestles in their hands, a gallon or so of the unhusked rice — 
called Mopunga here and paddy in India — is poured in, and 
the three heavy pestles worked in exact time ; each jerks 
up her body as she lifts the pestle and strikes it into the 
mortar with all her might, lightening the labour with some 
wild ditty the while, though one hears by the strained voice 
that she is nearly out of breath. When the husks are pretty 
well loosened, the grain is put into a large plate-shaped 
basket and tossed so as to bring the chaff to one side, the 
vessel is then heaved downwards and a little horizontal 
motion given to it which throws the refuse out; the par- 
tially cleared grain is now returned to the mortar, again 
pounded and cleared of husks, and a semicircular toss of 
the vessel sends all the remaining unhusked grain to one 
side, which is lifted out with the hand, leaving the chief 
part quite clean : they certainly work hard and well. The 
maize requires more labour by far: it is first pounded to 
remove the outer scales from the grain, then steeped for 
three days in water, then pounded, the scales again sepa- 
rated by the shallow-basket tossings, then pounded fine, and 
the fine white flour separated by the basket from certain 
hard rounded particles, which are cooked as a sort of 
granular porridge — " Mtyelle." 

When Ntaoeka chose to follow us rather than go to the 


coast, I did not like to have a fine-looking woman among us 
unattached, and proposed that she should marry one of my 
three worthies, Chuma, Gardner, or Mabmki, but she smiled 
.at the idea. Chuma was evidently too lazy ever to get a wife ; 
the other two were contemptible in appearance, and she has 
a good presence and is buxom. Chuma promised reform : 
■" he had been lazy, he admitted, because he had no wife." 
Circumstances led to the other women wishing Ntaoeka 
married, and on my speaking to her again she consented. 
I have noticed her ever since working hard from morning 
to night : the first up in the cold mornings, making fire 
and hot water, pounding, carrying water, wood, sweeping, 

21st June. — No jugglery or sleight-of-hand, as was re- 
commended to Napoleon III., would have any effect in 
the civilization of the Africans ; they have too much good 
sense for that. Nothing brings them to place thorough 
confidence in Europeans but a long course of well-doing. 
They believe readily in the supernatural as effecting any 
new process or feat of skill, for it is part of their original 
faith to ascribe everything above human agency to unseen 
spirits. Goodness or unselfishness impresses their minds 
more than any kind of skill or power. They say, " You have 
different hearts from ours ; all black men's hearts are bad, 
but yours are good." The prayer to Jesus for a new heart 
and right spirit at once commends itself as appropriate. 
Music has great influence on those who have musical ears, 
and often leads to conversion. 

[Here and there he gives more items of intelligence from 
the war which afford a perfect representation of the rumours 
and contradictions which harass the listener in Africa, es- 
pecially if he is interested, as Livingstone was, in the 
re-establishment of peace between the combatants.] 

Lewale is off to the war with Mirambo ; he is to finish 


it now ! A continuous fusilade along his line of march west 
will expend much powder, but possibly get the spirits up. 
If successful, we shall get Banyamwezi pagazi in numbers. 

Mirambo is reported to have sent 100 tusks and 100 
slaves towards the coast to buy gunpowder. If true, the war 
is still far from being finished ; but falsehood is fashionable. 

26th June. — Went over to Kwikuru and engaged 
Mohamad bin Seyde to speak to Nkasiwa for pagazi ; he 
wishes to go himself. The people sent by Mirambo to 
buy gunpowder in Ugogo came to Kitambi, he reported the 
matter to Nkasiwa that they had come, and gave them 
pombe. When Lewale heard it, he said, " Why did Kitambi 
not kill them ; he is a partaker in Mirambo's guilt ? " A 
large gathering yesterday at M'futu to make an assault on 
the last stockade in hostility. 

[A few notes in another pocket-book are placed under 
this date. Thus : — ] 

24th June. — A continuous covering of forests is a sign 
of a virgin country. The earlier seats of civilization 
are bare and treeless according to Humboldt. The civili- 
zation of the human race sets bounds to the increase of 
forests. It is but recently that sylvan decorations rejoice 
the eyes of the Northern Europeans. The old forests attest 
the youthfulness of our civilization. The aboriginal woods 
of Scotland are but recently cut down. (Hugh Miller's 
Sketches, p. 7.) 

Mosses often evidence the primitive state of things at the 
time of the Eoman invasion. Eoman axe like African, a 
narrow chisel-shaped tool, left sticking in the stumps. 

The medical education has led me to a continual tendency 
to suspend the judgment. What a state of blessedness it 
would have been had I possessed the dead certainty of the 
homoeopathic persuasion, and as soon as I found the Lakes 
Bangweolo, Moero, and Kamolondo pouring out their waters 

1872.] KILE OE CONGO? 203 

down the great central valley, bellowed out, " Hurrah ! 
Eureka!" and gone home in firm and honest belief that I 
had settled it, and no mistake. Instead of that I am even 
now not at all " cock-sure " that I have not been following 
down what may after all be the Congo. 

25th June. — Send over to Tabora to try and buy a cow 
from Basakuma, or northern people, who have brought 
about 100 for sale. I got two oxen for a coil of brass wire 
and seven dotis of cloth. 

( ^0-1 ) 


Letters arrive at last. Sore intelligence. Death of an old friend. 
Observations on the climate. Arab caution. Dearth of missionary 
enterprise. The slave trade and its horrors. Progressive barbarism. 
Carping benevolence. Geology of Southern Africa. The fountain 
sources. African elephants. A venerable piece of artillery. Living- 
stone on Materialism. Bin Kassib. The Baganda leave at last. 
Enlists a new follower. 

[And now the long-looked for letters came in by various 
hands, but with little regularity. It is not here necessary to 
refer to the withdrawal of the Livingstone Relief Expedition 
which took place as soon as Mr. Stanley confronted Lieu- 
tenant Dawson on his way inland. Suffice it to say that 
the various members of this Expedition, of which his second 
son, Mr. Oswell Livingstone, was one, had already quitted 
Africa for England when these communications reached 

21th June, 1872. — Received a letter from Oswell yester- 
day, dated Bagamoio, 14th May, which awakened thankful- 
ness, anxiety, and deep sorrow. 

2Sth June. — Went over to Kwikurn yesterday to speak 
about pagazi. Nkasiwa was off at M'futu to help in 
the great assault on Mirambo, which is hoped to be the 
last. But Mohamad bin Seyed promised to arrange with 
the chief on his return. I was told that Nkasiwa has the 


head of Morukwe in a kirindo or band-box, made of the 
inner bark 'of a tree, and when Morukwe's people have 
recovered the}- will come and redeem it with ivory and 
slaves, and bury it in his grave, as they did the head of 
Iskbosheth in Abner's grave in Hebron. 

Dugunibe's man, who went off to Ujiji to bring ivory, 
returned to-day, having been attacked by robbers of Mi- 
rambo. The pagazi threw down all their loads and ran; 
none were killed, but they lost all. 

29th June. — Eeceived a packet from Sheikh bin Nasib 
containing a letter for him and one 'Pall Mall Gazette,' 
one Overland Mail and four Punches. Provision has been 
made for my daughter by Her Majesty's Government of 
3007., but I don't understand the matter clearly. 

2nd July, 1812. — Make up a packet for Dr. Kirk and 
Mr. Webb, of Zanzibar : explain to Kirk, and beg him to 
investigate and punish, and put blame on right persons. 
Write Sir Bartle Frere and Agnes: send large packet of 
astronomical observations and sketch map to Sir Thomas 
Maclear by a native, Suleiman. 

3rd July. — Received a note from Oswell, written in April 
last, containing the sad intelligence of Sir Roderick's de- 
parture from among us. Alas ! alas ! this is the only time 
in my life I ever felt inclined to use the word, and it be- 
speaks a sore heart : the best friend I ever had — true, warm, 
and abiding — he loved me more than I deserved : he looks 
down on me still. I must feel resigned to the loss by the 
Divine Will, but still I regret and mourn. 

Wearisome waiting, this ; and yet the men cannot be 
here before the middle or end of this month. I have 
been sorely let and hindered in this journey, but it may 
have been all for the best. I will trust in Him to whom I 
commit my way. 

5th July. — Weary ! weary ! 

7th July. — Waiting wearily here, and hoping that the 


good and loving Father of all may favour me, and help 
me to finish my work quickly and well. 

Temperature at 6 a.m. 61° ; feels cold. Winds blow 
regularly from the east; if it changes to N.W. brings a 
thick mantle of cold grey clouds. A typhoon did great 
damage at Zanzibar, wrecking ships and destroying cocoa- 
nuts, carafu, and all fruits : happened five days after Seyed 
Burghash's return from Mecca. 

At the Loangwa of Zumbo we came to a party of 
hereditary hippopotamus hunters, called Makombwe or 
Akombwe. They follow no other occupation, but when 
their game is getting scanty at one spot they remove to 
some other part of the Loangwa, Zambesi, or Shire, and 
build temporary huts on an island, where their women cul- 
tivate patches : the flesh of the animals they kill is eagerly 
exchanged by the more settled people for grain. They are 
not stingy, and are everywhere welcome guests. I never 
heard of any fraud in dealing, or that they had been guilty 
of an outrage on the poorest : their chief characteristic is 
their courage. Their hunting is the bravest thing I ever 
saw. Each canoe is manned by two men ; they are long light 
craft, scarcely half an inch in thickness, about eighteen inches 
beam, and from eighteen to twenty feet long. They are formed 
for speed, and shaped somewhat like our racing boats. Each 
man uses a broad short paddle, and as they guide the canoe 
slowly down stream to a sleeping hippopotamus not a single 
ripple is raised on the smooth water ; they look as if holding 
in their breath, and communicate by signs only. As they 
come near the prey the harpooner in the bow lays down 
his paddle and rises slowly up, and there he stands erect, 
motionless, and eager, with the long-handled weapon poised 
at arm's length above his head, till coming close to the 
beast he plunges it with all his might in towards the heart. 
During this exciting feat he has to keep his balance exactly. 
His neighbour in the stem at once backs his paddle, the 


liarpooner sits down, seizes his paddle, and backs too to 
escape : the animal surprised and wounded seldom returns 
the attack at this stage of the hunt. The next stage, how- 
ever, is full of danger. 

The barbed blade of the harpoon is secured by a long and 
very strong rope wound round the handle : it is intended to 
come out of its socket, and while the iron head is firmly 
fixed in the animal's body the rope unwinds and the handle 
floats on the surface. The hunter next goes to the handle 
and hauls on the rope till he knows that he is right over the 
beast: when he feels the line suddenly slacken he is pre- 
pared to deliver another harpoon the instant that hippo.'s 
enormous jaws appear with a terrible grunt above the water. 
The backing by the paddles is again repeated, but hippo, 
often assaults the canoe, crunches it with his great jaws -as 
easily as a pig would a bunch of asparagus, or shivers it 
with a kick by his hind foot. Deprived of their canoe the 
gallant comrades instantly dive and swim to the shore under 
water: they say that the infuriated beast looks for them on 
the surface, and being below they escape his sight. When 
caught by many harpoons the crews of several canoes seize 
the handles and drag him hither and thither till, weakened 
by loss of blood, he succumbs. 

This hunting requires the greatest skill, courage, and 
nerve that can be conceived— double armed and threefold 
brass, or whatever the ^Eneid says. The Makombwe are 
certainly a magnificent race of men, hardy and active in 
their habits, and well fed, as the result of their brave 
exploits ; every muscle is well developed, and though not 
so tall as some tribes, their figures are compact and finely 
proportioned : being a family occupation it has no doubt 
helped in the production of fine physical development. 
Though all the people among whom they sojourn would 
like the profits they secure by the flesh and curved tusks, 
and no game is preserved, I have met with no competitors 


to them except the Wayeiye of Lake JSTgami and adjacent 

I have seen our dragoon officers perform fencing and 
managing their horses so dexterously that every muscle 
seemed trained to its fullest power and efficiency, and per- 
haps had they been brought up as Makombwe they might 
have equalled their daring and consummate skill : but we 
have no sport, except perhaps Indian tiger shooting, re- 
quiring the courage and coolness this enterprise demands. 
The danger may be appreciated if one remembers that no 
sooner is blood shed in the water than all the crocodiles 
below are immediately drawn up stream by the scent, and 
are ready to act the part of thieves in a London crowd, or 
worse. . 

8th July. — At noon, wet bulb 66^, dry 74°. These obser- 
vations are taken from thermometers hung four feet from 
the ground on the cool side (south) of the house, and 
beneath an earthen roof with complete protection from 
wind and radiation. Noon known by the shadows being 
nearly perpendicular. To show what is endured by a tra- 
veller, the following register is given of the heat on a spot,, 
four feet from the ground, protected from the wind by a 
reed fence, but exposed to the sun's rays, slanting a little. 


Wet Bulb 



Bulb 102° 

2 P.M. 




3 P.M. 



4 P.M. 









6 P.M. 




9th July. — Clear and cold the general weather : cold is 
penetrating. War forces have gone out of M'futu and built 
a camp. Fear of Mirambo rules them all : each one is 
nervously anxious not to die, and in no way ashamed to 
own it. The Arabs keep out of danger : " Better to sleep 
in a whole skin " is their motto. 

1872.] WANT OF MISSIONS. 209 

Noon. — Spoke to Siugeri about the missionary reported 
to be coming: he seems to like the idea of being taught and 
opening up the country by way of the Nile. I told him 
that all the Arabs confirmed Mtesa's cruelties, and that his 
people were more to blame than he : it was guilt before God. 
In this he agreed fully, but said, " What Arab was killed? " 
meaning, if they did not suffer how can they complain ? 

6 a.m. Wet Bulb 55° .. Dry Bulb 57° min. 55° 
9 a.m. „ 74° .. „ 82° 

Noon. „ 74° .. „ 98° 

(Now becomes too hot to march.) 
3.30 p.m. „ 75° .. „ 90° 

lOtfi July. 

6a - m - „ 59° ., „ 65° min. 55° 

Noon. „ 67° .. „ 77° shady. 

3 p.m. „ 69° .. „ 81° cloudy. 

5 P - M - » 65° .. „ 75° cloudy. 

10th Juhj.—No great difficulty would be encountered in 
•establishing a Christian Mission a hundred miles or so from 
the East Coast. The permission of the Sultan of Zanzibar 
would be necessary, because all the tribes of any intelligence 
claim relationship, or have relations with him; the Ban- 
yamwezi even call themselves his subjects, and so do others. 
His permission would be readily granted, if respectfully 
applied for through the English Consul. The Suaheli, with 
their present apathy on religious matters, would be no 
obstacle. Care to speak politely, and to show kindness to 
them, would not be lost labour in the general effect of the 
Mission on the country, but all discussion on the belief of 
the Moslems should be avoided ; they know little about it. 
Emigrants from Muscat, Persia, and India, who at present 
possess neither influence nor wealth, would eagerly seize any 
formal or offensive denial of the authority of their Prophet 
to fan their own bigotry, and arouse that of the Suaheli. A 
few now assume an air of superiority in matters of worship, 



and would fain take the place of Mullanis or doctors of the 
law, by giving authoritative dicta as to the times of prayer ; 
positions to be observed ; lucky and unlucky days ; using 
cabalistic signs ; telling fortunes ; finding from the Koran 
w hen an attack may be made on any enemy, &c. ; but this 
is done only in the field with trading parties. At Zanzibar, 
the regular Mullams supersede them. 

No objection would be made to teaching the natives of the 
country to read their own languages in the Eoman character. 
No Arab has ever attempted to teach them the Arabic- 
Koran, they are called guma, hard, or difficult as to religion. 
This is not wonderful, since the Koran is never translated, 
and a very extraordinary desire for knowledge would be 
required to sustain a man in committing to memory pages 
and chapters of, to him, unmeaning gibberish. One only of 
all the native chiefs, Monyumgo, has sent his children to 
Zanzibar to be taught to read and write the Koran ; and he 
is said to possess an unusual admiration of such civilization 
as he has seen among the Arabs. To the natives, the chief 
attention of the Mission should be directed. It would not 
be desirable, or advisable, to refuse explanation to others ; 
but I have avoided giving offence to intelligent Arabs, who 
have pressed me, asking if I believed in Mohamad by saying, 
' ; No I do not : I am a child of Jesus bin Miriam," avoiding 
anything offensive in my tone, and often adding that Mo- 
hamad found their forefathers bowing down to trees and 
stones, and did good to them by forbidding idolatry, and 
teaching the worship of the only One God. This, they all 
know, and it pleases them to have it recognised. 

It might be good policy to hire a respectable Arab to 
engage free porters, and conduct the Mission to the country 
chosen, and obtain permission from the chief to build tem- 
porary houses. If this Arab were well paid, it might pave 
the way for employing others to bring supplies of goods 
and stores not produced in the country, as tea, coffee, sugar- 


The first porters had better all go back, save a couple or 
so, who have behaved especially well. Trust to the people 
among whom you live for general services, as bringing 
wood, water, cultivation, reaping, smith's work, carpenter's 
work, pottery, baskets, &c. Educated free blacks from a 
distance are to be avoided : they are expensive, and are too 
much of gentlemen for your work. You may in a few 
months raise natives who will teach reading to others better 
than they can, and teach you also much that the liberated 
never know. A cloth and some beads occasionally will 
satisfy them, while neither the food, the wages, nor the 
work will please those who, being brought from a distance, 
naturally consider themselves missionaries. Slaves also 
have undergone a process which has spoiled them for life ; 
though liberated young, everything of childhood and open- 
ing life possesses an indescribable charm. It is so with our 
own offspring, and nothing effaces the fairy scenes then 
printed on the memory. Some of my liberados eagerly 
bought green calabashes and tasteless squash, with fine fat 
beef, because this trash was their early food ; and an ounce 
of meat never entered their mouths. It seems indispensable 
that each Mission should raise its own native agency. A 
couple of Europeans beginning, and carrying on a Mission 
without a staff of foreign attendants, implies coarse country 
fare, it is true, but this would be nothing to those who, at 
home amuse themselves with fastings, vigils, &c. A great 
deal of power is thus lost in the Church. Eastings and 
vigils, without a special object in view, are time run to 
waste. They are made to minister to a sort of self-grati- 
fication, instead of being turned to account for the good of 
others. They are like groaning in sickness. Some people 
amuse themselves when ill with continuous moaning. The 
forty days of Lent might be annually spent in visiting- 
adjacent tribes, and bearing unavoidable hunger and thirst 
with a good grace. Considering the greatness of the object 

P 2 


to be attained, men might go without sugar, coffee, tea, &c. I 
went from September 1866 to December 1868 without either. 
A trader, at Casembe's, gave me a dish cooked with honey, 
and it nauseated from its horrible sweetness, but at 100 
miles inland, supplies could be easily obtained. 

The expenses need not be large. Intelligent Arabs inform 
me that, in going from Zanzibar to Casembe's, only 3000 
dollars' worth are required by a trader, say between 600?. or 
700/., and he may be away three or more years ; paying his 
way, giving presents to the chiefs, and filling 200 or 300 
mouths. He has paid for, say fifty muskets, ammunition, 
flints, and may return with 4000 lbs. of ivory, and a number 
of slaves for sale ; all at an outlay of 6007. or 700/. With 
the experience I have gained now, I could do all I shall do 
in this expedition for a like sum, or at least for 1000/. less 
than it will actually cost me. 

12th July. — Two men come from Syde bin Habib report 
fighting as going on at discreet distances against Mirambo. 

Sheikh But, son of Mohamad bin Saleh, is found guilty 
of stealing a tusk of 1\ frasilahs from the Lewale. He 
has gone in disgrace to fight Mirambo : his father is discon- 
solate, naturally. Lewale has been merciful. 

When endeavouring to give some account of the slave- 
trade of East Africa, it was necessary to keep far within the 
truth, in order not to be thought guilty of exaggeration; 
but in sober seriousness the subject does not admit of 
exaggeration. To overdraw its evils is a simple impossi- 
bility. The sights I have seen, though common incidents 
of the traffic, are so nauseous that I always strive to drive 
them from memory. In the case of most disagreeable recol- 
lections I can succeed, in time, in consigning them to 
oblivion, but the slaving scenes come back unbidden, and 
make me start up at dead of night horrified by their vivid- 
ness. To some this may appear weak and unpkilosophical, 
since it is alleged that the whole human race has passed 

1872.] EPOCHS IN AFRICA. 213 

through the process of development. We may compare 
cannibalism to the stone age, and the times of slavery to 
the iron and bronze epochs — slavery is as natural a step in 
human development as from bronze to iron. 

Whilst speaking of the stone age I may add that in Africa 
I have never been fortunate enough to find one flint arrow- 
head or any other flint implement, though I had my eyes 
about me as diligently as any of my neighbours. No roads 
are made ; no lands levelled ; no drains digged ; no quarries 
worked, nor any of the changes made on the earth's surface 
that might reveal fragments of the primitive manufacture of 
stone. Yet but little could be inferred from the negative 
evidence, were it not accompanied by the fact that flint does 
not exist in any part south of the equator. Quartz might 
have been used, but no remains exist, except the half-worn 
millstones, and stones about the size of oranges, used for 
chipping and making rough the nether millstone. Glazed 
pipes and earthenware used in smelting iron, show that iron 
was smelted in the remotest ages in Africa. These earthen- 
ware vessels, and fragments of others of a finer texture, were 
found in the delta of the Zambesi and in other parts in close 
association with fossil bones, which, on being touched by the 
tongue, showed as complete an absence of animal matter as 
the most ancient fossils known in Europe. They were the 
bones of animals, as hippopotami, water hogs, antelopes, 
crocodiles, identical with those now living in the country. 
These were the primitive fauna of Africa, and if vitrified 
iron from the prodigious number of broken smelting fur- 
naces all over the country was known from the remotest 
times, the Africans seem to have had a start in the race, at 
a time when our progenitors were grubbing up flints to save 
a miserable existence by the game they might kill. Slave- 
trading seems to have been coeval with the knowledge of 
iron. The monuments of Egypt show that this curse has 
venerable antiquity. Some people say, " If so ancient, why 


try to stop an old established usage now?" Well, sonic 
believe that the affliction that befel the most ancient of 
all the patriarchs, Job, was small-pox. Why then stop 
the ravages of this venerable disease in London and New 
York by vaccination ? 

But no one expects any benevolent efforts from those who 
cavil and carp at efforts made by governments and peoples 
to heal the enormous open sore of the world. Some profess 
that they would rather give "their mite" for the degraded 
of our own countrymen than to " niggers " ! Verily it is " a 
mite," and they most often forget, and make a gift of it to 
themselves. It is almost an axiom that those who do most 
for the heathen abroad are most liberal for the heathen at 
home. It is to this class we turn with hope. With others 
arguments are useless, and the only answer I care to give is 
the remark of an English sailor, who, on seeing slave-traders 
actually at their occupation, said to his companion, " Shiver 
my timbers, mate, if the devil don't catch these fellows, we 
might as well have no devil at all." 

In conversing with a prince at Johanna, one of the 
Comoro islands lying off the north end of Madagascar, he 
took occasion to extol the wisdom of the Arabs in keeping- 
strict watch over their wives. On suggesting that their 
extreme jealousy made them more like jailers than friends 
of their wives, or, indeed, that they thus reduced themselves 
to the level of the inferior animals, and each was like the 
bull of a herd and not like a reasonable man — " fnguswa " — 
and that they gave themselves a vast deal of trouble for very 
small profit ; he asserted that the jealousy was reasonable 
because all women were bad, they could not avoid going 
astray. And on remarking that this might be the case 
with Arab wonien, but certainly did not apply to English 
women, for though a number were untrustworthy, the 
majority deserved all the confidence their husbands could 
place in them, he reiterated that women were universally 


bad. He did not believe that women ever would be good ; 
and the English allowing their wives to gad about with 
faces uncovered, only showed their weakness, ignorance, 
and unwisdom. 

The tendency and spirit of the age are more and more 
towards the undertaking of industrial enterprises of such 
magnitude and skill as to require the capital of the world 
for their support and execution — as the Pacific Railroad, 
Suez Canal, Mont Cenis Tunnel, and railways in India 
and Western Asia, Euphrates Eailroad, &c. The extension 
and use of railroads, steamships, telegraphs, break down 
nationalities and bring peoples geographically remote into 
close connection commercially and politically. They make 
the world one, and capital, like water, tends to a common 

[Geologists will be glad to find that the Doctor took 
pains to arrange his observations at this time in the fol- 
lowing form.] 

A really enormous area of South Central Africa is 
covered with volcanic rocks, in which are imbedded 
angular fragments of older strata, possibly sandstone, 
converted into schist, which, though carried along in the 
molten mass, still retain impressions of plants of a low 
order, probably the lowest — Silurian — and distinct ripple 
marks and raindrops in which no animal markings have 
yet been observed. The fewness of the organic remains 
observed is owing to the fact that here no quarries are 
worked, no roads are made, and as we advance north the 
rank vegetation covers up everything. The only stone 
buildings in the country north of the Cape colony are the 
church and mission houses at Kuruman. In the walls there the 
fragments, with impressions of fossil leaves, have been broken 
through in the matrix, once a molten mass of lava. The 


area which this basalt covers extends from near the VaaB 
River in the south, to a point some sixty miles beyond the 
Victoria Falls, and the average breadth is about 150 miles. 
The space is at least 100,000 square miles. Sandstone rocks 
stand up in it at various points like islands, but all arc 
metamorphosed, and branches have flowed off from the 
igneous sea into valleys and defiles, and one can easily trace 
the hardening process of the fire as less and less, till at the 
outer end of the stream the rocks are merely hardened. 
These branches equal in size all the rocks and hills that 
stand like islands, so that we are justified in assuming the- 
area as at least 100,000 square miles of this basaltic sea. 

The molten mass seems to have flowed over in successive- 
waves, and the top of each wave was covered with a dark 
vitreous scum carrying scoria? with angular fragments. This 
scum marks each successive overflow, as a stratum from twelve 
to eighteen inches or more in thickness. In one part sixty- 
two strata are revealed, but at the Victoria Falls (which are- 
simply a rent) the basaltic rock is stratified as far as our 
eyes could see down the depth of 310 feet. This exten- 
sive sea of lava was probably sub-aerial, because bubbles 
often appear as coming out of the rock into the vitreous 
scum on the surface of each wave : in some cases they have 
broken and left circular rings with raised edges, peculiar to 
any boiling viscous fluid. In many cases they have cooled 
as round pustules, as if a bullet were enclosed ; on breaking- 
them the internal surface is covered with a crop of beautiful 
crystals of silver with their heads all directed to the centre 
of the bubble, which otherwise is empty. 

These bubbles in stone may be observed in the bed of the 
Kuruman River, eight or ten miles north of the village ; 
and the mountain called " Amhan," west-north-west of the 
village, has all the appearance of having been an orifice 
through which the basalt boiled up as water or mud does in, 
a gevser. 


The black basaltic mountains on the east of the Bamane:- 
wato, formerly called the Bakaa, furnish further evidence of 
the igneous eruptions being sub-aerial, for the basalt itself is 
columnar at many points, and at other points the tops of the 
huge crystals appear in groups, and the apices not flattened, 
as would have been the case had they been developed under 
the enormous pressure of an ocean. A few miles on their 
south a hot salt fountain boils forth and tells of interior 
heat. Another, far to the south-east, and of fresh water, 
tells the same tale. 

Subsequently to the period of gigantic volcanic action, 
the outflow of fresh lime-water from the bowels of the earth 
seems to have been extremely large. The land now so dry 
that one might wander in various directions (especially west- 
wards, to the Kalahari), and perish for lack of the precious 
fluid as certainly as if he were in the interior of Australia, 
was once bisected in all directions by flowing streams and 
great rivers, whose course was mainly to the south. These 
river beds are still called by the natives " melapo " in the 
south, but in the north " wadys" both words meaning the 
same thing, " river beds in which no water ever now flows." 
To feed these a vast number of gushing fountains poured 
forth for ages a perennial supply. When the eye of the 
fountain is seen it is an oval or oblong orifice, the lower 
portion distinctly water worn, and there, by diminished size, 
showing that as ages elapsed the smaller water supply had 
a manifestly lesser erosive power. In the sides of the 
mountain Amhan, already mentioned, good specimens of 
these water-worn orifices still exist, and are inhabited bv 
swarms of bees, Avhose hives are quite protected from robbers 
by the hardness of the basaltic rocks. The points on which 
the streams of water fell are hollowed by its action, and the 
space around which the water splashed is covered by cal- 
careous tufa, deposited there by the evaporation of the sun. 

Another good specimen of the ancient fountains is in a 


cave near Kolobeng, called " Lejielole," a word by which the 
natives there sometimes designate the sea. The wearing 
power of the primeval waters is here easily traced in two 
branches — the upper or more ancient ending in the charac- 
teristic oval orifice, in which I deposited a Father Mathew's 
leaden temperance token : the lower branch is much the 
largest, as that by which the greatest amount of water flowed 
for a much longer period than the other. The cave Lepelole 
was believed to be haunted, and no one dared to enter till 
I explored it as a relief from more serious labour. The 
entrance is some eight or more feet high, and five or six 
wide, in reddish grey sandstone rock, containing in its sub- 
stance banks of well rounded shingle. The whole range, 
with many of the adjacent hills on the south, bear evidence 
of the scorching to which the contiguity of the lava sub- 
jected them. In the hardening process the silica was some- 
times sweated out of this rock, and it exists now as pretty 
efflorescences of well-shaped crystals. But not only does 
this range, which stands eio-ht or ten miles north of Kolo- 
beng, exhibit the effects of igneous action, it shows on its 
eastern slope the effects of flowing water, in a large pot- 
hole called Loe, which has the reputation of having given 
<'xit to all the animals in South Africa, and also to the first 
progenitors of the whole Bechuana race. Their footsteps 
attest the truth of this belief. I was profane enough to 
be sceptical, because the large footstep of the first man 
Matsieng was directed as if going into instead of out of this 
famous pot-hole. Other huge pot-holes are met with all 
over the country, and at heights on the slopes of the moun- 
tains far above the levels of the ancient rivers. 

Many fountains rose in the courses of the ancient river beds, 
and the outflow was always in the direction of the current of 
the parent stream. Many of these ancient fountains still con- 
tain water, and form the stages on a journey, but the primi- 
tive waters seem generally to have been laden with lime in 


solution : this lime was deposited in vast lakes, which are 
now covered with calcareous tufa. One enormous fresh-water 
lake, in which probably sported the Dyconodon, was let off 
Avhen the remarkable rent was made in the basalt which now 
constitutes the Victoria Falls. Another seems to have gone 
to the sea when a similar fissure was made at the falls of the 
Orange River. It is in this calcareous tufa alone that fossil 
animal remains have yet been found. There are no marine 
limestones except in friths which the elevation of the west 
and east coasts have placed far inland in the Coanza and 
Somauli country, and these contain the same shells as now 
live in the adjacent seas. 

Antecedently to the river system, which seems to have 
been a great southern Nile flowing from the sources of the 
Zambesi away south to the Orange River, there existed a 
state of fluvial action of greater activity than any we see 
now : it produced prodigious beds of well-rounded shingle 
and gravel. It is impossible to form an idea of their extent. 
The Loangwa flows through the bed of an ancient lake, 
whose banks are sixty feet thick, of well-rounded shingle. 
The Zambesi flows above the Kebrabasa, through great beds 
of the same formation, and generally they are of hard 
crystalline rocks ; and it is impossible to conjecture what 
the condition of the country was when the large pot-holes 
were formed up the hillsides, and the prodigious attrition 
that rounded the shingle was going on. The land does not 
seem to have been submerged, because marine limestones 
(save in the exceptional cases noted) are wanting ; and 
torrents cutting across the ancient river beds reveal fresh- 
water shells identical with those that now inhabit its fresh 
waters. The calcareous tufa seems to be the most recent 
rock formed. At the point of junction of the great southern 
prehistoric Nile with an ancient fresh-water lake near 
Buehap, and a few miles from Likatlong, a mound was formed 
in an eddy caused by some conical lias towards the cast bank 
of this rent within its bed, and the dead animals were floated 


into the eddy and sank ; their bones crop out of the white 
tufa, and they are so well preserved that even the black 
tartar on buffalo and zebra's teeth remain : they are of 
the present species of animals that now inhabit Africa. 
This is the only case of fossils of these animals being found 
in situ. In 1855 I observed similar fossils in banks of gravel 
in transitu all down the Zambesi above Kebrabasa ; and 
about 1862 a bed of gravel was found in the delta with 
many of the same fossils that had come to rest in the great 
deposit of that river, but where the Zambesi digs them out is 
not known. In its course below the Victoria Falls I observed 
tufaceous rocks : these must contain the bones, for were they 
carried away from the great tufa Lake bottom of Sesheke. 
down the Victoria Falls, they would all be ground into fine 
silt. The bones in the river and in the delta were all asso- 
ciated with pieces of coarse pottery, exactly the same as the 
natives make and use at the present day : with it we found 
fragments of a fine grain, only occasionally seen among 
Africans, and closely resembling ancient cinerary urns : 
none were better baked than is customary in the country 
now. The most ancient relics are deeply worn granite, mica- 
schist, and sandstone millstones ; the balls used for chipping 
and roughing them, of about the shape and size of an orange, 
are found lying near them. No stone weapons or tools ever 
met my eyes, though I was anxious to find them, and looked 
carefully over every ancient village we came to for many 
years. There is no flint to make celts, but quartz and rocks 
having a slaty cleavage are abundant. It is only for the 
finer work that they use iron tongs, hammers, and anvils 
and with these they turn out work which makes English 
blacksmiths declare Africans never did. They are very 
careful of their tools : indeed, the very opposites to the flint 
implement men, who seem sometimes to have made celts 
just for the pleasure of throwing them away : even the 
Romans did not seem to know the value of their money. 
The ancient Africans seem to have been at least as 

1872.] AFRICAN "CRAW-TAES." 221 

early as the Asiatics in the art of taming elephants. The 
Egyptian monuments show them bringing tame elephants 
and lions into Egypt; and very ancient sculptures show 
the real African species, which the artist must have seen. 
They refused to sell elephants, which cost them months of 
hard labour to catch and tame, to a Greek commander of 
Egyptian troops for a few brass pots : they were quite right. 
Two or three tons of fine fat butcher-meat were far better 
than the price, seeing their wives could make any number 
of cooking pots for nothing. 

15th July. — Reported to-day that twenty wounded men 
have been brought into M'futu from the field of fighting. 
About 2000 are said to be engaged on the Arab side, 
and the side of Mirambo would seem to be strong, but 
the assailants have the disadvantage of firing against a 
stockade, and are unprotected, except by ant-hills, bushes, 
and ditches in the field. I saw the first kites to-day : one 
had spots of white feathers on the body below, as if it 
were a young one — probably come from the north. 

17th July. — Went over to Sultan bin Ali yesterday. Very 
kind, as usual; he gave me guavas and a melon — called 
" matanga." It is reported that one of Mirambo's chief men, 
Sorura, set sharp sticks in concealed holes, which acted like 
Bruce's " craw-taes " at Bannockburn, and wounded several, 
probably the twenty reported. This has induced the Arabs 
to send for a cannon they have, with which to batter Mi- 
rambo at a distance. The gun is borne past us this 
morning : a brass 7-pounder, dated 1679. Carried by the 
Portuguese Commander-in-Chief to China 1679, or 193 
years ago — and now to beat Mirambo, by Arabs who have 
very little interest in the war. 

Some of his people, out prowling two days ago, killed a 
slave. The war is not so near an end as many hoped. 

[Mtesa's people on their way back to Uganda were stuck 


fast at Unyanyeinbe' the whole of this time : it does not 
appear at all who the missionary was to whom he refers.] 

Lewale sends off the Baganda in a great hurry, after 
detaining them for six months or more till the war ended, 
and he now gets pagazi of Banyamwezi for them. This 
haste (though war is not ended) is probably because Lewale 
has heard of a missionary through me. 

Mirambo fires now from inside the stockade alone. 

19th July. — Visited Salim bin Seff, and was very hos- 
pitably entertained. He was disappointed that I could 
not eat largely. They live very comfortably : grow wheat, 
whilst flour and fruits grace their board. Salim says that 
goat's flesh at Zanzibar is better than beef, but here beef is 
better than goat's flesh. He is a stout, jolly fellow. 

20th July. — High cold winds prevail. Temperature, 
6 a.m., 57° ; noon, on the ground, 122°. It may be higher, 
but I am afraid to risk the thermometer, which is graduated 
to 140° only. 

21st July. — Bought two milch cows (from a Motusi) r 
which, with their calves, were 17 dotis or 34 fathoms. The 
Baganda are packing up to leave for home. They take a 
good deal of brandy and gin for Mtesa from the Moslems. 
Temperature at noon, 96°. 

Another nest of wagtails flown. They eat bread crumbs. 
The whydahs are busy pairing. Lewale returns to-day 
from M'futu on his own private business at Kwikuru. The 
success of the war is a minor consideration with all. I wish 
my men would come, and let me off from this weary waiting. 

Some philosophising is curious. It represents our Maker 
forming the machine of the universe : setting it a-going, 
and able to do nothing more outside certain of His own 
laws. He, as it were, laid the egg of the whole, and, like an 
ostrich, left it to be hatched by the sun. We can control 
laws, but He cannot! A fire set to this house would con- 

1872.] THE WEARY WAB. 223 

sume it, but we can throw on water and consume the fire. 
We control the elements, fire and water : is He debarred 
from doing the same, and more, who has infinite wisdom 
and knowledge ? He surely is greater than His own laws. 
Civilization is only what has been done with natural laws. 
Some foolish speculations in morals resemble the idea of a 
Muganda, who said last night, that if Mtesa didn't kill 
people now and then, his subjects would suppose that he 
was dead! 

23rd July. — The departure of the Baganda is counter- 
manded, for fear of Mirambo capturing their gunpowder. 

Lewale interdicts them from going ; he says, " You may 
go, but leave all the gunpowder here, because Mirambo 
will follow and take it all to fight with us." This is an after- 
thought, for he hurried them to go off. A few will go and 
take the news and some goods to Mtesa, and probably a lot 
of Lewale's goods to trade at Karagwe. 

The Baganda are angry, for now their cattle and much of 
their property are expended here ; but they say, " We are 
strangers, and what can we do but submit ?" The Banyam- 
wesi carriers would all have run away on the least appearance 
of danger. No troops are sent by Seyed Burghash, though 
they were confidently reported long ago. All trade is at a 
standstill. July. — The Bagohe retire from the war. This month 
is unlucky. I visited Lewale and Nkasiwa, putting a 
blister on the latter, for paralytic arm, to please him. 
Lewale says that a general flight from the war has taken 
place. The excuse is hunger. 

He confirms the great damage done by a cyclone at 
Zanzibar to shipping, houses, cocoa-nut palms, mango-trees, 
and clove-trees, also houses and dhows, five days after 
Burghash returned. Sofeu volunteers to go with us, 
because Mohamad Bogharib never gave him anything, and 
Bwana Mohinna has asked him to go with him; I have 


accepted his offer, and will explain to Mohamad, when I 
see him, that this is what he promised me in the way of 
giving men, but never performed. 

21th July. — At dawn a loud rumbling in the east as if of 
thunder, possibly a slight earthquake ; no thunder-clouds 

Bin Nassib came last night and visited me before going 
home to his own house ; a tall, brown, polite Arab. He says 
that he lately received a packet for Mr. Stanley from the 
American Consul, sealed in tin, and sent it back : this is 
the eleventh that came to Stanle) r . A party of native traders 
who went with the Baganda were attacked by Mirambo's 
people, and driven back with the loss of all their goods and 
one killed. The fugitives returned this morning sorely 
downcast. A party of twenty -three loads left for Karagwe a 
few days ago, and the leader alone has returned ; he does not 
know more than that one was killed. Another was slain on 
this side of M'futu by Mirambo's people yesterday, the 
country thus is still in a terribly disturbed state. Sheikh 
bin Nassib says that the Arabs have rooted out fifty-two 
headmen who were Mirambo's allies. 

28th July. — To Nkasiwa ; blistered him, as the first re- 
lieved the pain and pleased him greatly; hope he may 
derive benefit. 

Cold east winds, and clouded thickly over all the sky. 

29th July. — Making flour of rice for the journey. Yisited 
Sheikh bin Nassib, who has a severe attack of fever; he 
cannot avoid going to the war. He bought a donkey 
with the tusk he stole from Lewale, and it died yesterday ; 
now Lewale says, " Give me back my tusk ; " and the Arab 
replies, " Give me back my donkey." The father must pay, 
but his son's character is lost as well as the donkey. Bin 
Nassib gave me a present of wheaten bread and cakes. 

30th July. — Weary waiting this, and the best time for 
travelling passes over unused. High winds from the east 

1872.] WEAKY WAITING. 225 

every day bring cold, and, to the thinly-clad Arabs, fever. 
Bin Omari called : goes to Katanga with another man's 
goods to trade there. 

31st July. — We heard yesterday from Sahib bin Nassib 
that the caravan of his brother Kisessa was at a spot in 
Ugogo, twelve days off. My party had gone by another 
route. Thankful for even this in my wearisome waiting. 


( 226 ) 


Short years in Baganda. Boys' playthings in Africa. Reflections. 
Arrival of the men. Fervent thankfulness. An end of the weary 
waiting. Jacob Wainwright takes service under the Doctor. Pre- 
parations for the journey. Flagging and illness. Great heat. Ap- 
proaches Lake Tanganyika. The borders of Fipa. Lepidosirens and 
vultures. Capes and islands of Lake Tanganyika. Higher mountains 
Large bay. 

1st August, 1872. — A large party of Baganda have come 
to see what is stopping the way to Mtesa, about ten head- 
men and their followers ; but they were told by an Arab in 
Usui that the war with Mirambo was over. About seventy 
of them come on here to-morrow, only to be despatched back 
to fetch all the Baganda in Usui, to aid in fighting Mirambo, 
It is proposed to take a stockade near the central one, and 
therein build a battery for the cannon, which seems a wise 
measure. These arrivals are a poor, slave-looking people, 
clad in bark-cloth, " Mbuzu," and having shields with a boss 
in the centre, round, and about the size of the ancient High- 
landers' targe, but made of reeds. The Baganda already 
here said that most of the newcomers were slaves, and 
would be sold for cloths. Extolling the size of Mtesa's 
country, they say it would take a year to go across it. 
When I joked them about it, they explained that a year 
meant five months, three of rain, two of dry, then rain again. 
Went over to apply medicine to Nkasiwa's neck to heal the 


outside; the inside is benefited somewhat, but the power 
will probably remain incomplete, as it now is. 

3rd August — Visited Salem bin Self, who is ill of fever. 
They are hospitable men. Called on Sultan bin Ali and 
home. It is he who effected the flight of all the Baganda 
pagazi, by giving ten strings of beads to Motusi to go and 
spread a panic among them by night ; all bolted, 

4th August. — Wearisome waiting, and the sun is now 
rainy at mid-day, and will become hotter right on to the 
hot season in November, but this delay may]be all for the 

5th August — Visited Nkasiwa, and recommended sham- 
pooing the disabled limbs with oil or flour. He says that 
the pain is removed. More Baganda have come to Kwihara, 
and will be used for the Mirambo war. 

In many parts one is struck by the fact of the children 
having so few games. Life is a serious business, and amuse- 
ment is derived from imitating the vocations of the parents 
— hut building, making little gardens, bows and arrows, 
shields and spears. Elsewhere boys are very ingenious little 
fellows, and have several games ; they also shoot birds with 
bows, and teach captured linnets to sing. They are expert 
in making guns and traps for small birds, and in making and 
using bird-lime. They make play guns of reed, which go off 
with a trigger and spring, with a cloud of ashes for smoke. 
Sometimes they make double-barrelled guns of clay, and 
have cotton-fluff as smoke. The boys shoot locusts with 
small toy guns very cleverly. A couple of rufous, brown- 
headed, and dirty speckle-breasted swallows appeared to-day 
for the first time this season, and lighted on the ground. 
This is the kind that builds here in houses, and as far south 
as Shupanga, on the Zambesi, and at Kuruman. Sun-birds 
visit a mass of spiders' web to-day ; they pick out the young 
spiders. Nectar is but part of their food. The insects in 
or at the nectar could not be separated, and hence have been 

Q 2 


made an essential part of their diet. On closer inspection, 
however, I see that whilst seeming to pick out young 
spiders — and they probably do so — they end in detaching 
the outer coating of spiders' web from the inner stiff paper 
web, in order to make a nest between the two. The outer 
part is a thin coating of loose threads : the inner is tough 
paper, impervious web, just like that which forms the 
wasps' hive, but stronger. The hen brings fine fibres and 
places them round a hole 1£ inch in diameter, then works 
herself in between the two webs and brings cotton to line 
the inside formed by her body. 

* * * What is the atonement of Christ ? It is Him- 
self : it is the inherent and everlasting mercy of God made 
apparent to human eyes and ears. The everlasting love was 
disclosed by our Lord's life and death. It showed that 
God forgives, because He loves to forgive. He works by 
smiles if possible, if not by frowns ; pain is only a means 
of enforcing love. 

If we speak of strength, lo ! He is strong. The Almighty ; 
the Over Power; the Mind of the Universe. The heart 
thrills at the idea of His greatness. 

* * * All the great among men have been remark- 
able at once for the grasp and minuteness of their know- 
ledge. Great astronomers seem to know every iota of the 
Knowable. The Great Duke, when at the head of armies, 
could give all the particulars to be observed in a cavalry 
charge, and took care to have food ready for all his troops. 
Men think that greatness consists in lofty indifference 
to all trivial things. The Grand Llama, sitting in im- 
movable contemplation of nothing, is a good example of 
what a human mind would regard as majesty; but the Gospels 
reveal Jesus, the manifestation of the blessed God over all 
as minute in His care of all. He exercises a vigilance more 
constant, complete, and comprehensive, every hour and 
every minute, over each of His people than their utmost self- 


love could ever attain. His tender love is more exquisite 
than a mother's heart can feel. 

6th August. — Wagtails begin to discard their young, which 
feed themselves. I can think of nothing but "when will 
these men come?" Sixty days was the period named, now 
it is eighty-four. It may be all for the best, in the good 
Providence of the Most High. 

9th August. — I do most devoutly thank the Lord for 
His goodness in bringing my men near to this. Three 
came to-day, and how thankful I am I cannot express. 
It is well — the men who went with Mr. Stanley came again 
to me. " Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within 
me, bless His holy name." Amen. 

10th August. — Sent back the three men who came from 
the Safari, with 4 dotis and 3 lbs. of powder. Called on the 
Lewale to give the news as a bit of politeness ; found that 
the old chief Nksiwa had been bumped by an ox, and a 
bruise on the ribs may be serious at his age : this is another 
delay from the war. It is only half-heartedly that any- 
one goes. 

[At last this trying suspense was put an end to by the 
arrival of a troop of fifty -seven men and boys, made up of 
porters hired by Mr. Stanley on the coast, and some more 
Nassick pupils sent from Bombay to join Lieut. Dawson. 
We find the names of John and Jacob Wainwright amongst 
the latter on Mr. Stanley's list. 

Before we incorporate these new recruits on the muster- 
roll of Dr. Livingstone's servants, it seems right to point to 
five names which alone represented at this time the list of 
his original followers ; these were Susi, Chuma, and Amoda, 
who joined him in 1864 on the Zambesi, that is eight years 
previously, and Mabruki and Gardner, Nassick boys hired 
in 18G6. We shall see that the new comers by degrees 
became accustomed to the hardships of travel, and shared 


with the old servants all the danger of the last heroic march 
home. Nor must we forget that it was to the intelligence 
and superior education of Jacob Wainwright (whom we now 
meet with for the first time) that we were indebted for 
the earliest account of the eventful eighteen months during 
which he was attached to the party. 

And now all is pounding, packing, bargaining, weighing, 
and disputing amongst the porters. Amidst the inseparable 
difficulties of an African start, one thankful heart gathers 
comfort and courage : — ] 

15£h August. — The men came yesterday (14th), having 
been seventy-four days from Bagamoio. Most thankful 
to the Giver of all good I am. I have to give them a 
rest of a few days, and then start. 

16th August. — An earthquake — " Kiti-ki-sha ! " — about 7.0 
P.M. shook me in my katanda with quick vibrations. They 
gradually became fainter: it lasted some 50 seconds, and 
was observed by many. 

11th August. — Preparing things. 

18th August. — Fando to be avoided as extortionate. 
Went to bid adieu to Sultan bin Ali, and left goods with 
him for the return journey, and many cartridges full and 
empty, nails for boat, two iron pillars, &c* 

l§th August. — Waiting for pagazi. Sultan bin Ali called ; 
is going off to M'futu. 

* Without entering into the merits of a disputed point as to whether 
tho men on their return journey would have been brought to a stand- 
still at Unyanyembe but for the opportune presence of Lieutenant Cameron 
and his party, it will be seen nevertheless that this entry fully bears 
out the assertion of the men that they had cloth laid by in store here 
for the journey to the coast. 

It seems that by an unfortunate mistake a box of desiccated milk, of 
which the Doctor was subsequently in great need, was left behind amongst 
these goods. The last words written by him will remind one of the cir- 
cumstance. On their return the unlucky box was the first thing that met 
Susi's eye ! — Ed. 


20th August. — Weighed all the loads again, and gave 
an equal load of 50 lbs. to each, and half loads to the 
Nassickers. Mabruki Speke is left at Taborah with Sultan 
bin Ali. He has long been sick, and is unable to go 
with us. 

21st August. — Gave people an ox, and to a discarded wife 
a cloth, to avoid exposure by her husband stripping her. 
She is somebody's child ! 

22nd August. — Sunday. All ready, but ten pagazi lacking. 

23rd August. — Cannot get pagasi. Most are sent off to 
the war. 

[At last the start took place. It is necessary to mention 
that Dr. Livingstone's plan in all his travels was to make 
one short stage the first day, and generally late in the after- 
noon. This, although nothing in point of distance, acted 
like the drill-sergeant's " Attention ! " The next morning 
everyone was ready for the road, clear of the town, unen- 
cumbered with parting words, and by those parting pipes, 
of terrible memory to all hurrying Englishmen in Africa !] 

25th August. — Started and went one hour to village 
of Manga or Yuba by a granite ridge; the weather clear, 
and a fine breeze from the east refreshes. It is important 
to give short marches at first. Marched 1£ hour. 

2Qth August. — Two Nassickers lost a cow out of ten head 
of cattle. Marched to Borna of Mayonda. Sent back five 
men to look after the cow. Cow not found: she was our 
best milker. 

21th August. — Started for Ebulua and Kasekera of Mamba. 
Cross torrent, now dry, and through forest to village of 
Ebulua ; thence to village of Kasekera, 3£ hours. Direction, 
S. by W. 

28th August. — Reached Mayole village in 2 hours and 
rested ; S. and by W. Water is scarce in front. Through 


flat forest to a marshy-looking piece of water, -where we 
camp, after a march of 1^ hour ; still S. by W. 

29$ August. — On through level forest without water. 
Trees present a dry, wintry aspect ; grass dry, but some 
flowers shoot out, and fresh grass where the old growth has 
been burnt off. 

30th August. — The two Nassickers lost all the cows 
yesterday, from sheer laziness. They were found a long 
way off, and one cow missing. Susi gave them ten cuts each 
with a switch. Engaging pagazi and rest. 

31st August. — The Baganda boy Kassa was followed to 
Gunda, and I delivered him to his countrymen. He 
escaped from Mayole village this morning, and came at 
3 p.m., his clothes in rags by running through the forest 
eleven hours, say twenty-two miles, and is determined not to 
leave us. Pass Kisari's village, one and a half mile distant, 
and on to Penta or Phinta to sleep, through perfectly flat 
forest. 3 hours S. by W. 

1st September, 1872. — The same flat forest to Chikulu, 
S. and by W., 4 hours 25 m. Manyara called, and is going 
with us to-morrow. Jangiange presented a leg of Kongolo 
or Taghetse, having a bunch of white hair beneath the 
orbital sinus. Bought food and served out rations to the 
men for ten days, as water is scarce, and but little food can 
be obtained at the villages. The country is very dry and 
wintry-looking, but flowers shoot out. First clouds all over 
to-day. It is hot now. A flock of small swallows now 
appears : they seem tailless and with white bellies. 

2nd September. — The people are preparing their ten days' 
food. Two pagazi ran away with 24 dotis of the men's calico. 
Sent after them, but with small hopes of capturing them. 

3rd September. — Unsuccessful search. 

4:th September. — Leave Chikulu's, and pass a large puff- 
adder in the way. A single blow on the head killed it, so 
that it did not stir. About 3 feet long, and as thick as a 


man's arm, a short tail, and flat broad head. The men say 
this is a very good sign for our journey, though it would 
have been a bad sign, and suffering and death, had one 
trodden on it. Come to Liwane ; large tree and waters. 
S.S.W. 4J hours. 

5th September. — A long hot tramp to Manyara's. He is a 
kind old man. Many of the men very tired and sick. 
S.S.W. 5f hours. 

6th September. — Rest the caravan, as we shall have to 
make forced marches on account of tsetse fly. 

1th September. — Obliged to remain, as several are ill with 

8th September. — On to N'gombo nullah. Very hot and 
people ill. Tsetse. A poor woman of Ujiji followed one 
of Stanley's men to the coast. He cast her off here, and she 
was taken by another ; but her temper seems too excitable. 
She set fire to her hut by accident, and in the excitement 
quarrelled all round ; she is a somebody's bairn neverthe- 
less, a tall, strapping young woman, she must have been 
the pride of her parents. 

9th September. — Telekeza* at broad part of the nullah, 
then went on two hours and passed the night in the forest. 

10th September. — On to Mweras, and spent one night there 
by a pool in the forest. Village two miles off. 

11th September. — On 8£ hours to Telekeza. Sun very 
hot, and marching fatiguing to all. 

Majwara has an insect in the aqueous chamber of his eye. 
It moves about and is painful. 

We found that an old path from Mwaro has water, and 
must go early to-morrow morning, and so avoid the round- 
about by Morefu. We shall thus save two days, which in 
this hot weather is much for us. We hear that Simba has 
gone to fight with Fipa. Two Banyamwezi volunteer. 

* Midday halt. 


12th September. — We went by this water till 2 p.m., then 
made a march, and to-morrow get to villages. Got a buffalo 
and remain overnight. Water is in haematite. I engaged 
four pagazi here, named Motepatonze, Nsakusi, Muanama- 
zungu, and Mayombo. 

15th September. — On to near range of hills. Much large 
game here. 111. 

16th September. — Climbed over range about 200 feet high ; 
then on westward to stockaded villages of Kamirambo. His 
land begins at the M'toni. 

17th September. — To Metambo Kiver : 1£ broad, and 
marshy. Here begins the land of Merera. Through forest 
with many strychnus trees, 3£ hours, and arrive at Merera's. 

18th September. — Remain at Merera's to prepare food. 

[There is a significant entry here : the old enemy was 
upon him. It would seem that his peculiar liability during 
these travels to one prostrating form of disease was now 
redoubled. The men speak of few periods of even com- 
parative health from this date.] 

19th September. — Ditto, ditto, because I am ill with bowels, 
having eaten nothing for eight days. Simba wants us to 
pass by his village, and not by the straight path. 

20th September. — Went to Simba's; 3^ hours. About 
north-west. Simba sent a handsome present of food, a goat, 
eggs, and a fowl, beans, split rice, dura, and sesame. I gave 
him three dotis of superior cloth. 

21st September. — Rest here, as the complaint does not 
yield to medicine or time ; but I begin to eat now, which 
is a favourable symptom. Under a lofty tree at Simba's, a 
kite, the common brown one, had two pure white eggs in its 
nest, larger than a fowl's, and very spherical. The Banyam- 
wesi women are in general very coarse, not a beautiful 
woman amongst them, as is so common among the Batusi ; 
squat, thick-set figures, and features too ; a race of pagazi. 


On coming inland from sea-coast, the tradition says, they 
cut the end of a cone shell, so as to make it a little of the 
half-moon shape ; this is their chief ornament. They are 
generally respectful in deportment, but not very generous ; 
they have learned the Arab adage, " Nothing for nothing," 
and are keen slave-traders. The gingerbread palm of Speke 
is the Hyphene ; the Borassus has a large seed, very like the 
Coco-de-mer of the Seychelle Islands, in being double, but it 
is very small compared to it. 

22nd September. — Preparing food, and one man pretends 
inability to walk; send for some pagazi to carry loads of 
those who carry him. Simba sends copious libations of 

23rd September. — The pagazi, after demanding enormous 
pay, walked off. We went on along rocky banks of a stream, 
and, crossing it, camped, because the next water is far off. 

24/A September. — Kecovering and thankful, but weak ; cross 
broad sedgy stream, and so on to Boma Misonghi, W. and 

2bth September. — Got a buffalo and M'jur6, and remain 
to eat them. I am getting better slowly. The M jure, or 
water hog, was all eaten by hyaenas during night ; but the 
buffalo is safe. 

2Qth September. — Through forest, along the side of a 
sedgy valley. Cross its head water, which has rust of iron 
in it, then W. and by S. The forest has very much tsetse. 
Zebras calling loudly, and Senegal long claw in our camp 
at dawn, with its cry, " O-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o." 

21th September. — On at dawn. No water expected, but 
we crossed three abundant supplies before we came to 
hill of our camp. Much game about here. Getting well 
again — thanks. About W. 3f hours. No people, or marks 
of them. Flowers sprouting in expectation of rains ; much 
land burned off, but grass short yet. 

2&th September. — At two hills with mushroom-topped 


trees on west side. Crossed a good stream 12 feet broad 
and knee deep. 

Buffaloes grazing. Many of the men sick. Whilst camp- 
ing, a large musk cat broke forth among us and was killed. 
(Ya bude — musk). Musk cat (N'gawa), black with white 
stripes ; from point of nose to tip of tail, 4 feet ; height at 
withers, 1 foot 6 inches. 

29th September. — Through much bamboo and low hills 
to M'pokwa ruins and river. The latter in a deep rent 
in alluvial soil. Very hot, and many sick in consequence. 
Sombala fish abundant. Course W. 

30th September. — Away among low tree-covered hills of 
granite and sandstone. Found that Bangala had assaulted 
the village to which we went a few days ago, and all were 
fugitives. Our people found plenty of Batatas* in the 
deserted gardens. A great help, for all were hungry. 

1st October, 1872, Friday. — On through much deserted 
cultivation in rich damp soil. Surrounded with low tree- 
covered ranges. We saw a few people, but all are in terror. 

2nd October. — Obtained M'tama in abundance for brass 
wire, and remained to grind it. The people have been 
without any for some days, and now rejoice in plenty. A 
slight shower fell at 5 a.m., but not enough to lay the dust. 

3rd October. — Southwards, and down a steep descent 
into a rich valley with much green maize in ear ; people 
friendly ; but it was but one hour's march, so we went on 
through hilly country S.W. Men firing off ammunition, 
had to be punished. We crossed the Katuma River in the 
bottom of a valley ; it is 12 feet broad, and knee deep ; 
camped in a forest. Farjella shot a fine buffalo. The 
weather disagreeably hot and sultry. 

■ith October. — Over the same hilly country ; the grass 
is burnt off, but the stalks are disagreeable. Came to a fine 

* Sweet potatoes. 

1872.] ABUNDANCE OF GAME. 237 

valley with a large herd of zebras feeding quietly ; pretty 
animals. We went only an hour and a half to-day, as one 
sick man is carried, and it is hot and trying for all. I feel 
it much internally, and am glad to move slowly. 

5th October. — Up and down mountains, very sore on legs 
and lungs. Trying to save donkey's strength I climbed and 
descended, and as soon as I mounted, off he set as hard as 
he could run, and he felt not the bridle ; the saddle was 
loose, but I stuck on till we reached water in a bamboo 
hollow with spring. 

6th October. — A long bamboo valley with giraffes in it. 
Range on our right stretches away from us, and that on the 
left dwindled down ; all covered with bamboos, in tufts like 
other grasses ; elephants eat them. Travelled W. and by 
S. 2 1 hours. Short marches on account of carrying one sick 

7th October. — Over fine park-like country, with large 
belts of bamboo and fine broad shady trees. Went west- 
wards to the end of the left-hand range. Went four hours 
over a level forest with much haematite. Trees large and 
open. Large game evidently abounds, and waters generally 
are not far apart. Our neighbour got a zebra, a rhino- 
ceros, and two young elephants. 

8th October. — Came on early as sun is hot, and in two 
hours saw the Tanganyika from a gentle hill. The land 
is rough, with angular fragments of quartz; the rocks of 
mica schist are tilted up as if away from the Lake's longer 
axis. Some are upright, and some have basalt melted into 
the layers, and crystallized in irregular polygons. All are 
very tired, and in coming to a stockade we were refused 
admittance, because Malongwana had attacked them lately, 
and we might seize them when in this stronghold. Very 
true; so we sit outside in the shade of a single palm 

9th October. — Eest, because all are tired, and several 


sick. This heat makes me useless, and constrains me to lie 
like a log. Inwardly I feel tired too. Jangeange leaves 
us to-morrow, having found canoes going to Ujiji. 

10th October. — People very tired, and it being moreover 
Sunday we rest. Gave each a keta of beads. Usowa chief 

11th October. — Eeach Kalema district after 2f hours over 
black mud all deeply cracked, and many deep torrents 
now dry. Kalema is a stockade. We see Tanganyika, 
but a range of low hills intervenes. A rumour of war 

12th October. — We wait till 2 p.m., and then make a 
forced march towards Fipa. The people cultivate but little, 
for fear of enemies ; so we can buy few provisions. We left 
a broad valley with a sand river in it, where we have been 
two days, and climbed a range of hills parallel to Tanganyika, 
of mica schist and gneiss, tilted away from the Lake. We 
met a buffalo on the top of one ridge, it was shot into and 
lay down, but we lost it. Course S.W. to brink of Tan- 
ganyika water. 

13th October. — Our course went along the top of a range 
of hills lying parallel with the Lake. A great part of 
yesterday was on the same range. It is a thousand feet 
above the water, and is covered with trees rather scraggy. 
At sunset the red glare on the surface made the water look 
like a sea of reddish gold; it seemed so near that many 
went off to drink, but were three or four hours in doing so. 
One cannot see the other side on accoimt of the smokes in the 
air, but this morning three capes jut out, and the last bear- 
ing S.E. from our camp seems to go near the other side. 
Very hot weather. To the town of Fipa to-morrow. Course 
about S. Though we suffer much from the heat by travel- 
ling at this season, we escape a vast number of running and 
often muddy rills, also muddy paths which would soon knock 
the donkey up. A milk-and-water sky portends rain. Tipo 


Tipo is reported to be carrying it with a high hand in 
Nsama's country, Itawa, insisting that all the ivory must 
be brought as his tribute — the conqueror of Nsama. Our 
drum is the greatest object of curiosity we have to the 
Banyamwezi. A very great deal of cotton is cultivated all 
along the shores of Lake Tanganyika ; it is the Pernambuco 
kind, with the seeds clinging together, but of good and long 
fibre, and the trees are left standing all the year to enable 
them to become large ; grain and ground-nuts are cultivated 
between them. The cotton is manufactured into coarse 
cloth, which is the general clothing of all. 

l\th October. — Crossed two deep gullies with sluggish 
water in them, and one surrounding an old stockade. Camp 
on a knoll, overlooking modern stockade and Tanganyika 
very pleasantly. Saw two beautiful sultanas with azure 
blue necks. We might have come here yesterday, but were 
too tired. Mukembe land is ruled by chief Kariaria ; village, 
Mokaria. Mount MTumbwe goes into the Lake. N'Tambwe 
Mount ; village, Kafumfwe. Kapufi is the chief of Fipa. 

Noon, and about fifty feet above Lake; clouded over. 
Temperature 91° noon ; 94° 3 p.m. 

15th October. — Rest, and kill an ox. The dry heat is dis- 
tressing, and all feel it sorely. I am right glad of the 
rest, but keep on as constantly as I can. By giving dura 
and maize to the donkeys, and riding on alternate days, they 
hold on; but I feel the sim more than if walking. The 
chief Kariaria is civil. 

16th October. — Leave Mokaia and go south. We crossed 
several bays of Tanganyika, the path winding considerably. 
The people set fire to our camp as soon as we started. 

11th October. — Leave a bay of Tanganyika, and go on to 
Mpimbwe ; two lions growled savagely as we passed. Game 
is swarming here, but my men cannot shoot except to make 
a noise. We found many lepidosirens in a muddy pool, 
which a group of vultures were catching and eating. The 


men speared one of them, which had scales on ; its tail had 
been bitten off by a cannibal brother : in length it was about 
two feet : there were curious roe-like portions near its back- 
bone, yellow in colour ; the flesh was good. "We climbed up 
a pass at the east end of Mpimbwe mountain, and at a 
rounded mass of it found water. 

18th October. — Went on about south among mountains 
all day till we came down, by a little westing, to the 
Lake again, where there were some large villages, well 
stockaded, with a deep gully half round them. Ill with 
my old complaint again. Bubwe is the chief here. Food 
dear, because Simba made a raid lately. The country is 

19th October — Remained to prepare food and rest the 
people. Two islets, Nkoma and Kalenge, are here, the latter 
in front of us. 

20th October. — We got a water-buck and ' a large buffalo, 
and remained during the forenoon to cut up the meat, and 
started at 2 p.m. 

Went on and passed a large arm of Tanganyika, having a 
bar of hills on its outer border. Country swarming with 
large game. Passed two bomas, and spent the night near 
one of them. Course east and then south. 

21st October. — Mokassa, a Moganda boy, has a swelling 
of the ankle, which prevents his walking. We went one 
hour to find wood to make a litter for him. The bomas 
round the villages are plastered with mud, so as to inter- 
cept balls or arrows. The trees are all cut down for these 
stockades, and the flats are cut up with deep gullies. A 
great deal of cotton is cultivated, of which the people 
make their cloth. There is an arm of Tanganyika here 
called Kafungia. 

I sent a doti to the headman of the village, where we 
made the litter, to ask for a guide to take us straight south 
instead of going east to Fipa, which is four days off and out 


of our course. Tipo Tipo is said to be at Morero, west of 

22nd October. — Turned back westwards, and went through 
the hills down to some large islets in the Lake, and camped 
in villages destroyed by Simba. A great deal of cotton is 
cultivated here, about thirty feet above the Lake. 

23rd October. — First east, and then passed two deep bays, 
at one of which we put up, as they had food to sell. The 
sides of the Tanganyika Lake are a succession of rounded 
bays, answering to the valleys which trend down to the shore 
between the numerous ranges of hills. In Lake Nyassa they 
seem made by the prevailing winds. We only get about 
one hour and a half south and by east. Bain probably fell 
last night, for the opposite shore is visible to-day. The 
mountain range of Banda slopes down as it goes south. This 
is the district of Motoshi. Wherever buffaloes are to be 
caught, falling traps are suspended over the path in the 
trees near the water. 

2±th October. — There are many rounded bays in moun- 
tainous Fipa. We rested two hours in a deep shady dell, 
and then came along a very slippery mountain-side to a 
village in a stockade. It is very hot to-day, and the first 
thunderstorm away in the east. The name of this village is 

2oth October. — The coast runs south-south-east to a cape. 
We went up south-east, then over a high steep hill to 
turn to south again, then down into a valley of Tangan- 
yika, over another stony side, and down to a dell with a 
village in it. The west coast is very plain to-day; rain 
must have fallen there. 

26th October. — Over hills and mountains again, past two 
deep bays, and on to a large bay with a prominent islet on 
the south side of it, called Kitanda, from the chief's name. 
There is also a rivulet of fine water of the same name 

VOL. it. e 


'27th October. — Remained to buy food, which is very dear. 
AVe slaughtered a tired cow to exchange for provisions. 

28th October. — Left Ivitanda, and came round the cape, 
going south. The cape furthest north bore north-north- 
west. We came to three villages and some large spread- 
ing trees, where we were invited by the headman to 
remain, as the next stage along the shore is long. Morilo 
islet is on the other or western side, at the crossing-place. 
The people brought in a leopard in great triumph. Its 
mouth and all its claws were bound with grass and bands of 
bark, as if to make it quite safe, and its tail was curled 
round : drumming and lullilooing in plenty. 

The chief Mosirwa, or Kasamane, paid us a visit, and is 
preparing a present of food. One of his men was bitten by 
the leopard in the arm before he killed it. Molilo or Morilo 
islet is the crossing-place of Banyamwezi when bound for 
Casembe's country, and is near to the Lofuko Eiver, on the 
western shore of the Lake. The Lake is about twelve or 
fifteen miles broad, at latitude 7° 52' south. Tipo Tipo is. 
ruling in Itawa, and bound a chief in chains, but loosed 
him on being requested to do so by Syde bin Ali. It takes 
about three hours to cross at Morilo. 

29th October. — Crossed the Thembwa Rivulet, twenty 
feet broad and knee deep, and sleep on its eastern bank. 
Fine cold water over stony bottom. The mountains now 
close in on Tanganyika, so there is no path but one, over 
which luggage cannot be carried. The stage after this is- 
six hours up hill before we come to water. This forced me- 
to stop after only a short crooked march of two and a quarter- 
hours. We are now on the confines of Fipa. The next 
march takes us into Burungu. 

3Qth October. — The highest parts of the mountains are 
from 500 feet to 700 feet higher than the passes, say 
from 1300 feet to 1500 feet above the Lake. A very rough 
march to-day ; one cow fell, and was disabled. The stones. 

1872.] DESOLATION. 24: r> > 

are collected in little heaps and rows, which shows that all 
these rough mountains were cultivated. We arrive at a 
village on the Lake shore. Kirila islet is about a quarter of 
a mile from the shore. The Megunda people cultivated 
these hills in former times. Thunder all the morning, and a 
few drops of rain fell. It will ease the men's feet when it 
does fall. They call out earnestly for it, " Come, come with 
hail ! " and prepare their huts for it. 

31st October. — Through a long pass after we had climbed 
over Winelao. Came to an islet one and a half mile 
long, called Kapessa, and then into a long pass. The 
population of Megunda must have been prodigious, for all 
the stones have been cleared, and every available inch of 
soil cultivated. 

The population are said to have been all swept away by 
the Matuta. 

Going south we came to a very large arm of the Lake, 
with a village at the end of it in a stockade. This arm is 
seven or eight miles long and about two broad. We killed 
a cow to-day, and found peculiar flat worms in the substance 
of the liver, and some that were rounded. 

it 2 

( 244 ) 


False guides. Very difficult travelling. Donkey dies of tsetse bites. 
The Kasonso family. A hospitable chief. The River Lofu. The nut- 
meg tree. Famine. 111. Arrives at Chama's town. A difficulty. 
An immense snake. Accoimt of Casembe's death. The flowers of the 
Babisa country. Reaches the River Lopoposi. Arrives at Chitunku^'s. 
Terrible marching. The Doctor is borne through the flooded country. 

1st November, 1872. — We hear that an eruption of Babemba, 
on the Baulungu, destroyed all the food. We tried to buy- 
food here, but everything is hidden in the mountains, so 
we have to wait to-day till they fetch it. If in time, we 
shall make an afternoon's march. Raining to-day. The 
River Mulu from Chingolao gave us much trouble in 
crossing from being filled with vegetation : it goes into 
Tanganyika. Our course south and east. 

2nd November. — Deceived by a guide, who probably 
feared his countrymen in front. Went round a stony cape, 
and then to a land-locked harbour, three miles long by two 
broad. Here was a stockade, where our guide absconded. 
They told us that if we continued our march we should not 
get water for four hours, so we rested, having marched four 
and a quarter hours. 

3rd November. — We marched this morning to a village 
where food was reported. I had to punish two useless 
men for calling out, " Posho ! posho ! posho !" (rations) as 
soon as I came near. One is a confirmed bange-smoker ; * 

* Bange or hemp in time produces partial idiotcy if smoked in excess. 
It is used amongst all the Interior tribes. 


the blows were given slightly, but I promised that the next 
should be severe. The people of Liemba village having a 
cow or two, and some sheep and goats, eagerly advised us to 
go on to the next village, as being just behind a hill, and 
well provisioned. Four very rough hills were the penalty of 
our credulity, taking four hours of incessant toil in these 
mountain fastnesses. They hide their food, and the paths 
are the most difficult that can be found, in order to wear out 
their enemies. To-day we got to the Eiver Luazi, having 
marched five and a half hours, and sighting Tanganyika 
near us twice. 

4ith November. — All very tired. We tried to get food, but 
it is very dear, and difficult to bargain for. Goods are pro- 
bably brought from Fipa. A rest will be beneficial to us. 

5th November. — We went up a high mountain, but found 
that one of the cows could not climb up, so I sent back and 
ordered it to be slaughtered, waiting on the top of the 
mountain whilst the people went down for water. 

6th November. — Pass a deep narrow bay and climb a steep 
mountain. Too much for the best donkey. After a few 
hours' climb we look down on the Lake, with its many bays. 
A sleepy glare floats over it. Further on we came on a 
ledge of rocks, and looked sheer down 500 feet or 600 feet 
into its dark green waters. We saw three zebras and a 
young python here, and fine flowers. 

1th November, Sunday.— Eemained, but the headman 
forbade his people to sell us food. We keep quiet except 
to invite him to a parley, which he refuses, and makes loud 
lullilooing in defiance, as if he were inclined to fighting. 
At last, seeing that we took no notice of him, he sent us a 
present ; I returned three times its value. 

8th November. — The large donkey is very ill, and unable to 
climb the high mountain in our front. I left men to coax 
him on, and they did it well. I then sent some to find a 
path out from the Lake mountains, for they will kill us all ; 


others were despatched to buy food, but the Lake folks are 
poor except in fish. 

Swifts in flocks were found on the Lake when we came 
to it, and there are small migrations of swallows ever since. 
Though this is the very hottest time of year, and all the 
plants are burnt off or quite dried, the flowers persist in 
bursting out of the hot dry surface, generally without leaves. 
A purple ginger, with two yellow patches inside, is very 
lovely to behold, and it is alternated with one of a bright 
canary yellow ; many trees, too, put on their blossoms. The 
sun makes the soil so hot that the radiation is as if it came 
from a furnace. It burns the feet of the people, and knocks 
them up. Subcutaneous inflammation is frequent in the 
legs, and makes some of my most hardy men useless. We 
have been compelled to slowness very much against my will. 
I too was ill, and became better only by marching on foot. 
Eiding exposes one to the bad influence of the sun, while by 
walking the perspiration modifies beneficially the excessive 
heat. It is like the difference in effect of cold if one is in 
activity or sitting, and falling asleep on a stage-coach. I 
know ten hot fountains north of the Orange Elver; the 
further north the more hot and numerous they become. 

[Just here we find a note, which does not bear reference to 
anything that occurred at this time. Men, in the midst of 
their hard earnest toil, perceive great truths with a sharp- 
ness of outline and a depth of conviction which is denied to 
the mere idle theorist : he says : — ] 

The spirit of Missions is the spirit of our Master : the 
very genius of His religion. A diffusive philanthropy is 
Christianity itself. It requires perpetual propagation to 
attest its genuineness. 

9th November. — We got very little food, and kill a calf 
to fill our mouths a little. A path east seems to lead out 
from these mountains of Tanganyika. We went on east 

1872.] LEAVES THE LAKE. 247 

this morning in highland open forest, then descended by a 
long slope to a valley in which there is water. Many 
Milenga gardens, but the people keep out of sight. The 
highlands are of a purple colour from the new leaves coming 
out. The donkey began to eat to my great joy. Men sent 
off to search for a village return empty-handed, and we 
must halt. I am ill and losing much blood. 

10th November. — Out from the Lake mountains, and along 
hisjh ridges of sandstone and dolomite. Our guide volun- 
teered to take the men on to a place where food can be 
bought — a very acceptable offer. The donkey is recovering ; 
it was distinctly the effects of tsetse, for the eyes and all the 
mouth and nostrils swelled. Another died at Kwihara with 
every symptom of tsetse poison fully developed. 

[The above remarks on the susceptibility of the donkey to 
the bite of the tsetse fly are exceedingly important. Hitherto 
Dr. Livingstone had always maintained, as the result of his 
own observations, that this animal, at all events, could be 
taken through districts in which horses, mules, dogs, and 
oxen would perish to a certainty. With the keen perception 
.and perseverance of one who was exploring Africa with a 
view to open it up for Europeans, he laid great stress on 
rthese experiments, and there is no doubt that the distinct 
result which he here arrived at must have a very signifi- 
cant bearing on the question of travel and transport. 

Still passing through the same desolate country, we 
see that he makes a note on the forsaken fields and 
the watch-towers in them. Cucumbers are cultivated in 
large quantities by the natives of Inner Africa, and the 
reader will no doubt call to mind the simile adopted by 
Isaiah some 2500 years ago, as he pictured the coming 
-desolation of Zion, likening her to a " lodge in a garden of 

* Isaiah i. 8. 


lltJi November. — Over gently undulating country, with 
many old gardens and watch-houses, some of great height, 
we reached the River Kalarnbo, which I know as falling 
into Tanganyika. A branch joins it at the village of Mosa- 
pasi ; it is deep, and has to be crossed by a bridge, whilst 
the Kalambo is shallow, and say twenty yards wide, but it 
spreads out a good deal. 

[Their journey of the 12th and 13th led them over low 
ranges of sandstone and haematite, and past several strongly 
stockaded villages. The weather was cloudy and showery — 
a relief, no doubt, after the burning heat of the last few 
weeks. They struck the Halocheche River, a rapid stream 
fifteen yards wide and thigh deep, on its way to the Lake, 
and arrived at Zombe's town, Avhich is built in such a 
manner that the river runs through it, whilst a stiff palisade 
surrounds it. He says : — ] 

It was entirely surrounded by M'toka's camp, and a con- 
stant fight maintained at the point where the line of stakes 
was weakened by the river running through. He killed four 
of the enemy, and then Chitimbwa and Kasonso coming to 
help him, the siege was raised. 

M'toka compelled some Malongwana to join him, and 
plundered many villages ; he has been a great scourge. He 
also seems to have made an attack upon an Arab caravan, 
plundering it of six bales of cloth and one load of beads, 
telling them that if they wanted to get their things back 
they must come and help him conquer Zombe. The siege' 
lasted three months, till the two brothers of Zombe, before- 
mentioned, came, and then a complete rout ensued. M'toka 
left nearly all his guns behind him ; his allies, the Malong- 
wana, had previously made their escape. It is two months 
since this rout, so we have been prevented by a kind Provi- 
dence from coming soon enough. He was impudent and 

1872.] DEATH OF THE DONKEY. 249 

extortionate before, and much more now that he has been 
emboldened by success in plundering. 

16^ November. — After waiting some time for the men I 
sent men back yesterday to look after the sick donkey, they 
arrived, but the donkey died this morning. Its death was 
evidently caused by tsetse bite and bad usage by one of the 
men, who kept it forty-eight hours without water. The 
rain, no doubt, helped to a fatal end ; it is a great loss 
to me. 

17 th November. — We went on along the bottom of a high 
ridge that flanks the Lake on the west, and then turned up 
south-east to a village hung on the edge of a deep chasm in 
Avhich flows the Aeezy. 

18th November. — We were soon overwhelmed in a pour- 
ing rain, and had to climb up the slippery red path which is 
parallel and near to Mbette's. One of the men picked up a 
little girl who had been deserted by her mother. As she 
was benumbed by cold and wet he carried her ; but when I 
came up he threw her into the grass. I ordered a. man to 
carry her, and we gave her to one of the childless women ; 
she is about four years old, and not at all negro-looking. 
Our march took us about S.W. to Ivampamba's, the son of 
Kasonso, who is dead. 

19th November. — I visited Kampamba. He is still as 
agreeable as he was before when he went with us to Liemba. 
I gave him two cloths as a present. He has a good-sized 
village. There are heavy rains now and then every day. 

20th, 21st, and 23rd November. — -The men turn to stringing 
beads for future use, and to all except defaulters I give a 
present of 2 dotis, and a handful of beads each. I have 
diminished the loads considerably, which pleases them much. 
We have now 3^ loads of calico, and 120 bags of beads. Several 
go idle, but have to do any odd work, such as helping the sick 
or anything they are ordered to do. I gave the two Nassickers 
who lost the cow and calf only 1 doti, they were worth 14 


dotis. One of our men is behind, sick with dysentery. I am 
obliged to leave him, but have sent for him twice, and have 
given him cloth and beads. 

24th November. — Left Kampamba's to-day, and cross a 
meadow S.E. of the village in which the River Muanani rises. 
It flows into the Kapondosi and so on to the Lake. We made 
good way with Kiteneka as our guide, who formerly accom- 
panied Kampamba and ourselves to Liemba. We went over 
a flat country once covered with trees, but now these have all 
been cut down, say 4 to 5 feet from the ground, most likely 
for clearing, as the reddish soil is very fertile. Long lines 
of hills of denudation are in the distance, all directed to the 

We came at last to Kasonso's successor's village on the 
River Molulwe, which is, say, thirty yards wide, and thigh 
deep. It goes to the Lofu. The chief here gave a sheep — 
a welcome present, for I was out of flesh for four days. 
Kampamba is stingy as compared with his father. 

25th November. — We came in an hour's march to a rivulet 
called the Casembe — the departed Kasonso lived here. The 
stream is very deep, and flows slowly to the Lofu. Our 
path lay through much pollarded forest, troublesome to 
walk in, as the stumps send out leafy shoots. 

26th November. — Started at daybreak. The grass was loaded 
with dew, and a heavy mist hung over everything. Passed 
two villages of people come out to cultivate this very fertile 
soil, which they manure by burning branches of trees. The 
Rivulet Loela flows here, and is also a tributary of the Lofu. 

27th November. — As it is Sunday we stay here at N'dari's 
village, for we shall be in an uninhabited track to-morrow, 
beyond the Lofu. The headman cooked six messes for us 
and begged us to remain for more food, which we buy. He 
gave us a handsome present of flour and a fowl, for which 
I return him a present of a doti. Very heavy rain and high 
gusts of wind, which wet us all. 

1872.] BRIDGE BUILDING. 251 

28th November. — We came to the River Lofu in a mile. It 
is sixty feet across and very deep. We made a bridge, and 
cut the banks down, so that the donkey and cattle could pass 
over. It took us two hours, during which time we hauled 
them all across with a rope. We were here misled by our 
guide, who took us across a marsh covered with tufts of jrrass, 
but with deep water between that never dries ; there is a 
path which goes round it. We came to another village with 
a river which must be crossed — no stockade here, and the chief 
allowed us to camp in his town. There are long low lines of 
hills all about. A man came to the bridge to ask for toll- 
fee : as it was composed of one stick only, and unfit for our 
use because rotten, I agreed to pay provided he made it fit 
for our large company ; but if I re-made and enlarged it, I 
said he ought to give me a goat for the labour. He slunk 
away, and we laid large trees across, where previously there 
was but one rotten pole. 

29^ November. — Crossed the Loozi in two branches, and 
climbed up the gentle ascent of Malembe to the village of 
Chiwe, whom I formerly called Chibwe, being misled by the 
Yao tongue. Ilamba is the name of the rill at his place. 
The Loozi's two branches were waist deep. The first was 
crossed by a natural bridge of a fig-tree growing across. It 
rims into the Lofu, which river rises in Isunga country at 
a mountain called Kwitette. The Chambeze rises east of 
this, and at the same place as Louzua. 

Chiwe presented a small goat with crooked legs and some 
millet flour, but he grumbled at the size of the fathom cloth 
I gave. I offered another fathom, and a bundle of needles, 
but he grumbled at this too, and sent it back. On this 
I returned his goat and marched. 

[The road lay through the same country among low hills, 
for several miles, till they came on the 1st December to a 
rivulet called Lovu Katanta, where curiously enough they 


found a nutmeg-tree in full bearing. A wild species is 
found at Angola on the West Coast and it was probably of 
this description, and not the same species as that which is 
cultivated in the East. In two places he says : — ] 

Who planted the nutmeg-tree on the Katanta ? 

[Passing on with heavy rain pouring down, they now 
found themselves in the Wemba country, the low tree- 
covered hills exhibiting here and there " fine-grained schist 
and igneous rocks of red, white, and green colour."] 

3rd December, 1872. — No food to be got on account of 
31'toka's and Tipo Tipo's raids. 

A stupid or perverse guide took us away to-day N.W. or 
W.N.W. The villagers refused to lead us to Chipwite's, 
where food was to be had; he is S.W. 1£ day off. The 
guide had us at his mercy, for he said, "If you go S.W. 
you will be five days without food or people." We 
crossed the Kanomba, fifteen yards wide, and knee deep. 
Here our guide disappeared, and so did the path. We 
crossed the Lampussi twice ; it is forty yards wide, and knee 
deep ; our course is W.N.W. for about 4£ hours to-day. 
We camped and sent men to search for a village that has 
food. My third barometer (aneroid) is incurably injured by 
a fall, the man who carried it slipped upon a clayey path. 

Mil December. — Waiting for the return of our men in a 
green wooded valley on the Lampussi River. Those who 
were sent yesterday return without anything; they were 
directed falsely by the country people, where nought could 
be bought. The people themselves are living on grubs, 
roots, and fruits. The young plasterer >Sphex is very fat on 
coming out of its clay house, and a good relish for food. A 
man came to us demanding his wife and child ; they are 
probably in hiding ; the slaves of Tipo Tipo have been cap- 
turing people. One sinner destroyeth much good ! 

1872 -] THE LAMPUSSI RIVER. 253 

5th December.— The people eat mushrooms and leaves. 
My men returned about 5 p.m. with two of Kafimbe"s men 
bringing a present of food to me. A little was bought, and 
we go on to-morrow to sleep two nights on the way, and so 
to Kafimbe, who is a brother of Nsama's, and rights him. 

6th December.— We cross the Lampussi again, and up to a 
mountain along which we go, and then down to some ruins. 
This took us five hours, and then with 2| more hours Ave 
reach Sintila. We hasten along as fast as hungry men 
(four of them sick) can go to get food. 

1th December.— On at 6.15 a.m. A leopard broke in upon 
us last night and bit a woman. She screamed, and so did 
the donkey, and it ran off. Our course lay along between 
two ranges of low hills, then, where they ended, we went by 
a good-sized stream thirty yards or so across, and then down 
into a valley to Kafimbe's. 

8th December.— Vei y heavy rains. I visited Kafimbe. He 
is an intelligent and pleasant young man, who has been 
attacked several times by Kitandula, the successor of 
Nsama of Itawa, and compelled to shift from Motononga 
to this rivulet Motosi, which flows into the Kisi and thence 
into Lake Moero. 

9th December.— -Send off men to a distance for food, and 
wait of course. Here there is none for either love or money. 
To-day a man came from the Arab party at Kumba- 
Kumba's with a present of M'chele and a goat. He reports 
that they have killed Casembe, whose people concealed from 
him the approach of the enemy till they were quite near. 
Having no stockade, he fell an easy prey to them. The 
conquerors put his head and all his ornaments on poles. 
His pretty wife escaped over Mofwe, and the slaves of the 
Arabs ran riot everywhere. We sent a return present of 
two dotis of cloth, one jorah of Kanike, one doti of coloured 
cloth, three pounds of beads, and a paper of needles. 

10th December. — Left Kafimbe's. He gave us three men 


to take us into Chama's village, and came a mile along the 
road with us. Our road took us by a winding course from 
one little deserted village to another. 

llth December. — Being far from water we went two hours 
across a plain dotted with villages to a muddy rivulet called 
the Mukubwe (it runs to Moero), where we found the village 
of a nephew of Nsania. This young fellow was very liberal 
in gifts of food, and in return I gave him two cloths. An 
Arab, Juma bin SefT, sent a goat to-day. They have been 
riding it roughshod over all the inhabitants, and confess it. 

12th December. — Marenza sent a present of dura flour and 
a fowl, and asked for a little butter as a charm. He seems 
unwilling to give us a guide, though told by Kafimbe to do 
so. Many Garaganza about : they trade in leglets, ivory, 
and slaves. We went on kalf-an-hour to the River Mokoe, 
which is thirty yards wide, and carries off much water into 
Malunda, and so to Lake Moero. 

When palm-oil palms are cut down for toddy, they are 
allowed to lie three days, then the top shoot is cut off 
smoothly, and the toddy begins to flow ; and it flows for a 
month, or a month and a half or so, lying on the soil. 

[The note made on the following day is written with a 
feeble hand, and scarce one pencilled word tallies with its 
neighbour in form or distinctness — in fact, it is seen at a 
glance what exertion it cost him to write at all. He says 
no more than " 111 " in one place, but this is the evident 
explanation ; yet with the same painstaking determination 
of old, the three rivers which they crossed have their names 
recorded, and the hours of marching and the direction an 1 
all entered in his pocket book.] 

13th December. — Westward about by south, and crossed 
a river, Mokobwe, thirty-five yards. Ill, and after going 
S.W. camped in a deserted village, S.W. travelling five 
hours. River Mekanda 2nd. Merioinba 3, where we camp. 

1872.] LEECHES. 255 

14dh December. — Guides tinned N.W. to take us to a son 
of Nsama, and so play the usual present into his hands. I 
objected when I saw their direction, but they said, " The 
path turns round in front." After going a mile along the 
bank of the Mefioniba, which has much water, Susi broke 
through and ran south, till he got a S. by W. path, which 
we followed, and came to a village having plenty of food. 
As we have now camped in village, we sent the men off to 
recall the fugitive women, who took us for Komba-Komba's 
men. Crossed the Lupere, which runs into the Makobwe. 

A leech crawling towards me in the village this morning 
elicited the Beniba idea that they fall from the clouds or 
sky — " mulu." It is called here " Mosunda a maluze," or 
leech of the rivers ; " Luba " is the Zanzibar name. In one 
place I counted nineteen leeches in our path, in about a 
mile; rain had fallen, and their appearance out of their 
hiding-places suddenly after heavy rain may have given 
rise to the idea of their fall with it as fishes do, and the 
thunder frog is supposed to do. Always too cloudy and 
rainy for observations of stars. 

loth December. — The country is now level, covered with 
trees pollarded for clothing, and to make ashes of for manure. 
There are many deserted villages, few birds. Cross the 
River Lithabo, thirty yards wide and thigh deep, running 
fast to the S.W., joined by a small one near. Reached 
village of Chipala, on the Rivulet Chikatula, which goes to 
Moipanza. The Lithabo goes to Kalongwesi by a S.W. 

16th December. — Off at 6 a.m. across the Chikatula, and 
in three-quarters of an hour crossed the Lopanza, twelve 
yards wide and waist deep, being now in flood. The Lolela 
was before us in half-an-hour, eight yards wide and thigh 
deep, both streams perennial and embowered in tall umbra- 
geous trees that love wet ; both flow to the Kalongwesi. 

We came to quite a group of villages having food, and 


remain, as we got only driblets in the last two camps. Met 
two Banyamwezi carrying salt to Lobemba, of Moambu. 
They went to Kabuire for it, and now retail it on the way 

At noon we got to the village of Kasiane, which is close 
to two rivulets, named Lopanza and Lolela. The headman, 
a relative of Nsama, brought me a large present of flour of 
dura, and I gave him two fathoms of calico. 

Floods by these sporadic rainfalls have discoloured waters, 
as seen in Lopanza and Lolela to-day. The grass is all 
springing up quickly, and the Maleza growing fast. The 
trees generally in full foliage. Different shades of green, 
the dark prevailing ; especially along rivulets, and the hills 
in the distance are covered with dark blue haze. Here, in 
Lobemba, they are gentle slopes of about 200 or 300 feet, 
and sandstone crops out over their tops. In some parts clay 
schists appear, which look as if they had been fused or were 
baked by intense heat. 

The pugnacious spirit is one of the necessities of life. 
When people have little or none of it, they are subjected to 
indignity and loss. My own men walk into houses where we 
pass the nights without asking any leave, and steal cassava 
without shame. I have to threaten and thrash to keep 
them honest, while if we are at a village where the natives 
are a little pugnacious they are as meek as sucking doves. 
The peace plan involves indignity and wrong. I give little 
presents to the headmen, and to some extent heal their hurt 
sensibilities. This is indeed much appreciated, and produces 
profound hand-clapping. 

17th December. — It looked rainy, but we waited half-an- 
hour, and then went on one hour and a half, when it set in 
and forced us to seek shelter in a village. The head of it 
was very civil, and gave us two baskets of cassava, and one 
of dura. I gave a small present first. The district is called 
Kisinga, and flanks the Kalongweze. 

1872.] THE KALONGWESE. 257 

18th December. — Over same flat pollarded forest until we 
reached the Kalongwese Kiver on the right bank, and about 
a quarter of a mile east of the confluence of the Luena or 
Kisaka. This side of the river is called Kisinga, the other 
is Chama's and Kisinga too. The Luena comes from Jange 
in Casembe's land, or W.S.W. of this. The Kalongwese 
comes from the S.E. of this, and goes away N.W. The 
donkey sends a foot every now and then through the roof of 
cavities made apparently by ants, and sinks down 18 inches 
or more and nearly falls. These covered hollows are right 
in the paths. 

19th December. — So cloudy and wet that no observations 
can be taken for latitude and longitude at this real geo- 
graphical point. The Kalongwese is sixty or eighty yards 
wide and four yards deep, about a mile above the confluence 
of the Lue'na. We crossed it in very small canoes, and 
swamped one twice, but no one was lost. Marched S. about 
1£ hour. 

20th December. — Shut in by heavy clouds. Wait to see if 
it will clear up. Went on at 7.15, drizzling as we came 
near the Mozumba or chief's stockade. A son of Chama 
tried to mislead us by setting out west, but the path being 
grass-covered I. objected, and soon came on to the large 
clear path. The guide ran off to report to the son, but we 
kept on our course, and he and the son followed us. We 
were met by a party, one of whom tried to regale us by 
vociferous singing and trumpeting on an antelope's horn, 
but I declined the deafening honour. Had we suffered the 
misleading we should have come here to-morrow afternoon. 

A Avet bed last night, for it was in the canoe that was 
upset. It was so rainy that there was no drying it. 

21st December. — Arrived at Chama's. Heavy clouds drift- 
ing past, and falling drizzle. Chama's brother tried to 
mislead us yesterday, in hopes of making us wander hope- 
lessly and helplessly. Failing in this, from my refusal to 

VOL. II. s 


follow a grass-covered path, he ran before us to the chief's, 
stockade, and made all the women flee, which they did. 
leaving their chickens damless. We gave him two hand- 
some cloths, one for himself and one for Chama, and said we 
Avanted food only, and would buy it. They are accustomed 
to the bullying of half-castes, who take what they like for 
nothing. They are alarmed at our behaviour to-day, so we 
took quiet possession of the stockade, as the place that they 
put us in was on the open defenceless plain. Seventeen 
human skulls ornament the stockade. They left their fowls 
and pigeons. There was no bullying. Our women went in 
to grind food, and came out without any noise. This flight 
seems to be caused by the foolish brother of the chief, and 
it is difficult to prevent stealing by my horde. The brother 
came drunk, and was taking off a large sheaf of arrows, when 
Ave scolded and prevented him. 

22nd December. — We crossed a rivulet at Chama's village- 
ten yards wide and thigh deep, and afterwards in an hour 
and a half came to a sedgy stream which Ave could barely 
cross. We hauled a cow across bodily. Went on mainly 
south, and through much bracken. 

23rd December. — Off at G a.m. in a mist, and in an hour 
and a quarter came to three large villages by three rills 
called MisangAva, and much sponge ; went on to other 
villages south, and a stockade. 

24th December. — Cloud in sky Avith drifting clouds from 
S. and S.W. Very Avet and drizzling. Sent back Chama's 
arrows, as his foolish brother cannot use them against us 
now; there are 215 in the bundle. Passed the Lopopussi 
running west to the Lofubu about seven yards Avide, it Aoavs 
fast over rocks with heavy aquatic plants. The people are 
not afraid of us here as they Avere so distressingly elseAvhere : 
Ave hope to buy food here. 

25th December, Christmas Day. — I thank the good Lord for 
the good gift of His Son Christ Jesus our Lord. Slaughtered 

1872.] COLOUR OF THE WATEE. 259 

an ox, and gave a fundo and a half to each of the party. 
This is our great day, so we rest. It is cold and wet, day 
and night. The headman is gracious and generous, which 
is very pleasant compared with awe, awe, and refusing to 
sell, or stop to speak, or show the way. 

The "White Nile carrying forward its large quasi-tidal wave 
presents a mass of water to the Blue Nile, which acts as a 
buffer to its rapid flood. The White Nile being at a con- 
siderable height when the Blue rushes down its steep slopes, 
presents its brother Nile with a soft cushion into which it 
plunges, and is restrained by the vis inertise of the more 
slowly moving river, and, both united, pass on to form the 
great inundation of the year in Lower Egypt. The Blue 
River brings down the heavier portion of the Nile deposit, 
while the White River comes down with the black finely 
divided matter from thousands of square miles of forest in 
Manyuema, which probably gave the Nile its name, and is 
in fact the real fertilizing ingredient in the mud that is 
annually left. Some of the rivers in Manyuema, as the 
Luia and Machila, are of inky blackness, and make the 
whole main stream of a very Nilotic hue. An acquaintance 
with these dark flowing rivers, and scores of rills of water 
tinged as dark as strong tea, was all my reward for plunging 
through the terrible Manyuema mud or " glaur." 

26th December. — Along among the usual low tree-covered 
hills of red and yellow and green schists — paths wet and 
slippery. Came to the Lofubu, fifteen yards broad and very 
deep, water clear, flowing north-west to join Luena or Kisaka, 
as the Lopopussi goes west too into Lofubu it becomes large 
as we saw. We crossed by a bridge, and the donkey swam 
with men on each side of him. We came to three villages 
on the other side with many iron furnaces. Wet and 
drizzling weather made us stop soon. A herd of buffaloes, 
scared by our party, rushed off and broke the trees in their 
hurry, otherwise there is no game or marks of game visible. 

s 2 


21th December. — Leave the villages on the Lofubu. A 
cascade comes down on our left. The country undulating 
deeply, the hills, rising at times 300 to 400 feet, are covered 
with stunted wood. There is much of the common bracken 
fern and hart's-tongue. We cross one rivulet running to 
the Lofubu, and camp by a blacksmith's rill in the jungle. 
No rain fell to-day for a wonder, but the lower tier of clouds 
still drifts past from N.W. 

I killed a Naia Hadje snake seven feet long here, he 
reared up before me and turned to fight. The under north- 
west stratum of clouds is composed of fluffy cottony masses, 
the edges spread out as if on an electrical machine — the 
upper or south-east is of broad fields like striated cat's hair. 
The N.W. flies quickly, the S.E. slowly away where the 
others come from. No observations have been possible 
through most of this month. People assert that the new 
moon will bring drier weather, and the clouds are pre- 
paring to change the N.W. lower stratum into S.E., ditto, 
ditto, and the N.W. will be the upper tier. 

A man, ill and unable to come on, was left all night 
in the rain, without fire. We sent men back to carry him. 
Wet and cold. We are evidently ascending as we come near 
the Chambeze. The N.E. clouds came up this morning to 
meet the N.W. and thence the S.E. came across as if com- 
bating the N.W. So as the new moon comes soon, it may 
be a real change to drier weather. 

4 p.m. — The man carried in here is very ill ; we must carry 
him to-morrow. 

29th Decemher. — Our man Chipangawazi died last night 
and was buried this morning. He was a quiet good man, 
his disease began at Kampamba's. New moon last night. 

29th, or 1st January, 1873. — I am wrong two days. 

29th December. — After the burial and planting four 
branches of Moriiiga at the corners of the grave we went on 
southwards 3^ hours to a river, the Luongo, running strongly 

1673.] A GENEROUS CHIEF. 261 

west and south to the Luapula, then after one hour crossed 
it, twelve yards wide and waist deep. We met a man with 
four of his kindred stripping off bark to make bark-cloth : 
he gives me the above information about the Luongo. 

1st January, 1873. (30^.) — Came on at 6 a.m. very cold. 
The rains have ceased for a time. Arrive at the village of 
the man who met us yesterday. As we have been unable to 
buy food, through the illness and death of Chipangawazi, I 
camp here. 

2nd January. — Thursday — Wednesday was the 1st, I was 
two days wrong. 

3rd January. — The villagers very anxious to take us to 
the west to Chikumbi's, but I refused to follow them, and 
we made our course to the Luongo. Went into the forest 
south without a path for 1^ hour, then through a flat forest, 
much fern and no game. We camped in the forest at the 
Situngula Eivulet. A little quiet rain through the night. 
A damp climate this — lichens on all the trees, even on those 
of 2 inches diameter. Our last cow died of injuries received 
in crossing the Lofubu. People buy it for food, so it is not 
an entire loss. 

4dh January. — March south one hour to the Lopoposi or 
Lopopozi stream of 25 or 30 feet, and now breast deep, 
flowing fast southwards to join the Chambeze. Camped at 
Ketebe's at 2 p.m. on the Kivulet Kizima after very heavy 

5th January. — A woman of our party is very ill ; she will 
require to be carried to-morrow. 

6th January. — Ketebe or Kapesha very civil and generous. 
He sent three men to guide us to his elder brother 
Chungu. The men drum and sing harshly for him con- 
tinually. I gave him half-a-pound of powder, and he lay 
on his back rolling and clapping his hands, and all his 
men lulliloed; then he turned on his front, and did the 
same. The men are very timid — no wonder, the Arab 
slaves do as they choose with them. The women burst out 


through the stockade in terror when my men broke into a 
chorus as they were pitching my tent. Cold, cloudy, and 
drizzling. Much cultivation far from the stockades. 

The sponges here are now full and overflowing, from the 
continuous and heavy rains. Crops of mileza, maize, cas- 
sava, dura, tobacco, beans, ground-nuts, are growing finely. 
A border is made round each patch, manured by burning 
the hedge, and castor-oil plants, pumpkins, calabashes, are 
planted in it to spread out over the grass. 

1th January. — A cold rainy day keeps us in a poor village 
very unwillingly. 3 p.m. Fair, after rain all the morning — 
on to the Rivulet Kamalopa, which runs to Kamolozzi and 
into Kapopozi. 

8th January. — Detained by heavy continuous rains in the 
village Moenje. We are near Lake Bangweolo and in a 
damp region. Got off in the afternoon in a drizzle ; crossed 
a rill six feet wide, but now very deep, and with large 
running sponges on each side ; it is called the Kamalopa, 
then one hour beyond came to a sponge, and a sluggish 
rivulet 100 yards broad with broad sponges on either bank 
waist deep, and many leeches. Came on through flat forest 
as usual S.W. and S. 

[We may here call attention to the alteration of the face 
of the country and the prominent notice of "sponges." 
His men speak of the march from this point as one continual 
plunge in and out of morass, and through rivers which were 
only distinguishable from the surrounding waters by their 
deep currents and the necessity for using canoes. To a man 
reduced in strength and chronically affected with dysenteric 
symptoms ever likely to be aggravated by exposure, the 
effect may be well conceived ! It is probable that had Dr. 
Livingstone been at the head of a hundred picked Euro- 
peans, every man would have been down within the next 
fortnight. As it is, we cannot help thinking of his company 
of ^followers, who must have been well led and under the 

1873.] CHUNGU. 260 

most thorough control to endure these marches at all, for 
nothing cows the African so much as rain. The next day's 
journey may be taken as a specimen of the hardships every 
one had to endure : — ] 

9th January. — Mosumba of Chungu. After an hour we 
crossed the rivulet and sponge of Nkulumuna, 100 feet ot 
rivulet and 200 yards of flood, besides some 200 yards ol 
sponge full and running off; we then, after another hour, 
crossed the large rivulet Lopopozi by a bridge which was 
45 feet long, and showed the deep water ; then 100 yards of 
flood thigh deep, and 200 or 300 yards of sponge. After 
this we crossed two rills called Lihkanda and their sponges, 
the rills in flood 10 or 12 feet broad and thigh deep. xVfter 
crossing the last we came near the Mosumba, and received a 
message to build our sheds in the forest, which we did. 

Chungu knows what a nuisance a Safari (caravan) makes 
itself. Cloudy day, and at noon heavy rain from N.W. The 
headman on receiving two cloths said he would converse 
about our food and show it to-morrow. No observations can 
be made, from clouds and rain. 

10th January. — Mosumba of Chungu. Eest to-day and 
get an insight into the ford : cold rainy weather. When 
we prepared to visit Chungu, we received a message that he 
had gone to his plantations to get millet. He then sent for 
us at 1 p.m. to come, but on reaching the stockade we heard 
.a great Kelele, or uproar, and found it being shut from 
terror. We spoke to the inmates but in vain, so we returned. 
Chungu says that we should put his head on a pole like 
Casembe's ! We shall go on without him to-morrow. The 
terror guns have inspired is extreme. 

11th January. — Chungu sent a goat and big basket of 
flour, and excused his fears because guns had routed Casembe 
and his head was put on a pole ; it was his young men that 
raised the noise. We remain to buy food, as there is scarcitv 


at Mombo, in front. Cold and rainy weather, never saw the 
like ; but this is among the sponges of the Nile and near 
the northern shores of Bangweolo. 

12th January. — A dry day enabled us to move forward an 
hour to a rivulet and sponge, but by ascending it we came 
to its head and walked over dryshod, then one hour to 
another broad rivulet — Pinda, sluggish, and having 100 
yards of sponge on each side. This had a stockaded village, 
and the men in terror shut the gates. Our men climbed 
over and opened them, but I gave the order to move forward 
through flat forest till we came to a running rivulet of about 
twenty feet, but with 100 yards of sponge on each side. The 
white sand had come out as usual and formed the bottom. 
Here we entered a village to pass the night. We passed 
mines of fine black iron ore (" motapo ") ; it is magnetic. 

13th January. — Storm-stayed by rain and cold at the 
village on the Kivulet Kalambosi, near the Chambeze. 
Never was in. such a spell of cold rainy weather except in 
going to Loanda in 1853. Sent back for food. 

14:th January. — Went on dry S.E. and then S. two hours 
to Biver Mozinga, and marched parallel to it till we came to 
the confluence of Kasie. Mosinga, 25 feet, waist deep, with 
150 yards of sponge on right bank and about 50 yards on 
left. There are many plots of cassava, maize, millet, dura, 
ground-nuts, voandzeia, in the forest, all surrounded with 
strong high hedges skilfully built, and manured with wood 
ashes. The villagers are much afraid of us. After 4h hours 
we were brought up by the deep rivulet Mpanda, to be 
crossed to-morrow in canoes. There are many flowers in the 
forest : marigolds, a white jonquil-looking flower without 
smell, many orchids, white, yellow, and pink Asclepias,. 
with bunches of French-white flowers, clematis — Methonica 
r/loriosa, gladiolus, and blue and deep purple polygalas,. 
grasses with white starry seed-vessels, and spikelets of 
brownish red and yellow. Besides these there are beautiful 


blue flowering bulbs, and new flowers of pretty delicate form 
and but little scent. To this list may be added balsams, 
compositse of blood-red colour and of purple ; other flowers 
of liver colour, bright canary yellow, pink orchids on spikes 
thickly covered all round, and of three inches in length ; 
spiderworts of fine blue or yellow or even pink. Different 
coloured asclepedials ; beautiful yellow and red umbelliferous 
flowering plants ; dill and wild parsnips; pretty flowery aloes, 
yellow and red, in one whorl of blossoms ; peas, and many 
other flowering plants which I do not know. Very few 
birds or any kind of game. The people are Babisa, who 
have fled from the west and are busy catching fish in basket 

15th January. — Found that Chungu had let us go astray 
towards the Lake, and into an angle formed by the Mpande 
and Lopopussi, and the Lake-full of rivulets which are crossed 
with canoes. Chisupa, a headman on the other side of the 
Mpanda, sent a present and denounced Chungu for heartless- 
ness. We explained to one man our change of route and 
went first N.E., then E. to the Monsinga, which we forded 
again at a deep place full of holes and rust-of-iron water, in 
which we floundered over 300 yards. We crossed a sponge 
thigh deep before we came to the Mosinga, then on in flat 
forest to a stockaded village ; the whole march about east 
for six hours. 

16th January. — Away north-east and north to get out 
of the many rivulets near the Lake back to the Eiver 
Lopopussi, which now looms large, and must be crossed in 
canoes. We have to wait in a village till these are brought, 
and have only got If hour nearly north. 

We were treated scurvily by Chungu. He knew that we 
were near the Chambeze, but hid the knowledge and himself 
too. It is terror of guns. 

11th January. — We are troubled for want of canoes, but 
have to treat gently with the "owners, otherwise they would 


all run away, as they have around Chungu's, in the belief 
that we should return to punish their silly headman. By 
waiting patiently yesterday, we drew about twenty canoes 
towards us this morning, but all too small for the donkey, 
so we had to turn away back north-west to the bridge above 
Chungu's. If we had tried to swim the donkey across along- 
side a canoe it would have been terribly strained, as the 
Lopopussi is here quite two miles wide and full of rushes, 
except in the main stream. It is all deep, and the country 
being very level as the rivulets come near to the Lake, they 
become very broad. Crossed two sponges with rivulets in 
their centre. 

Much cultivation in the forest. In the second year the 
mileza and maize are sickly and yellow white ; in the first 
year, with fresh wood ashes, they are dark green and strong. 
Very much of the forest falls for manure. The people seem 
very eager cultivators. Possibly mounds have the potash 
brought up in forming. 

18th January. — We lost a week by going to Chungu (a 
worthless terrified headman), and came back to the ford of 
Lopopussi, which we crossed, only from believing him to be 
an influential man who would explain the country to us. 
We came up the Lopopussi three hours yesterday, after 
spending two hours in going down to examine the canoes. 
We hear that Sayde bin Ali is returning from Katanga with 
much ivory. 

19th January. — After prayers we went on to a fine village, 
and on from it to the Mononse, which, though only ten feet 
of deep stream flowing S., had some 400 yards of most 
fatiguing, plunging, deep sponge, which lay in a mass of 
dark-coloured rushes, that looked as if burnt off: many 
leeches plagued us. We were now two hours out. We went 
on two miles to another sponge and village, but went round 
its head dryshod, then two hours more to sponge Lovu. 
Flat forest as usual. 


20th January. — Tried to observe limars in vain ; clouded 
over all, thick and muggy. Came on disappointed and along 
the Lovu H mile. Crossed it by a felled tree lying over it. 
It is about six feet deep, with 150 yards of sponge. Marched 
about 2\ hours : very unsatisfactory progress. 

[In answer to a question as to whether Dr. Livingstone 
could possibly manage to wade so much, Susi says that he 
was carried across these sponges and the rivulets on the 
shoulders of Chowpere or Chumah.] 

21st January. — Fundi lost himself yesterday, and we 
looked out for him. He came at noon, having wandered in 
the eager pursuit of two herds of eland ; having seen no 
game for a long time, he lost himself in the eager hope of 
getting one. We went on 2\ hours, and were brought up 
by the River Malalanzi, which is about 15 feet wide, waist 
deep, and has 300 yards or more of sponge. Guides refused 
to come as Chitunkue, their headman, did not own them. 
We started alone : a man came after us and tried to mislead 
us in vain. 

22nd January. — We pushed on through many deserted 
gardens and villages, the man evidently sent to lead us 
astray from our S.E. course; he turned back when he saw 
that we refused his artifice. Crossed another rivulet, possibly 
the Lofu, now broad and deep, and then came to another of 
several deep streams but sponge, not more than fifty feet in 
all. Here we remained, having travelled in fine drizzling 
rain all the morning. Population all gone from the war of 
Chitoka with this Chitunkue. 

No astronomical observations worth naming during De- 
cember and January ; impossible to take any, owing to 
clouds and rain. 

It is trying beyond measure to be baffled by the natives 
lying and misleading us wherever they can. They fear us 


very greatly, and with a terror that would gratify an anthro- 
pologist's heart. Their unfriendliness is made more trying, 
by our being totally unable to observe for our position. It 
is either densely clouded, or continually raining day and 
night. The country is covered with brackens, and rivulets 
occur at least one every hour of the march. These are now 
deep, and have a broad selvage of sponge. The lower 
stratum of clouds moves quickly from the N.W. ; the upper 
move slowly from S.E., and tell of rain near. 

23rd January. — We have to send back to villages of 
Ckitufikue to buy food. It was not reported to me that the 
country in front was depopulated for three days, so I send a 
day back. I don't know where we are, and the people are 
deceitful in their statements ; unaccountably so, though We 
deal fairly and kindly. Earn, rain, rain as if it never tired 
on this watershed. The showers show little in the gauge, 
but keep everything and every place wet and sloppy. 

Our people return with a wretched present from Chitufi- 
kue ; bad flour and a fowl, evidently meant to be rejected. 
He sent also an exorbitant demand for gunpowder, and pay- 
ment of guides. I refused his present, and must plod on 
without guides, and this is very difficult from the numerous 

24th January. — Went on E. and N.E. to avoid the deep 
part of a large river, which requires two canoes, but the 
men sent by the chief would certainly hide them. Went 
If hour's journey to a large stream through drizzling rain, 
at least 300 yards of deep water, amongst sedges and 
sponges of 100 yards. One part was neck deep for fifty 
yards, and the water cold. We plunged in elephants' 
foot-prints 1^ hour, then came on one hour to a small 
rivulet ten feet broad, but waist deep, bridge covered 
and broken down. Carrying me across one of the broad 
deep sedgy rivers is really a very difficult task. One we 
crossed was at least 2000 feet broad, or more than 300 

--.: " ' in ■■ '. '■ ■■■■■■■-■■■■ ■ ,.„ .1 I.; -■■, 

■I t^KSp" 

I m Mil Will lill^ll', !■'.'. H 


yards. The first part, the main stream, came up to Susi's 
mouth, and wetted my seat and legs. One held up my 
pistol behind, then one after another took a turn, and 
when he sank into a deep elephant's foot-print, he required 
two to lift him, so as to gain a footing on the level, which 
was over waist deep. Others went on, and bent down the 
grass, to insure some footing on the side of the elephants' 
path. Every ten or twelve paces brought us to a clear 
stream, flowing fast in its own channel, while over all a 
strong current came bodily through all the rushes and 
aquatic plants. Susi had the first spell, then Farijala, 
then a tall, stout, Arab- looking man, then Amoda, then 
Chanda, then Wade Sale, and each time I was lifted off 
bodily, and put on another pair of stout willing shoulders, 
and fifty yards put them out of breath : no wonder ! It was 
sore on the women folk of our party. It took us full an hour 
and a half for all to cross over, and several came over turn 
to help me and their friends. The water was cold, and so 
was the wind, but no leeches plagued us. We had to 
hasten on the building of sheds after crossing the second 
rivulet, as rain threatened us. After 4 p.m. it came on a 
pouring cold rain, when we were all under cover. We are 
anxious about food. The Lake is near, but we are not sure 
of provisions, as there have been changes of population. 
Our progress is distressingly slow. Wet, wet, wet ; sloppy 
weather, truly, and no observations, except that the land 
near the Lake being very level, the rivers spread out into 
broad friths and sponges. The streams are so numerous that 
there has been a scarcity of names. Here we have Loou and 
Luena. We had two Loous before, and another Luena. 

25th January. — Kept in by rain. A man from Unyan- 
yembe joined us this morning. He says that he was left 
sick. Kivulets and sponges again, and through flat forest, 
where, as usual, we can see the slope of the land by the 
leaves being washed into heaps in the direction which the 


water in the paths wished to take. One and a half hour 
more, and then to the Eiver Loon, a large stream with 
bridge destroyed. Sent to make repairs before we go over 
it, and then passed. The river is deep, and flows fast to the 
S.W., having about 200 yards of safe flood flowing in long 
grass — clear water. The men built their huts, and had their 
camp ready by 3 p.m. A good day's work, not hindered by 
rain. The country all depopulated, so we can buy nothing. 
Elephants and antelopes have been here lately. 

26th January. — I arranged to go to our next Eiver Luena, 
and ascend it till we found it small enough for crossing, as 
it has much " Tinga-tinga," or yielding spongy soil ; but 
another plan was formed by night, and we were requested to 
go down the Loou. Not wishing to appear overbearing, I 
consented until we were, after two hours' southing, brought 
up by several miles of Tinga-tinga. The people in a 
fishing village ran away from us, and we had to wait 
for some sick ones. The women are collecting mushrooms. 
A man came near us, but positively refused to guide us to 
31atipa, or anywhere else. 

The sick people compelled us to make an early halt. 

21th January. — On again through streams, over sponges 
and rivulets thigh deep. There are marks of gnu and 
buffalo. I lose much blood, but it is a safety-valve for 
me, and I have no fever or other ailments. 

28th January. — A dreary wet morning, and no food that 
we know of near. It is drop, drop, drop, and drizzling from 
the north-west. We killed our last calf but one last night, 
to give each a mouthful. At 9.30 we were' allowed by the 
rain to leave our camp, and march S.E. for two hours to a 
strong deep rivulet ten feet broad only, but waist deep, and 
150 yards of flood all deep too. Sponge about forty yards 
in all, and running fast out. Camped by a broad prairie or 

2§th January. — No rain in the night, for a wonder. "We 


tramped 1^ hour to a broad sponge, having at least 300 
yards of flood, and clear water flowing S.W., but no usual 
stream. All was stream flowing through the rushes, knee 
and thigh deep. On still with the same, repeated again 
and again, till we came to broad branching sponges, at 
which I resolved to send out scouts S., S.E., and S.W. The 
music of the singing birds, the music of the turtle doves, 
the screaming of the frankolin proclaim man to be near. 

30^ January. — Eemain waiting for the scouts. Manua- 
sera returned at dark, having gone about eight hours south, 
and seen the Lake and two islets. Smoke now appeared in 
the distance, so he turned, and the rest went on to buy 
food where the smoke was. Wet evening. 

( 272 ) 


Entangled amongst the marshes of Bangweolo. Great privations. Obliged 
to return to Chitunkue's. At the chief's mercy. Agreeably surprised 
with the chief. Start once more. Very difficult march. Bobbery 
exposed. Fresh attack of illness. Sends scouts out to find villages. 
Message to Chirubwe. An ant raid. Awaits news from Matipa. Dis- 
tressing perplexity. The Bougas of Bangweolo. Constant rain above 
and flood below. 111. Susi and Chuma sent as envoys to Matipa. 
Beach Bangweolo. Arrive at Matipa's islet. Matipa's town. The 
donkey suffers in transit. Tries to go on to Kabinga's. Dr. Living- 
stone makes a demonstration. Solution of the transport difficulty. 
Susi and detachment sent to Kabinga's. Extraordinary extent of flood. 
Beaches Kabinga's. An upset. Crosses the Chambeze. The Biver 
Muanakazi. They separate into companies" by land and water. A 
disconsolate lion. Singular caterpillars. Observations on fish. Coast- 
ing along the southern flood of Lake Bangweolo. Dangerous state of 
Dr. Livingstone. 

1st February, 1873. — Waiting for the scouts. They return 
unsuccessful — forced to do so by hunger. They saw a very 
large river flowing into the Lake, but did not come across a 
single soul. Killed our last calf, and turn back for four 
hard days' travel to Chitunkue's. I send men on before us 
to bring food back towards us. 

2nd February. — March smartly back to our camp of 2Sth 
ult. The people bear their hunger well. They collect 
mushrooms and plants, and often get lost in this flat 
featureless country. 

3rd February. — Return march to our bridge on the Lofu, 
five hours. In going we went astray, and took six hours to 


do the work of five. Tried lunars in vain. Either sun or 
moon in clouds. On the Luena. 

4th February. — Return to camp on the rivulet with much 
Methonica gloriosa on its banks. Our camp being on its 
left bank of 26th. It took long to cross the next river, 
probably the Kwale, though the elephants' footprints are 
all filled up now. Camp among deserted gardens, which 
afford a welcome supply of cassava and sweet potatoes. The 
men who were sent on before us slept here last night, and 
have deceived us by going more slowly without loads than 
we who are loaded. 

5th February, — Arrived at Chituiikue's, crossing two broad 
deep brooks, and on to the Malalenzi, now swollen, having at 
least 200 yards of flood and more than 300 yards of sponge. 
Saluted by a drizzling shower. We are now at Chituiikue's 

We find the chief more civil than we expected. He said 
each chief had his own land and his own peculiarities. He 
was not responsible for others. We were told that we had 
been near to Matipa and other chiefs : he would give us 
guides if we gave him a cloth and some powder. 

We returned over these forty-one miles in fifteen hours, 
through much deep water. Our scouts played us false both 
in time and beads : the headmen punished them. I got 
lunars, for a wonder. Visited Chitunkubwe, as his name 
properly is. He is a fine jolly-looking man, of a European 
cast of countenance, and very sensible and friendly. I gave 
him two cloths, for which he seemed thankful, and pro- 
mised good guides to Matipa's. He showed me two of 
Matipa's men who had heard us firing guns to attract one 
of our men who had strayed ; these men followed us. It 
seems we had been close to human habitations, but did not 
know it. We have lost half a month by this wandering, 
but it was all owing to the unfriendliness of some and the 
fears of all. I begged for a more northerly path, where the 



water is low. It is impossible to describe the amount of 
water near the Lake. Rivulets without number. They are 
so deep as to damp all ardour. I passed a very large 
striped spider in going to visit Chitunkubwe. The stripes 
were of yellowish green, and it had two most formidable 
reddish mandibles, the same shape as those of the red- 
headed white ant. It seemed to be eating a kind of ant 
with a light-coloured head, not seen elsewhere. A mau 
killed it, and all the natives said that it was most 
dangerous. We passed gardens of dura ; leaves all split up 
with hail, and forest leaves all punctured. 

6th February. — Chitunkubwe gave a small goat and a 
large basket of flour as a return present. I gave him three- 
quarters of a pound of powder, in addition to the cloth. 

1th February. — This chief showed his leanings by demand- 
ing prepayment for his guides. This being a preparatory 
step to their desertion I resisted, and sent men to demand 
what he meant by his words ; he denied all, and said that his 
people lied, not he. We take this for what it is worth. He 
gives two guides to-morrow morning, and visits us this 

8th February. — The chief dawdles, although he promised 
great things yesterday. He places the blame on his people, 
who did not prepare food on account of the rain. Time is of 
no value to them. We have to remain over to-day. It is most 
trying to have to wait on frivolous pretences. I have en- 
dured such vexatious delays. The guides came at last with 
quantities of food, which they intend to bargain with my 
people on the way. A Nassicker who carried my saddle 
was found asleep near my camp. 

9th February. — Slept in a most unwholesome, ruined 
village. Rank vegetation had run over all, and the soil 
smelled offensively. Crossed a sponge, then a rivulet, and 
sponge running into the Miwale River, then by a rocky 
passage we crossed the Mofiri, or great Tinga-tinga, a water 


running strongly waist arid breast deep, above thirty feet 
broad here, but very much broader below. After this we 
passed two more rills and the River Methonua, but we build 
a camp above our former one. The human ticks called 
" papasi " by the Suaheli, and " karapatos " by the Portu- 
guese, made even the natives call out against their numbers 
and ferocity. 

10th February. — Back again to our old camp on the Lovu 
■or Lofu by the bridge. We left in a drizzle, which continued 
from 4 A.M. to 1 p.m. We were three hours in it, and all 
wetted, just on reaching camp by 200 yards, of flood mid- 
deep ; but we have food. 

11th February. — Our guides took us across country, where 
we saw tracks of buffaloes, and in a meadow, the head of a 
sponge, we saw a herd of Hartebeests. A drizzly night was 
followed by a morning of cold wet fog, but in three hours we 
reached our old camp: it took us six hours to do this 
distance before, and five on our return. We camped on 
xx deep bridged stream, called the Kiachibwe. 

12th February. — We crossed the Kasoso, which joins the 
Mokisya, a river we afterwards crossed : it flows N.W., then 
over the Mofimgwe. The same sponges everywhere. 

13th February. — In four hours we came within sight of the 
Luena and Lake, and saw plenty of elephants and other game, 
but very shy. The forest trees are larger. The guides are 
more at a loss than we are, as they always go in canoes in the 
flat rivers and rivulets. Went E., then S.E. round to S. February. — Public punishment to Chirango for steal- 
ing beads, fifteen cuts ; diminished his load to 40 lbs., giving 
him blue and white beads to be strung. The water stands so 
high in the paths that I cannot walk dryshod, and I found 
in the large bougas or prairies in front, that it lay knee 
deep, so I sent on two men to go to the first villages of 
Matipa for large canoes to navigate the Lake, or give us a 
guide to go east to the Chambeze, to go round on foot. It 

T 2 


was Halima who informed on Chirango, as he offered her 
beads for a cloth of a kind which she knew had not hitherto 
been taken out of the baggage. This was so far faithful in 
her, but she has an outrageous tongue. I remain because of 
an excessive hsernorrhagic discharge. 

[We cannot but believe Livingstone saw great danger in 
these constant recurrences of his old disorder: we find a 
trace of it in the solemn reflections which he wrote in his 
pocket-book, immediately under the above words : — ] 

If the good Lord gives me favour, and permits me to finish 
my work, I shall thank and bless Him, though it has cost 
me untold toil, pain, and travel ; this trip has made my hair 
all grey. 

15th February, Sunday. — Service. Killed our last goat 
while waiting for messengers to return from Matipa's. Even- 
ing : the messenger came back, having been foiled by deep 
tinga-tinga and bouga. He fired his gun three times, but no 
answer came, so as he had slept one night away he turned, 
but found some men hunting, whom he brought with him. 
They say that Matipa is on Chirube islet, a good man too, 
but far off from this. 

16th February. — Sent men by the hunter's canoe to 
Chirube, with a request to Matipa to convey us west if he 
has canoes, but, if not, to tell us truly, and we will go east 
and cross the Chainbeze where it is small. Chitunkubwe's 
men ran away, refusing to wait till we had communicated 
with Matipa. Here the water stands underground about 
eighteen inches from the surface. The guides played us 
false, and this is why they escaped. 

17th February. — The men will return to-morrow, but they 
have to go all the way out to the islet of Chirube to Matipa's. 

Suffered a furious attack at midnight from the red Sirafu 
or Driver ants. Our cook fled first at their onset. I lighted 
a candle, and remembering Dr. Van der Kemp's idea that no 


animal will attack man unprovoked, I lay still. The first 
came on my foot quietly, then some began to bite between 
the toes, then the larger ones swarmed over the foot and bit 
furiously, and made the blood start out. I then went out of 
the tent, and my whole person was instantly covered as close 
as small-pox (not confluent) on a patient. Grass fires were 
lighted, and my men picked some off my limbs and tried to 
save me. After battling for an hour or two they took me 
into a hut not yet invaded, and I rested till they came, the 
pests, and routed me out there too ! Then came on a steady 
pour of rain, which held on till noon, as if trying to make us 
miserable. At 9 a.m. I got back into my tent. The large 
Sirafu have mandibles curved like reaping-sickles, and very 
sharp — as fine at the point as the finest needle or a bee's 
sting. Their office is to remove all animal refuse, cock- 
roaches, &c, and they took all my fat. Their appearance 
sets every cockroach in a flurry, and all ants, white and 
black, get into a panic. On man they insert the sharp 
curved mandibles, and then with six legs push their bodies 
round so as to force the points by lever power. They collect 
in masses in their runs and stand with mandibles extended, 
as if defying attack. The large ones stand thus at bay 
whilst the youngsters hollow out a run half an inch wide, 
and about an inch deep. They remained with us till late 
in the afternoon, and we put hot ashes on the defiant 
hordes. They retire to enjoy the fruits of their raid, and 
come out fresh another day. 

18th February. — We wait hungry and cold for the return 
of the men who have gone to Matipa, and hope the good 
Lord will grant us influence with this man. 

Our men have returned to-day, having obeyed the native 
who told them to sleep instead of going to Matipa. They 
bought food, and then believed that the islet Chirube was 
too far off, and returned with a most lame story. We shall 
make the best of it by going N.W., to be near the islets and 


buy food, till we can communicate with Matipa. If lie fails 
us by fair means, we must seize canoes and go by force. The 
men say fear of me makes them act very cowardly. I have 
gone amongst the whole population kindly and fairly, but I 
fear I must now act rigidly, for when they hear that we have 
submitted to injustice, they at once conclude that we are 
fair game for all, and they go to lengths in dealing falsely 
that they would never otherwise attempt. It is, I can 
declare, not my nature, nor has it been my practice, to go as 
if " my back were up." 

19th February. — A cold wet morning keeps us in this 
uncomfortable spot. When it clears up we go to an old 
stockade, to be near an islet to buy food. The people, know- 
ing our need, are extortionate. We went on at 9 a.m. over 
an extensive water-covered plain. I was carried three miles 
to a canoe, and then in it we went westward, in branches of 
the Luena, very deep and flowing W. for three hours. I was 
carried three miles to a canoe, and we were then near enough 
to hear Bangweolo bellowing. The water on the plain is four, 
rive, and seven feet deep. There are rushes, ferns, papyrus,, 
and two lotuses, in abundance. Many dark grey cater- 
pillars clung to the grass and were knocked off as we paddled 
or poled. Camped in an old village of Matipa's, where, in 
the west, we see the Luena enter Lake Bangweolo ; but all is 
fiat prairie or buga, filled with fast-flowing water, save a few 
islets covered with palms and trees. Bain continued sprink- 
ling us from the N.W. all the morning. Elephants had run 
riot over the ruins, eating a species of grass now in seed. It 
resembles millet, and the donkey is fond of it. I have only 
seen this and one other species of grass in seed eaten by the 
African elephant. Trees, bulbs, and fruits are his dainties, 
although ants, whose hills he overturns, are relished. A 
large party in canoes came with food as soon as we reached 
our new quarters : they had heard that we were in search of 
Matipa. All are eager for calico, though they have only 

1873.] SENDS MEN TO MATIPA. 279 

raw cassava to offer. They are clothed in bark-cloth and skins. 
Without canoes no movement can be made in any direction, 
for it is water everywhere, water above and water below. 

20th February. — I sent a request to a friendly man to give 
me men, and a large canoe to go myself to Matipa ; he says 
that he will let me know to-day if he can. Heavy rain by 
night and drizzling by day. No definite answer yet, but we 
are getting food, and Matipa will soon hear of us as he did 
when we came and returned back for food. I engaged 
another man to send a canoe to Matipa, and I showed him 
his payment, but retain it here till he comes back. 

21st February. — The men engaged refuse to go to Matipa's, 
they have no honour. It is so wet we can do nothing. Another 
man spoken to about going, says that they rim the risk of 
being killed by some hostile people on another island 
between this and Matipa's. 

22nd February. — A wet morning. I was ill all yesterday, 
but escape fever by haemorrhage. A heavy mantle of N.W. 
clouds came floating over us daily. No astronomical ob- 
servation can possibly be taken. I was never in such misty 
cloudy weather in Africa. A man turned up at 9 a.m. to 
carry our message to Matipa ; Susi and Chumah went with 
him. The good Lord go with them, and lend me influence 
and grant me help. 

23rd February, Sunday. — Service. Eainy. 

24#j February. — Tried hard for a lunar, but the moon was 
lost in the glare of the sun. 

25th February. — For a wonder it did not rain till 4 p.m. 
The people bring food, but hold out for cloth, which is 

Susi and Chumah not appearing may mean that the men 
are preparing canoes and food to transport us. 

26th February. — Susi returned this morning with good news 
from Matipa, who declares his willingness to carry us to Ka- 
bende for the five bundles of brass wire I offered. It is not on 


Chirube, but amid the swamps of the mainland on the Lake's 
north side. Immense swampy plains all around except at 
Kabende. Matipa is at variance with his brothers on the 
subject of the lordship of the lands and the produce of the 
elephants, which are very numerous. I am devoutly thankful 
to the Giver of all for favouring me so far, and hope that 
He may continue His kind aid. 

No mosquitoes here, though Speke, at the Victoria Nyanza, 
said they covered the bushes and grass in myriads, and 
struck against the hands and face most disagreeably. 

21th February. — Waiting for other canoes to be sent by 
Matipa. His men say that there is but one large river on the 
south of Lake Bangweolo, and called Luomba. They know 
the mountains on the south-east as I do, and on the west, 
but say they don't know any on the middle of the water- 
shed. They plead their youth as an excuse for knowing so 

Matipa's men proposed to take half our men, but I refused 
to divide our force ; they say that Matipa is truthful. 

28th February. — No night rain after 8 p.m., for a wonder. 
Baker had 1500 men in health on 15th June, 1870, at lat. 
9° 26' N., and 160 on sick list; many dead. Liberated 
305 slaves. His fleet was thirty-two vessels ; wife and he well. 
I wish that I met him. Matipa's men not having come, it is 
said they are employed bringing the carcase of an elephant 
to him. I propose to go near to him to-morrow, some in 
canoes and some on foot. The good Lord help me. New 
moon this evening. 

1st March, 1873. — Embarked women and goods in canoes, 
and went three hours S.E. to Bangweolo. Stopped on an 
island where people were drying fish over fires. Heavy rain 
wetted us all as we came near the islet, the drops were as 
large as half-crowns by the marks they made. We went over 
flooded prairie four feet deep, and covered with rushes, and 
two varieties of lotus or sacred lily; both are eaten, and 

1873.] MATIPA'S STOCKADE. 281 

so are papyrus. The buffaloes are at a loss in the water. 
Three canoes are behind. The men are great cowards. I 
took possession of all the paddles and punting poles, as the 
men showed an inclination to move off from our islet. The 
water in the country is prodigiously large : plains extend- 
ing further than the eye can reach have four or five feet of 
clear water, and the Lake and adjacent lands for twenty or 
thirty miles are level. We are on a miserable dirty fishy 
island called M otovinza ; all are damp. We are surrounded 
by scores of miles of rushes, an open sward, and many lotus 
plants, but no mosquitoes. 

2nd March. — It took us 7i hours' punting to bring us to 
an island, and then the miserable weather rained constantly 
on our landing into the Boina (stockade), which is well 
peopled. The prairie is ten hours long, or about thirty miles 
by punting. Matipa is on an island too, with four bomas on 
it. A river, the Molonga, runs past it, and is a protection.* 

The men wear a curious head-dress of skin or hair, and 
large upright ears. 

3rd March. — Matipa paid off the men who brought us 
here. He says that five Sangos or coils (which brought us 
here) will do to take us to Kabende, and I sincerely hope 
that they will. His canoes are off, bringing the meat of an 
elephant. There are many dogs in the village, which they 
use in hunting to bring elephants to bay. I visited Matipa 
at noon. He is an old man, slow of tongue, and self-pos- 
sessed ; he recommended our crossing to the south bank of 
the Lake to his brother, who has plenty of cattle, and to go 

* It will be observed that these islets were in reality slight eminences 
standing above water on the flooded plains which border on Lake Bang- 
weolo. The men say that the actual deep-water Lake lay away to their 
right, and on being asked why Dr. Livingstone did not make a short cut 
across to the southern shore, they explain that the canoes could not live 
for an hour on the Lake, but were merely suited for punting about over 
the flooded land. — Ed. 


along that side where there are few rivers and plenty to eat. 
Kabende's land was lately overrun by Banyamwezi, who now 
inhabit that country, but as yet have no food to sell. Moan- 
zabamba was the founder of the Babisa tribe, and used the 
curious plaits of hair which form such a singular head-dress 
here like large ears. I am rather in a difficulty, as I fear I 
must give the five coils for a much shorter task ; but it is 
best not to appear unfair, although I will be the loser. He 
sent a man to catch a Sampa for me, it is the largest fish 
in the Lake, and he promised to have men ready to take my 
men over to-morrow. Matipa never heard from any of the 
elders of his people that any of his forefathers ever saw a 
European. He knew perfectly about Pereira, Lacerda, and 
Monteiro, going to Casembe, and my coming to the islet 
Mpabala. No trace seems to exist of Captain Singleton's 
march.* The native name of Pereira is " Moenda Mondo :" 
of Lacerda, " Charlie :" of Monteiro's party, " Makabalwe," or 
the donkey men, but no other name is heard. The follow- 
ing is a small snatch of Babisa lore. It was told by an old 
man who came to try for some beads, and seemed much 
interested about printing. He was asked if there were any 
marks made on the rocks in any part of the country, and 
this led to his story. Lukerenga came from the west a long 
time ago to the River Lualaba. He had with him a little 
dog. When he wanted to pass over he threw his mat on the 
water, and this served as a raft, and they crossed the stream. 
When he reached the other side there were rocks at the 
landing place, and the mark is still to be seen on the stone, 
not only of his foot, but of a stick which he cut with his 
hatchet, and of his dog's feet; the name of the place is 
Uchewa. . 

-Lth March. — Sent canoes off to bring our men over to 

* Defoe's book, ' Adventures of Captain Singleton,' is alluded to. It 
would almost appear as if Defoe must have come across some unknown 
African traveller who save him materials for this work. — Ed. 

1873.] MATIPA'S ISLAND. 285 

the island of Matipa. They brought ten, but the donkey 
could not come as far through the " tinga-tinga" as they, so 
they took it back for fear that it should perish. I spoke to 
Matipa this morning to send more canoes, and he consented. 
We move outside, as the town swarms with mice, and is 
very closely built and disagreeable. I found mosquitoes in 
the town. 

5th March. — Time runs on quickly. The real name of this 
island is Masumbo, and the position may be probably 
long. 31° 3' ; lat. 10° 11' S. Men not arrived yet. Matipa 
very slow. 

6th March. — Building a camp outside the town for quiet 
and cleanliness, and no mice to run over us at night. This 
islet is some twenty or thirty feet above the general flat 
country and adjacent water. 

At 3 r.M. we moved up to the highest part of the island 
where we can see around us and have the fresh breeze from 
the Lake. Rainy as we went up, as usual. 

7th March. — We expect our men to-day. I tremble for the 
donkey ! Camp sweet and clean, but it, too, has mosquitoes, 
from which a curtain protects me completely — a great 
luxury, but unknown to the Arabs, to whom I have spoken 
about it. Abed was overjoyed by one I made for him; 
others are used to their bites, as was the man who said that 
he would get used to a nail through the heel of his shoe. 
The men came at 3 p.m., but eight had to remain, the canoes 
being too small. The donkey had to be tied down, as he 
rolled about on his legs and would have forced his way out. 
He bit Mabruki Speke's lame hand,- and came in stiff from 
lying tied all day. We had him shampooed all over, but 
he could not eat dura — he feels sore. Susi did well under 
the circumstances, and we had plenty of flour ready for all. 
Chanza is near Kabinga, and this last chief is coming to 
visit me in a day or two. 

8th March. — I press Matipa to get a fleet of canoes equal 



[Chap. XL 

to our number, but lie complains of their being stolen by- 
rebel subjects. He tells me liis brother Kabinga would have 
been here some days ago but for having lost a son, who 
was killed by an elephant : he is mourning for him but will 
come soon. Kabinga is on the other side of the Chambeze. 
A party of male and female drummers and dancers is sure 
to turn up at every village ; the first here had a leader 
that used such violent antics perspiration ran off his whole 

Dr. Livingstone's Mosquito Curtain. 

frame. I gave a few strings of beads, and the perform- 
ance is repeated to-day by another lot, but I rebel and 
allow them to dance unheeded. We got a sheep for a 
wonder for a doti; fowls and fish alone could be bought, 
but Kabinga has plenty of cattle. 

There is a species of carp with red ventral fin, which 
is caught and used in very large quantities : it is called 
" pumbo." The people dry it over fires as preserved pro- 
visions. iSampa is the largest fish in the Lake, it is caught 
by a hook. The Luena goes into Bangweolo at Molan- 


dangao. A male Msobe had faint white stripes across the 
back and one well-marked yellow stripe along the spine. 
The hip had a few faint white spots, which showed by 
having longer hair than the rest ; a kid of the same species 
had a white belly. 

The eight men came from Motovinza this afternoon, and 
now all onr party is united. The donkey shows many sores 
inflicted by the careless people, who think that force alone 
can be used to inferior animals. 

11th March. — Matipa says " Wait ; Kabinga is coming, and 
he has canoes." Time is of no value to him. His wife is 
making him pombe, and will drown all his cares, but mine 
increase and plague me. Matipa and his wife each sent me 
a huge calabash of pombe ; I wanted only a little to make 
bread with. 

By putting leaven in a bottle and keeping it from one 
baking to another (or three days) good bread is made, and 
the dough being surrounded by banana leaves or maize 
leaves (or even forest leaves of hard texture and no taste, or 
simply by broad leafy grass), is preserved from burning in 
an iron pot. The inside of the pot is greased, then the 
leaves put in all round, and the dough poured in to stand 
and rise in the sun. 

Better news comes : the son of Kabinga is to be here 
to-night, and we shall concoct plans together. 

12th March. — The news was false, no one came from 
Kabinga. The men strung beads to-day, and I wrote part 
of my despatch for Earl Granville. 

loth March. — I went to Matipa, and proposed to begin the 
embarkation of my men at once, as they are many, and the 
canoes are only sufficient to take a few at a time. He has 
sent off a big canoe to reap his millet, when it returns he 
will send us over to see for ourselves where we can go. I 
explained the danger of setting my men astray. 

1-lth March. — Bains have ceased for a few days. "Went 



[Chap. XL 

down to Matipa and tried to take his likeness for the sake 
of the curious hat he wears. 

15th March. — Finish my despatch so far. 

16th March, Sunday. — Service. I spoke sharply to Matipa 
for his duplicity. He promises everything and does no- 
thing : he has in fact no power over his people. Matipa 
says that a large canoe will come to-morrow, and next 
day men will go to Kabinga to reconnoitre. There may 
be a hitch there which we did not take into account ; Ka- 
binga's son, killed by an elephant, may have raised com- 



Mutipa and his Wife. 

plications : blame may be attached to Matipa, and in their 
dark minds it may appear all important to settle the affair 
before having communication with him. Ill all day with 
my old complaint. 

17th March. — The delay is most trying. So many deten- 

1873.] THE LAST BIRTHDAY. 287 

tions have occurred they ought to have made me of a patient 

As I thought, Matipa told us to-day that it is reported he 
has some Arabs with him who will attack all the Lake 
people forthwith, and he is anxious that we shall go over to 
show them that we are peaceful. 

18th March. — Sent off men to reconnoitre at Kabinga's and 
to make a camp there. Bain began again after nine days' 
dry weather, N.W. wind, but in the morning fleecy clouds 
came from S.E. in patches. Matipa is acting the villain, 
and my men are afraid of him : they are all cowards, and 
say that they are afraid of me, but this is only an excuse for 
their cowardice. 

19th March. — Thanks to the Almighty Preserver of men 
for sparing me thus far on the journey of life. Can I hope 
for ultimate success ? So many obstacles have arisen. Let 
not Satan prevail over me, Oh ! my good Lord Jesus.* 

8 a.m. Got about twenty people off to canoes. Matipa not 
friendly. They go over to Kabinga on S.W. side of the 
Chambeze, and thence we go overland. 9 a.m. Men came 
back and reported Matipa false again ; only one canoe had 
come. I made a demonstration by taking quiet possession 
of his village and house ; fired a pistol through the roof and 
called my men, ten being left to guard the camp ; Matipa 
fled to another village. The people sent off at once and 
brought three canoes, so at 11 a.m. my men embarked 
quietly. They go across the Chambeze and build a camp 
on its left bank. All Kabinga's cattle are kept on an 
island called Kalilo, near the mouth of the Chambeze, and 
are perfectly wild : they are driven into the water like 
buffaloes, and pursued when one is wanted for meat. No 
milk is ever obtained of course. 

2,0th March. — Cold N.W. weather, but the rainfall is small, 

This was written on his last birthday. — Ed. 


as the S.E. stratum comes down below the N.W. by day, 
Matipa sent two large baskets of flour (cassava), a sheep, and 
a cock. He hoped that we should remain with him till the 
water of the over-flood dried, and help him to fight his 
enemies, but I explained our delays, and our desire to com- 
plete our work and meet Baker. 

21st March. — Very heavy N.W. rain and thunder by night, 
and by morning. I gave Matipa a coil of thick brass wire, 
and his wife a string of large neck beads, and explained my 
hurry to be off. He is now all fair, and promises largely : 
he has been much frightened by our warlike demonstra- 
tion. I am glad I had to do nothing but make a show of 

22nd March. — Susi not returned from Kabinga. I hope that 
he is getting canoes, and men also, to transport us all at one 
voyage. It is flood as far as the eye can reach ; flood four 
and six feet deep, and more, with three species of rushes, 
two kinds of lotus, or sacred lily, papyrus, arum, <vc. One 
does not know where land ends, and Lake begins : the 
presence of land-grass proves that this is not always over- 

23nZ March. — Men returned at noon. Kabinga is mourn- 
ing for his son killed by an elephant, and keeps in seclusion. 
The camp is formed on the left bank of the Chambeze. 

21th March. — The people took the canoes away, but in fear 
sent for them. I got four, and started with all our goods, 
first giving a present that no blame should follow me. We 
punted six hours to a little islet without a tree, and no 
sooner did we land than a pitiless pelting rain came on. 
We turned up a canoe to get shelter. We shall reach the 
Chambeze to-morrow. The wind tore the tent out of our 
hands, and damaged it too ; the loads are all soaked, and 
with the cold it is bitterly uncomfortable. A man put my 
bed into the bilge, and never said " Bale out," so I was 
safe for a wet nitrht, but it turned out better than I ex- 

1873.] DESPERATE WORK. 289 

pected. No grass, but we made a bed of the loads, and 
a blanket fortunately put into a bag. 

25th March. — Nothing earthly will make me give up my 
work in despair. I encourage myself in the Lord my God, 
and go forward. 

We got off from our miserably small islet of ten yards 
at 7 a.m., a grassy sea on all sides, with a few islets in the 
far distance. Four varieties of rushes around us, triangular 
and fluted, rise from eighteen inches to two feet above the 
water. The caterpillars seem to eat each other, and a web 
is made round others ; the numerous spiders may have been 
the workmen of the nest. The wind on the rushes makes 
a sound like the waves of the sea. The flood extends out 
in slightly depressed arms of the Lake for twenty or thirty 
miles, and far too broad to be seen across ; fish abound, and 
ant-hills alone lift up their heads ; they have trees on them. 
Lukutu flows from E. to W. to the Chambeze, as does the 
Lubanseusi also. After another six hours' punting, over the 
same wearisome prairie or Bouga, we heard the merry voices 
of children. It was a large village, on a flat, which seems 
flooded at times, but much cassava is planted on mounds, 
made to protect the plants from the water, which stood 
in places in the village, but we got a dry spot for the 
tent. The people offered us huts. We had as usual a 
smart shower on the way to Kasenga, where we slept. We 
passed the Islet Luangwa. 

26th March. — We started at 7.30, and got into a large 
stream out of the Chambeze, called Mabziwa. One canoe 
sank in it, and we lost a slave girl of Amoda. Fished up 
three boxes, and two guns, but the boxes being full of car- 
tridges were much injured ; we lost the donkey's saddle too. 
After this mishap we crossed the Lubanseusi, near its con- 
fluence with the Chambeze, 300 yards wide and three 
fathoms deep, and a slow current. We crossed the Cham- 
beze. It is about 400 yards wide, with a quick clear 

VOL. II. u 


current of two knots, and three fathoms deep, like the 
Lubanseuse; but that was slow in current, but clear also. 
There is one great lock after another, with thick mats of 
hedges, formed of aquatic plants between. The volume 
of water is enormous. We punted five hours, and then 

21th March. — T sent canoes and men back to Matipa's 
to bring all the men that remained, telling them to ship 
them at once on arriving, and not to make any talk about 
it. Kabinga keeps his distance from us, and food is scarce ; 
at noon he sent a man to salute me in his name. 

28th March. — Making a pad for a donkey, to serve 
instead of a saddle. Kabinga attempts to sell a sheep at 
an exorbitant price, and says that he is weeping over 
his dead child. Mabruki Speke's hut caught fire at night, 
and his cartridge box was burned. 

29th March. — I bought a sheep for 100 strings of beads. 
I wished to begin the exchange by being generous, and told 
his messenger so ; then a small quantity of maize was 
brought, and I grumbled at the meanness of the present : 
there is no use in being bashful, as they are not ashamed 
to grumble too. The man said that Kabinga would send 
more when he had collected it. 

30th March, Sunday. — A lion roars mightily. The fish- 
hawk utters his weird voice in the morning, as if he 
lifted up to a friend at a great distance, in a sort of 
falsetto key. 

5 p.m. Men returned, but the large canoe having been 
broken by the donkey, we have to go back and pay for it, 
and take away about twenty men now left. Matipa kept 
all the payment from his own people, and so left us in the 
lurch ; thus another five days is lost. 

Slst March. — I sent the men back to Matipa's for all our 
party. I give two dotis to repair the canoe. Islanders are 
always troublesome, from a sense of security in their fast- 

1873.] THE LAKE FISH. 291 

nesses. Made stirrups of thick brass wire four-fold ; they 
promise to do well. Sent Kabinga a cloth, and a message, 
but he is evidently a niggard, like Matipa : we must take 
hini as we find him, there is no use in growling. Seven 
of our men returned, having got a canoe from one of 
Matipa's men. Kabinga, it seems, was pleased with the 
cloth, and says that he will ask for maize from his people, 
and buy it for me ; he has rice growing. He will send a 
canoe to carry me over the next river. 

3rd April, 1873. — Very heavy rain last night. Six inches 
fell in a short time. The men at last have come from 
Matipa's. April. — Sent over to Kabinga to buy a cow, and got 
a fat one for 1\ dotis, to give the party a feast ere we start. 
The kambari fish of the Chambeze is three feet three 
inches in length. 

Two others, the "polwe" and " lopatakwao," all go up 
the Chambeze to spawn when the rains begin. Casembe's 
people make caviare of the spawn of the " punibo." 

[The next entry is made in a new pocket-book, numbered 
XVII. For the first few days pen and ink were used, 
afterwards a well-worn stump of pencil, stuck into a steel 
penholder and attached to a piece of bamboo, served his 

5th April. — March from Kabinga's on the Chambeze, 
our luggage in canoes, and men on land. We punted on 
flood six feet deep, with many ant-hills all about, covered 
with trees. Course S.S.E. for five miles, across the River 
Lobingela, sluggish, and about oOO yards wide. 

6th April. — Leave in the same way, but men were sent 
from Kabinga to steal the canoes, which we paid his brother 
Mateysa handsomely for. A stupid drummer, beating the 
alarm in the distance, called us inland ; Ave found the main 

u 2 


body of our people had gone on, and so by this, our party got 
separated,* and we pulled and punted six or seven hours 
S.W. in great difficulty, as the fishermen we saw refused to 
show us where the deep water lay. The whole country S. 
of the Lake was covered with water, thickly dotted over 
with lotus-leaves and rushes. It has a greenish appearance, 
and it might be well on a map to show the spaces annually 
flooded by a broad wavy band, twenty, thirty, and even 
forty miles out from the permanent banks of the Lake : it 
might be coloured light green. The broad estuaries fifty 
or more miles, into which the rivers form themselves, might 
be coloured blue, but it is quite impossible at present to 
tell where land ends, and Lake begins ; it is all water, water 
everywhere, which seems to be kept from flowing quickly 
off by the narrow bed of the Luapula, which has perpendi- 
cular banks, worn deep down in new red sandstone. It is 
the Nile apparently enacting its inundations, even at its 
sources. The amount of water spread out over the country 
constantly excites my wonder; it is prodigious. Many of 
the ant-hills are cultivated and covered with dura, pump- 
kins, beans, maize, but the waters yield food plenteously in 
fish and lotus-roots. A species of wild rice grows, but the 
people neither need it nor know it. A party of fishermen 
fled from us, but by coaxing we got them to show us deep 
water. They then showed us an islet, about thirty yards 
square, without wood, and desired us to sleep there. We 
went on, and then they decamped. 

Pitiless pelting showers wetted everything ; but near sun- 
set Ave saw two fishermen paddling quickly off from an ant- 
hill, where we found a hut, plenty of fish, and some firewood. 
There we spent the night, and watched by turns, lest 
thieves should come and haul away our canoes and goods. 

* Dr. Livingstone's object was to keep the land party marching parallel 
to him whilst he kept nearer to the Lake in a canoe. — Ed. 


Heavy rain. One canoe sank, wetting everything in her. 
The leaks in her had been stopped with clay, and a man 
sleeping near the stern had displaced this frail caulking. 
We did not touch the fish, and I cannot conjecture who has 
inspired fear in all the inhabitants. 

1th April. — Went on S.W., and saw two men, who guided 
us to the Eiver Muanakazi, which forms a connecting link 
between the Kiver Lotingila and the Lolotikila, about 
the southern borders of the flood. Men were hunting:, and 
we passed near large herds of antelopes, which made a 
rushing, plunging sound as they ran and sprang away 
among the waters. A lion had wandered into this world 
of water and ant-hills, and roared night and morning, as 
if very much disgusted : we could sympathise with him ! 
Near to the Muanakazi, at a broad bank in shallow water 
near the river, we had to unload and haul. Our guides 
left us, well pleased with the payment we had given 
them. The natives beating a drum on our east made us 
believe them to be our party, and some thought that they 
heard two shots. This misled us, and we went towards the 
sound through papyrus, tall rushes, arums, and grass, till 
tired out, and took refuge on an ant-hill for the night. 
Lion roaring. We were lost in stiff grassy prairies, from 
three to four feet deep in water, for five hours. We fired a 
gun in the stillness of the night, but received no answer ; 
so on the Sth we sent a small canoe at daybreak to ask for 
information and guides from the village where the drums 
had been beaten. Two men came, and they thought like- 
wise that our party was south-east; but in that direction 
the water was about fifteen inches in spots and three feet in 
others, which caused constant dragging of the large canoe 
all day, and at last we unloaded at another branch of the 
Muanakazi with a village of friendly people. We slept 

All hands at the large canoe could move her only a 


few feet. Putting all their strength to her, she stopped at 
every haul with a jerk, as if in a bank of adhesive plaister. 
I measured the crown of a papyrus plant or palm, it 
was three feet across horizontally, its stalk eight feet in 
height. Hundreds of a large dark-grey hairy caterpillar 
have nearly cleared off the rushes in spots, and now live on 
each other. They can make only the smallest progress by 
swimming or rather wriggling in the water: their motion 
is that of a watch-spring thrown down, dilating and 

9th April. — After two hours' threading the very winding, 
deep channel of this southern branch of the Muanakazi, we 
came to where our land party had crossed it and gone on 
to Gandochite, a chief on the Lolotikila. My men were all 
done up, so I hired a man to call some of his friends to take 
the loads ; but he was stopped by his relations in the way, 
saying, " You ought to have one of the traveller's own 
people with you." He returned, but did not tell us plainly 
or truly till this morning. 

[The recent heavy exertions, coupled with constant ex- 
posure and extreme anxiety and annoyance, no doubt 
brought on the severe attack which is noticed, as we see 
in the words of the next few days.] 

10th April. — The headman of the village explained, and 
we sent two of our men, who had a night's rest with the 
turnagain fellow of yesterday. I am pale, bloodless, and 
weak from bleeding profusely ever since the 31st of March 
last : an artery gives off a copious stream, and takes away 
my strength. Oh, how I long to be permitted by the 
Over Power to finish my work. 

12th April. — Cross the Muanakazi. It is about 100 or 
130 yards broad, and deep. Great loss of al/xa made me 
so weak I could hardly walk, but tottered along nearly two 


hours, and then lay down quite done. Cooked coffee — our 
last — and went on, but in an hour I was compelled to lie 
down. Very unwilling to be carried, but on being pressed I 
allowed the men to help me along by relays to Chinama, 
where there is much cultivation. We camped in a garden 
of dura. 

loth April. — Found that we had slept on the right bank 
of the Lolotikila, a sluggish, marshy-looking river, very 
winding, but here going about south-west. The country is 
all so very flat that the rivers down here are of necessity 
tortuous. Fish and other food abundant, and the people 
civil and reasonable. They usually partake largely of the 
character of the chief, and this one, Gondochite, is polite. The 
sky is clearing, and the S.E. wind is the lower stratum now. 
It is the dry season well begun. Seventy-three inches is a 
higher rainfall than has been observed anywhere else, even 
in northern Manyuema ; it was lower by inches than here 
far south on the watershed. In fact, this is the very 
heaviest rainfall known in these latitudes ; between fifty 
and sixty is the maximum. 

One sees interminable grassy prairies with lines of trees, 
occupying quarters of miles in breadth, and these give way 
to bouga or prairie again. The bouga is flooded annually, 
but its vegetation consists of dry land grasses. Other bouga 
extend out from the Lake up to forty miles, and are known 
by aquatic vegetation, such as lotus, papyrus, arums, rushes 
of different species, and many kinds of purely aquatic 
subaqueous plants which send up their flowers only to 
fructify in the sun, and then sink to ripen one bunch after 
another. Others, with great cabbage-looking leaves, seem 
to remain always at the bottom. The young of fish swarm, 
and bob in and out from the leaves. A species of soft moss 
grows on most plants, and seems to be good fodder for 
fishes, fitted by hooked or turned-up noses to guide it into 
their maws. 


One species of fish has the lower jaw turned down into a 
hook, which enables the animal to hold its mouth close to 
the plant as it glides up or down, sucking in all the soft 
pulpy food. The superabundance of gelatinous nutriment 
makes these swarmers increase in bulk with extraordinary 
rapidity, and the food supply of the people is plenteous in 
consequence. The number of fish caught by weirs, baskets, 
and nets now, as the waters decline, is prodigious. The fish 
feel their element becoming insufficient for comfort, and 
retire from one bouga to another towards the Lake; the 
narrower parts are duly prepared by weirs to take advantage 
of their necessities; the sun heat seems to oppress them 
and force them to flee. With the south-east aerial current 
comes heat and sultriness. A blanket is scarcely needed 
till the early hours of the morning, and here, after the 
turtle doves and cocks give out their warning calls to the 
watchful, the fish-eagle lifts up his remarkable voice. It is 
pitched in a high falsetto key, very loud, and seems as if he 
were calling to some one in the other world. Once heard, 
his weird unearthly voice can never be forgotten — it sticks 
to one through life. 

We were four hours in being ferried over the Loitikila y 
or Lolotikila, in four small canoes, and then two hours 
south-west down its left bank to another river, where our 
camp has been formed. I sent over a present to the head- 
man, and a man returned with the information that he was 
ill at another village, but his wife would send canoes to- 
morrow to transport us over and set us on our way to 
Muanazambamba, south-west, and over Lolotikila again. 

l±th April.— At a branch of the Lolotikila. 

15^ April. — Cross Lolotikila again (where it is only fifty 
yards) by canoes, and went south-west an hour. I, being- 
very weak, had to be carried part of the way. Am glad of 
resting; alfia flow copiously last night. A woman, the 
wife of the chief, gave a present of a goat and maize. 


16th April. — Went south-west two and a half hours, and 
crossed the Lombatwa River of 100 yards in width, rush 
deep, and flowing fast in aquatic vegetation, papyrus, &c. r 
into the Loitikila. In all about three hours south-west. 

11th April. — A tremendous rain after dark burst all our 
now rotten tents to shreds. Went on at 6 . 35 a.m. for three 
hours, and I, who was suffering severely all night, had to 
rest. We got water near the surface by digging in yellow 
sand. Three hills now appear in the distance. Our course, 
S. W. three and three-quarter hours to a village on the Kazya 
Eiver. A Nyassa man declared that his father had brought 
the heavy rain of the 16th on us. We crossed three 

l§th April. — On leaving the village on the Kazya, we forded 
it and found it seventy yards broad, waist to breast deep 
all over. A large weir spanned it, and we went on the lower 
side of that. Much papyrus and other aquatic plants in it. 
Fish are returning now with the falling waters, and are 
guided into the rush-cones set for them. Crossed two large 
sponges, and I was forced to stop at a village after travel- 
ling S.W. for two hours : very ill all night, but remembered 
that the bleeding and most other ailments in this land are 
forms of fever. Took two scruple doses of quinine, and 
stopped it quite. 

19th April. — A fine bracing S.E. breeze kept me on the 
donkey across a broad sponge and over flats of white sandy 
soil and much cultivation for an hour and a half, when we 
stopped at a large village on the right bank of ,* and 

men went over to the chief Muanzambamba to ask canoes 
to cross to-morrow. I am excessively weak, and but for 
the donkey could not move a hundred yards. It is not all 
pleasure this exploration. The Lavusi hills are a relief to 

* He leaves room for a name which perhaps in his exhausted state he- 
forgot to ascertain. 


the eye in this flat upland. Their forms show an igneous 
origin. The river Kazya conies from them and goes direct 
into the Lake. No observations now, owing to great weak- 
ness ; I can scarcely hold the pencil, and my stick is a 
burden. Tent gone ; the men build a good hut for me and 
the luggage. S.W. one and a half hour. 

20th April, Sunday. — Service. Cross over the sponge, 
Moenda, for food and to be near the headman of these 
parts, Moanzambamba. I am excessively weak. Village on 
Moenda sponge, 7 a.m. Cross Lokulu in a canoe. The 
river is about thirty yards broad, very deep, and flowing in 
marshes two knots from S-.S.E. to N.N AY. into Lake. 

tf ^ cJ^-^ V^'^p ^-*^ 



( 299 ) 


Dr. Livingstone rapidly sinking. Last entries in his diary. Susi and 
Chumah's additional details. Great agony in his last illness. Carried 
across rivers and through flood. Inquiries for the Hill of the Four 
Rivers. Kalunganjovu's kindness. Crosses the Moblamo into the 
district of llala in great pain. Arrives at Chitambo's village. Chi- 
tambo conies to visit the dying traveller. The last night. Livingstone 
expires in the act of praying. The account of what the men saw. 
Remarks on his death. Council of the men. Leaders selected. The 
chief discovers that his guest is dead. Noble conduct of Chitambo. 
A separate village built by the men wherein to prepare the body for 
transport. The preparation of the corpse. Honour shown by the 
natives to Dr. Livingstone. Additional remarks on the cause of death. 
Interment of tlie heart at Chitambo's in llala of the Wabisa. An 
inscription and memorial sign-posts left to denote spot. 

[We have now arrived at the last words written in Dr. 
Livingstone's diary : a copy of the two pages in his pocket- 
book which contains them is, by the help of photography, 
set before the reader. It is evident that he was unable to 
do more than make the shortest memoranda, and to mark 
on the map which he was making the streams which enter 
the Lake as he crossed them. From the 22nd to the 27th 
April he had not strength to write down anything but the 
several dates. Fortunately Susi and Chumah give a very 
clear and circumstantial account of every incident which 
occurred on these days, and we shall therefore add what 
they say, after each of the Doctor's entries. He writes : — ] 

21st April. — Tried to ride, but was forced to lie down, 
and they carried me back to vil. exhausted. 

[The men explain this entry thus :-^-This morning the 
Doctor tried if he were strong enough to ride on the 


donkey, but he had only gone a short distance when 
he fell to the ground utterly exhausted and faint. 
Susi immediately undid his belt and pistol, and picked 
up his cap which had dropped off, while Chumah threw 
down his gun and ran to stop the men on ahead. When 
he got back the Doctor said, "Chumah, I have lost so 
much blood, there is no more strength left in my legs : 
you must carry me." He was then assisted gently to 
his shoulders, and, holding the man's head to steady 
himself, was borne back to the village and placed in 
the hut he had so recently left. It was necessary to 
let the Chief Muanazawamba know what had happened, 
and for this purpose Dr. Livingstone despatched a mes- 
senger. He was directed to ask him to supply a guide for 
the next day, as he trusted then to have recovered so far as 
to be able to march : the answer was, " Stay as long as you 
wish, and when you want guides to Kalunganjovu's you 
shall have them."] 

22nd April. — Carried on kitanda over Buga S.W. 2£ * 

[His servants say that instead of rallying, they saw that 
his strength was becoming less and less, and in order to 
carry him they made a kitanda of wood, consisting of two 
side pieces of seven feet in length, crossed with rails three 
feet long, and about four inches apart, the whole lashed 
strongly together. This framework was covered with grass, 
and a blanket laid on it. Slung from a pole, and borne 
between two strong men, it made a tolerable palanquin, and 
on this the exhausted traveller was conveyed to the next 
village through a flooded grass plain. To render the kit- 
anda more comfortable another blanket was suspended across 
the pole, so as to hang down on either side, and allow the 
air to pass under whilst the sun's rays were fended off from 

Two hours and a quarter in a south-westerly direction. 

1873.] THE LAST DAYS. 301 

the sick man. The start was deferred this morning until 
the dew was off the heads of the long grass sufficiently to 
ensure his being kept tolerably dry. 

The excruciating pains of his dysenteric malady caused 
him the greatest exhaustion as they marched, and they 
were glad enough to reach another village in 2| hours, 
having travelled S.W. from the last point. Here another 
hut was built. The name of the halting-place is not remem- 
bered by the men, for the villagers fled at their approach ; 
indeed the noise made by the drums sounding the alarm 
had been caught by the Doctor some time before, and he 
exclaimed with thankfulness on hearing it, " Ah, now we are 
near ! " Throughout this day the following men acted as 
bearers of the kitanda: Chowpere, Songolo, Chumah, and 
Adiamberi. Sowfere, too, joined in at one time.] 

2'Srd April — (No entry except the date.) 

[They advanced another hour and a half through the same 
expanse of flooded treeless waste, passing numbers of small 
fish-weirs set in such a manner as to catch the fish on 
their way back to the Lake, but seeing nothing of the 
owners, who had either hidden themselves or taken to 
flight on the approach of the caravan. Another village 
afforded them a night's shelter, but it seems not to be 
known by any particular name.] 

2±th April. — (No entry except the date.) 

[But one hour's march was accomplished to-day, and 
again they halted amongst some huts — place unknown. 
His great prostration made progress exceedingly painful, 
and frequently when it was necessary to stop the bearers 
of the kitanda, Chumah had to support the Doctor from 

2oth April. — (No entry except the date.) 

[In an hour's course S.W. they arrived at a village in 


which they found a few people. Whilst his servants were 
busy completing the hut for the night's encampment, the 
Doctor, who was lying in a shady place on the kitanda, 
ordered them to fetch one of the villagers. The chief 
of the place had disappeared, but the rest of his people 
seemed quite at their ease, and drew near to hear what 
was going to be said. They were asked whether they 
knew of a hill on which four rivers took their rise. 
The spokesman answered that they had no knowledge of it ; 
they themselves, said he, were not travellers, and all those 
who used to go on trading expeditions were now dead. In 
former years Malenga's town, Kutchinyama, was the assem- 
bling place of the Wabisa traders, but these had been swept 
off by the Mazitu. Such as survived had to exist as best 
they could amongst the swamps and inundated districts 
around the Lake. Whenever an expedition was organised 
to go to the coast, or in any other direction, travellers met 
at Malenga's town to talk over the route to be taken : then 
would have been the time, said they, to get information 
about every part. Dr. Livingstone was here obliged to 
dismiss them, and explained that he was too ill to continue 
talking, but he begged them to bring as much food as they 
could for sale to Kalunganjovu's.] 

26th April. — (No entry except the date.) 

[They proceeded as far as Kalunganjovu's town, the chief 
himself coming to meet them on the way dressed in 
Arab costume and wearing a red fez. Whilst waiting here 
Susi was instructed to count over the bags of beads, and, 
on reporting that twelve still remained in stock, Dr. Living- 
stone told him to buy two large tusks if an opportunity 
occurred, as he might run short of goods by the time 
they got to Ujiji, and could then exchange them with the 
Arabs there for cloth, to spend on their way to Zanzibar.] 

To-day, the 21th April, 1873, he seems to have been almost 


dying. No entry at all was made in his diary after that 
which follows, and it must have taxed him to the utmost to 
write : — 

"Knocked up quite, and remain — recover— sent to buv 
milch goats. We are on the banks of the Molilamo." 

They are the last words that David Livingstone wrote. 

From this point we have to trust entirely to the narrative 
of the men. They explain the above sentence as follows : 
Salimane, Amisi, Hamsani, and Laede, accompanied by a 
guide, were sent off to endeavour if possible to buy some 
milch goats on the upper part of the Molilamo.* They could 
not, however, succeed ; it was always the same story — the 
Mazitu had taken everything. The chief, nevertheless, sent 
a substantial present of a kid and three baskets of ground- 
nuts, and the people were willing enough to exchange food 
for beads. Thinking he could eat some Mapira com 
pounded up with ground-nuts, the Doctor gave instructions 
to the two women M'sozi and M'toweka, to prepare it for 
him, but he was not able to take it when they brought it 
to him. 

28th April. — Men were now despatched in an opposite 
direction, that is to visit the villages on the right bank of 
the Molilamo as it flows to the Lake ; unfortunately thev 
met with no better result, and returned empty handed. 

On the 29th April, Kalunganjovu and most of his people 
came early to the village. The chief wished to assist his 
guest to the utmost, and stated that as he could not be sure 
that a sufficient number of canoes would be forthcoming 
unless he took charge of matters himself, he should accom- 
pany the caravan to the crossing place, which was about an 

* The name Molilamo is allowed to stand, but in Dr. Livingstone's Map 
we find it Lulimala, and the men confirm this pronunciation. — Ed. 


hour's march from the spot. " Everything should he done 
for his friend," he said. 

They were ready to set out. On Susi's going to the hut, 
Dr. Livingstone told him that he was quite unable to walk 
to the door to reach the kitanda, and he wished the men 
to break down one side of the little house, as the entrance 
was too narrow to admit it, and in this manner to bring 
it to him where he was : this was done, and he was gently 
placed upon it, and borne out of the village. 

Their course was in the direction of the stream, and they 
followed it till they came to a reach where the current was 
uninterrupted by the numerous little islands which stood 
partly in the river and partly in the flood on the upper 
waters. Kalunganjovu was seated on a knoll, and actively 
superintended the embarkation, whilst Dr. Livingstone 
told his bearers to take him to a tree at a little dis- 
tance off, that he might rest in the shade till most of the 
men were on the other side. A good deal of care was 
required, for the river, by no means a large one in ordinary 
times, spread its waters in all directions, so that a false step, 
or a stumble in any unseen hole, would have drenched the 
invalid and the bed also on which he was carried. 

The passage occupied some time, and then came the 
difficult task of conveying the Doctor across, for the 
canoes were not wide enough to allow the kitanda to be 
deposited in the bottom of either of them. Hitherto, no 
matter how weak, Livingstone had always been able to sit 
in the various canoes they had used on like occasions, but 
now he had no power to do so. Taking his bed off the 
kitanda, they laid it in the bottom of the strongest canoe, 
and tried to lift him ; but he could not bear the pain of a 
hand being passed under his back. Beckoning to Chumah, 
in a faint voice he asked him to stoop down over him as 
low as possible, so that he might clasp his hands together 
behind his head, directing him at the same how to avoid 


putting any pressure on the lumbar region of the back ; in 
this way he was deposited in the bottom of the canoe, and 
quickly ferried across the Mulilamo by Chowpere, Susi, 
Farijala, and Chumah. The same precautions were used on 
the other side : the kitanda was brought close to the canoe, 
so as to prevent any unnecessary pain in disembarking. 

Susi now hurried on ahead to reach Chitambo's village, 
and superintend the building of another house. For the 
first mile or two they had to carry the Doctor through 
swamps and plashes, glad to reach something like a dry 
plain at last. 

It would seem that his strength was here at its very 
lowest ebb. Chumah, one of his bearers on these the last 
weary miles the great traveller was destined to accomplish, 
says that they were every now and then implored to stop 
and place their burden on the ground. So great were 
the pangs of his disease during this day that he could 
make no attempt to stand, and if lifted for a few yards 
a drowsiness came over him, which alarmed them all exces- 
sively. This was specially the case at one spot where a tree 
stood in the path. Here one of his attendants was called 
to him, and, on stooping down, he found him unable to 
speak from faintness. They replaced him in the kitanda, 
and made the best of their way on the journey. Some dis- 
tance further on great thirst oppressed him ; he asked them 
if they had any water, but, unfortunately for once, not a 
drop was to be procured. Hastening on for fear of getting 
too far separated from the party in advance, to their great 
comfort they now saw Farijala approaching with some 
which Susi had thoughtfully sent off from Chitambo's 

Still wending their way on, it seemed as if they would 
not complete their task, for again at a clearing the sick 
man entreated them to place him on the ground, and to let 
him stay where he was. Fortunately at this moment some 

VOL. II. x 


of the outlying huts of the village came in sight, and they 
tried to rally him by telling him that he would quickly be 
in the house that the others had gone on to build, but they 
were obliged as it was to allow him to remain for an hour in 
the native gardens outside the town. 

On reaching their companions it was found that the work 
was not quite finished, and it became necessary therefore to 
lay him under the broad eaves of a native hut till things 
were ready. 

Chitambo's village at this time was almost empty. When 
the crops are growing it is the custom to erect little tem- 
porary houses in the fields, and the inhabitants, leaving their 
more substantial huts, pass the time in watching their crops, 
which are scarcely more safe by day than by night ; thus it 
was that the men found plenty of room and shelter ready to 
their hand. Many of the people approached the spot where 
lie lay whose praises had reached them in previous years, 
and in silent wonder they stood round him resting on their 
bows. Slight drizzling showers were falling, and as soon as 
possible his house was made ready and banked round with 

Inside it, the bed was raised from the floor by sticks and 
grass, occuping a position across and near to the bay-shaped 
end of the hut : in the bay itself bales and boxes were de- 
posited, one of the latter doing duty for a table, on which 
the medicine chest and sundry other things were placed. 
A fire was lighted outside, nearly opposite the door, whilst 
the boy Majwara slept just within to attend to his master's 
wants in the night. 

On the 30th April, 1873, Chitambo came early to pay a 
visit of courtesy, and was shown into the Doctor's presence, 
but he was obliged to send him away, telling him to come 
again on the morrow, when he hoped to have more strength 
to talk to him, and he was not again disturbed. In the 
afternoon he asked Susi to bring his watch to the bedside, 

1873.] LAST WORDS. 307 

and explained to him the position in which to hold his 
hand, that it might lie in the palm whilst he slowly turned 
the key. 

So the hours stole on till nightfall. The men silently 
look to their huts, whilst others, whose duty it was to keep 
w-atch, sat round the fires, all feeling that the end could not 
be far off. About 11 p.m. Susi, whose hut was close by, was 
told to go to his master. At the time there were loud 
shouts in the distance, and, on entering, Dr. Livingstone 
said, "Are our men making that noise?" "No," replied 
Susi ; " I can hear from the cries that the people are scaring 
away a buffalo from their dura fields." A few minutes after- 
wards he said slowly, and evidently wandering, "Is this 
the Luapula?" Susi told him they were in Chitambo's 
village, near the Mulilamo, when he was silent for a while. 
Again, speaking to Susi, in Suaheli this time, he said, 
"Sikun'gapi kuenda Luapula?" (How many days is it to 
the Luapula?) 

"Na zani zikntatu, Bwana" (I think it is three days, 
master), replied Susi. 

A few seconds after, as if in great pain, he half sighed, 
half said, " Oh dear, dear !" and then dozed off again. 

It was about an hour later that Susi heard Majwara 
again outside the door, "Bwana wants you, Susi." On 
reaching the bed the Doctor told him he wished him to 
boil some water, and for this purpose he went to the fire 
outside, and soon returned with the copper kettle full. Call- 
ing him close, he asked him to bring his medicine-chest 
and to hold the candle near him, for the man noticed he 
could hardly see. With great difficulty Dr. Livingstone 
selected the calomel, which he told him to place by his side ; 
then, directing him to pom* a little water into a cup, and to 
put another empty one by it, he said in a low feeble voice, 
" All right ; you can go out now." These were the last 
words he was ever heard to speak. 

x 2 


It must have been about 4 a.m. when Susi beard Majwara's 
step once more. " Come to Bwana, I am afraid ; I don't 
know if be is alive." Tbe lad's evident alarm made Susi 
run to arouse Chuinah, Chowpere, Matthew, and Muan- 
yasere, and tbe six men went immediately to tbe but. 

Passing inside they looked towards tbe bed. Dr. Living- 
stone was not lying on it, but appeared to be engaged in 
prayer, and tbey instinctively drew backwards for tbe instant. 
Pointing to bim, Majwara said, " "When I lay down be was 
just as be is now, and it is because I find tbat be does not 
move tbat I fear be is dead." Tbey asked tbe lad bow long 
be bad slept ? Majwara said be could not tell, but be was 
sure tbat it was some considerable time : tbe men drew 

A candle stuck by its own wax to tbe top of tbe box, 
sbed a ligbt sufficient for tbem to see bis form. Dr. Living- 
stone was kneeling by the side of bis bed, bis body stretcbed 
forward, bis bead buried in bis bands upon tbe pillow. For 
a minute tbey watcbed bim: be did not stir, tbere was 
no sign of breathing ; then one of them, Matthew, advanced 
softly to him and placed his hands to his cheeks. It was 
sufficient; life bad been extinct some time, and the body 
was almost cold : Livingstone was dead. 

His sad-hearted servants raised bim tenderly up, and 
laid him full length on the bed, then, carefully covering bim, 
tbey went out into tbe damp night air to consult together. 
It was not long before the cocks crew, and it is from this 
circumstance — coupled with the fact tbat Susi spoke to him 
some time shortly before midnight — that we are able to 
state with tolerable certainty that he expired early on the 
1st of May. 

It has been thought best to give the narrative of these 
closing hours as nearly as possible in the words of the 
two men who attended him constantly, both here and in 
tbe many illnesses of like character which he endured in 


his last six years' wanderings ; in fact from the first moment 
of the news arriving in England, it was felt to be indis- 
pensable that they should come home to state what occurred. 

The men have much to consider as they cower around 
the watch-fire, and little time for deliberation. They are 
at their furthest point from home and their leader has 
fallen at their head ; we shall see presently how they 
faced their difficulties. 


Several inquiries will naturally arise on reading this dis- 
tressing history ; the foremost, perhaps, will be with regard 
to the entire absence of everything like a parting word to 
those immediately about him, or a farewell line to his family 
and friends at home. It must be very evident to the reader 
that Livingstone entertained very grave forebodings about 
his health during the last two years of his life, but it is not 
clear that he realized the near approach of death when his 
malady suddenly passed into a more dangerous stage. 

It may be said, " Why did he not take some precautions 
or give some strict injunctions to his men to jureserve \i[ s 
uote-books and maps, at all hazards, in the event of his 
decease? Did not his great ruling passion suggest some 
such precaution ? " 

Fair questions, but, reader, you have all — every word 
written, spoken, or implied. 

Is there, then, no explanation? Yes; we think past 
experience affords it, and it is offered to you by one who 
remembers moreover how Livingstone himself used to point 
out to him in Africa the peculiar features of death by 
malarial poisoning. 

In full recollection of eight deaths in the Zambesi and 
Shire districts, not a single parting word or direction in any 
instance can be recalled. Neither hope nor courage give 
way as death approaches. In most cases a comatose state of 


exhaustion supervenes, which, if it be not quickly arrested 
by active measures, passes into complete insensibility : this 
is almost invariably the closing scene. 

In Dr. Livingstone's case we find some departure from the 
ordinary symptoms.* He, as we have seen by the entry of 
the ISth April was alive to the conviction that malarial 
poison is the basis of every disorder in Tropical Africa, and 
he did not doubt but that he was fully under its influence 
whilst suffering so severely. As we have said, a man of less 
endurance in all probability would have perished in the 
first week of the terrible approach to the Lake, through 
the flooded country and under the continual downpour that 
he describes. It tried every constitution, saturated every 
man with fever poison, and destroyed several, as we shall 
see a little further on. The greater vitality in his iron 
system very likely staved off for a few days the last state 
of coma to which we refer, but there is quite sufficient to 
show us that only a thin margin lay between the heavy 
drowsiness of the last few days before reaching Chitambo's 
and the final and usual symptom that brings on uncon- 
sciousness and inability to speak. 

On more closely questioning the men one only elicits that 
they imagine he horded to recover as he had so often done 
before, and if this really was the case it will in a measure 
account for the absence of anything like a dying statement, 
but still they speak again and again of his drowsiness, which 
in itself would take away all ability to realize vividly the 
seriousness of the situation. It may be that at the last a 
flash of conviction for a moment lit up the mind — if so, 
what greater consolation can those have who mourn his loss, 
than the account that the men give of what they saw when 
they entered the hut ? 

Livingstone had not merely turned himself, he had risen 

The great loss of blood may have had a bearing on the case. 

1873.] REFLECTIONS. 311 

to pray ; lie still rested on his knees, Lis hands were clasped 
under his head: when they approached him he seemed 
to live. He had not fallen to right or left when he 
rendered up his spirit to God. Death required no change 
of limb or position ; there was merely the gentle settling- 
forwards of the frame unstrung by pain, for the Traveller's 
perfect rest had come. Will not time show that the men 
were scarcely wrong when they thought " he yet speaketk " 
— aye, perhaps far more clearly to us than he could have 
done by word or pen or any other means ! 

Is it, then, presumptuous to think that the long-used 
fervent prayer of the wanderer sped forth once more — that 
the constant supplication became more perfect in weakness, 
and that from his " loneliness " David Livingstone, with a 
dying effort, yet again besought Him for whom He laboured 

to break down the oppression and woe of the land ? 


Before daylight the men were quietly told in each 
hut what had happened, and that they were to assemble. 
Coming together as soon as it was light enough to see, 
Susi and Chumah said that they wished everybody to 
be present whilst the boxes were opened, so that in case 
money or valuables were in them, all might be responsible. 
Jacob Wainwright (who could write, they knew) was asked 
to make some notes which should serve as an inventory, and 
then the boxes were brought out from the hut. 

Before he left England in 1865, Dr. Livingstone arranged 
that his travelling equipment should be as compact as 
possible. An old friend gave him some exceedingly well- 
made tin-boxes, two of which lasted out the whole of his 
travels. In these his papers and instruments were safe from 
wet and from white ants, which have to be guarded against 
more than anything else. Besides the articles mentioned 
below, a number of letters and despatches in various stages 
were likesvise enclosed, and one can never sufficiently extol 


the good feeling which after his death invested all these 
writings with something like a sacred care in the estimation 
of his men. It was the Doctor's custom to carry a small 
metallic note-book in his pocket : a quantity of these have 
come to hand filled from end to end, and as the men pre- 
served every one that they found, we have a daily entry 
to fall back upon. Nor was less care shown for his rifles, 
sextants, his Bible and Church-service, and the medicine 

Jacob's entry is as follows, and it was thoughtfully made 
at the back end of the same note-book that was in use by 
the Doctor when he died. It runs as follows : — 

"11 o'clock night, 28 th April. 

" In the chest was found about a shilling and half, 
and in other chest his hat, 1 watch, and 2 small boxes of 
measuring instrument, and in each box there was one. 1 
compass, 3 other kind of measuring instrument. 4 other 
kind of measuring instrument. And in other chest 3 
drachmas and half half scrople." 

A word is necessary concerning the first part of this. 
It will be observed that Dr. Livingstone made his last note 
on the 27th April. Jacob, referring to it as the only indi- 
cation of the day of the month, and fancying, moreover, that 
it was written on the preceding clay, wrote down "28th 
April." Had he observed that the few words opposite the 
27th in the pocket-book related to the stay at Kalun- 
ganjovu's village, and not to any portion of the time at 
Chitambo's, the error would have been avoided. Again, 
with respect to the time. It was about 11 o'clock p.m. when 
Susi last saw his master alive, and therefore this time is 
noted, but both he and Chumah feel quite sure, from what 
Majwara said, that death did not take place till some hours 


It was not without some alarm that the men realised their 
more immediate difficulties : uoue could see better than they 
what complications might arise in an hour. 

They knew the superstitious horror connected with the 
dead to be prevalent in the tribes around them, for the 
departed spirits of men are universally believed to have 
vengeance and mischief at heart as their ruling idea in the 
land beyond the grave. All rites turn on this belief. The 
religion of the African is a weary attempt to propitiate those 
who show themselves to be still able to haimt and destroy, 
as war comes or an accident happens. 

On this account it is not to be wondered at that chief 
and people make common cause against those who wander 
through their territory, and have the misfortune to lose one 
of their party by death. Who is to tell the consequences ? 
Such occurrences are looked on as most serious offences, 
and the men regarded their position with no small appre- 

Calling the whole party together, Susi and Chumah 
placed the state of affairs before them, and asked what 
should be done. They received a reply from those whom 
Mr. Stanley had engaged for Dr. Livingstone, which was 
hearty and unanimous. " You," said they, " are old men in 
travelling and in hardships ; you must act as our chiefs, and 
we will promise to obey whatever you order us to do." 
From this moment we may look on Susi and Chumah as 
the Captains of the caravan. To their knowledge of the 
country, of the tribes through which they were to pass, but, 
above all, to the sense of discipline and cohesion which was 
maintained throughout, their safe return to Zanzibar at the 
head of their men must, under God's good guidance, be 
mainly attributed. 

All agreed that Chitambo ought to be kept in ignorance 
of Dr. Livingstone's decease, or otherwise a fine so heavy 
would be inflicted upon them as compensation for damage 


done that their means would be crippled, and they could 
hardly expect to pay their way to the coast. It was decided 
that, come what might, the body must be borne to Zanzibar. 
It was also arranged to take it secretly, if possible, to a 
hut at some distance off, where the necessary preparations 
could be carried out, and for this purpose some men were 
now despatched with axes to cut wood, whilst others went 
to collect grass. Chumah set off to see Chitambo, and said 
that they wanted to build a place outside the village, if he 
would allow it, for they did not like living amongst the 
huts. His consent was willingly given. 

Later on in the day two of the men went to the people 
to buy food, and divulged the secret : the chief was at 
once informed of what had happened, and started for the 
spot on which the new buildings were being set up. Ap- 
pealing to Chumah, he said, " Why did you not tell me the 
truth ? I know that your master died last night. You 
were afraid to let me know, but do not fear any longer. I, 
too, have travelled, and more than once have been to Bwani 
(the Coast), before the country on the road was destroyed 
by the Mazitu. I know that you have no bad motives in 
coming to our land, and death often happens to travellers 
in their journeys." Eeassured by this speech, they told 
him of their intention to prepare the body and to take it 
with them. He, however, said it would be far better to bury 
it there, for they were undertaking an impossible task ; but 
they held to their resolution. The corpse was conveyed to 
the new hut the same day on the kitanda carefully covered 
with cloth and a blanket. 

2nd May, 1873. — The next morning Susi paid a visit to 
Chitambo, making him a handsome present and receiving 
in return a kind welcome. It is only right to add, that the 
men speak on all occasions with gratitude of Chitambo's 
conduct throughout, and say that he is a fine generous 
fellow. Following out his suggestion, it was agreed that all 


lionours sliould be shown to the dead, and the customary 
mourning was arranged forthwith. 

At the proper time, Chitambo, leading his people, and 
accompanied by his wives, came to the new settlement. He 
was clad in a broad red cloth, which covered the shoulders, 
whilst the wrapping of native cotton cloth, worn round the 
waist, fell as low as his ankles. All carried bows, arrows, and 
spears, but no guns were seen. Two drummers joined in 
the loud wailing lamentation, which so indelibly impresses 
itself on the memories of people who have heard it in the 
East, whilst the band of servants fired volley after volley 
in the air, according to the strict rule of Portuguese and 
Arabs on such occasions. 

As yet nothing had been done to the corpse. 

A separate hut was now built, about ninety feet from the 
principal one. It was constructed in such a manner that 
it should be open to the air at the top, and sufficiently 
strong to defy the attempts of any wild beast to break 
through it. Firmly driven boughs and saplings were 
planted side by side and bound together, so as to make a 
regular stockade. Close to this building the men con- 
structed their huts, and, finally, the whole settlement had 
another high stockade carried completely around it. 

Arrangements were made the same day to treat the corpse 
on the following morning. One of the men, Safene, whilst 
in Kalunganjovu's district, bought a large quantity of salt : 
this was purchased of him for sixteen strings of beads, 
there was besides some brandy in the Doctor's stores, 
and with these few materials they hoped to succeed in 
their object. 

Farijala was appointed to the necessary task. He had 
picked up some knowledge of the method pursued in 
making post-mortem examinations, whilst a servant to a 
doctor at Zanzibar, and at his request, Carras, one of the 
Nassick boys, was told off to assist him. Previous to this. 


however, early on the 3rd May, a special mourner arrived. 
He came with the anklets which are worn on these occa- 
sions, composed of rows of hollow seed-vessels, fitted with 
rattling pebbles, and in low monotonous chant sang, whilst 
he danced, as follows : 

Lelo kwa Engerese, 
Muana sisi oa konda : 
Tu kamb' tamb' Engerese. 

which translated is — 

To-day the Englishman is dead, 
Who has different hair from ours : 
Come round to see the Englishman. 

His task over, the mourner and his son, who accompanied him 
in the ceremony, retired with a suitable present of beads. 

The emaciated remains of the deceased traveller were 
soon afterwards taken to the place prepared. Over the 
heads of Farijala and Carras— Susi, Chumah, and Muanya- 
se're held a thick blanket as a kind of screen, under which 
the men performed their duties. Tofike and John Wain- 
wright were present. Jacob Wainwright had been asked to 
bring his Prayer Book with him, and stood apart against the 
wall of the enclosure. 

In reading about the lingering sufferings of Dr. Living- 
stone as described by himself, and subsequently by these 
faithful fellows, one is quite prepared to understand their 
explanation, and to see why it was possible to defer these 
operations so long after death : they say that his frame was 
little more than skin and bone. Through an incision care- 
fully made, the viscera were removed, and a quantity of salt 
was placed in the trunk. All noticed one very significant 
circumstance in the autopsy. A clot of coagulated blood, as 
large as a man's hand, lay in the left side,* whilst Farijala 

* It has been suggested by one who attended Dr. Livingstone pro- 
fessionally in several dangerous illnesses in Africa, that the ultimate 
cause of death was acute splenitis. — Ed. 


pointed to the state of the lungs, which they describe as 
dried up, and covered with black and white patches. 

The heart, with the other parts removed, were placed 
in a tin box, which had formerly contained flour, and 
decently and reverently buried in a hole dug some four feet 
deep on the spot where they stood. Jacob was then asked 
to read the Burial Service, which he did in the presence of 
all. The body was left to be fully exposed to the sun. 
No other means were taken to preserve it, beyond placing- 
some brandy in the mouth and some on the hair; nor can 
one imagine for an instant that any other process would 
have been available either for Europeans or natives, con- 
sidering the rude appliances at their disposal. The men 
kept watch day and night to see that no harm came to their 
sacred charge. Their huts surrounded the building, and 
had force been used to enter its strongly-barred door, the 
whole camp would have turned out in a moment. Once a 
day the position of the body was changed, but at no other 
time was any one allowed to approach it. 

No molestation of any kind took place during the fourteen 
days' exposure. At the end of this period preparations were 
made for retracing their steps. The corpse, by this time 
tolerably dried, was wrapped round in some calico, the legs 
being bent inwards at the knees to shorten the package. 
The next thing was to plan something in which to carry 
it, and, in the absence of planking or tools, an admirable 
substitute was found by stripping from a Myonga tree 
enough of the bark in one piece to form a cylinder, and 
in it their master was laid. Over this case a piece of 
sailcloth was sewn, and the whole package was lashed 
securely to a pole, so as to be carried by two men. 

Jacob Wainwright was asked to carve an inscription 
on the large Mvula tree which stands by the place where 
the body rested, stating the name of Dr. Livingstone and 
the date of his death, and, before leaving, the men gave 


strict injunctions to Chitambo to keep the grass cleared 
away, so as to save it from the busk-fires which annually 
sweep over the country and destroy so many trees. Besides 
this, they erected close to the spot two high thick posts, 
with an equally strong cross-piece, like a lintel and door- 
posts in form, which they painted thoroughly with the tar 
that was intended for the boat : this sign they think will 
remain for a long time from the solidity of the timber. 
Before parting with Chitambo, they gave him a large tin 
biscuit-box and some newspapers, which would serve as 
evidence to all future travellers that a white man had been 
at his village. 

The chief promised to do all he could to keep both the 
tree and the timber sign-posts from being touched, but 
added, that he hoped the English would not be long in 
coming to see him, because there was always the risk of an 
invasion of Mazitu, when he would have to fly, and the tree 
might be cut down for a canoe by some one, and then all 
trace would be lost. All was now ready for starting. 

( 319 ) 


They begin the homeward march from Ilala. Illness of all the men. 
Deaths. Muanamazungu. The Lnapula. The donkey killed by a lion. 
A disaster at N'Kossu's. Native surgery. Approach Chawende's town. 
Inhospitable reception. An encounter. They take the town. Leave 
Chawende's. Eeach Chiwaie's. Strike the old road. Wire drawing. 
Arrive at Kumbakumba's. John Wainwright disappears. Unsuc- 
cessful search. Eeach Tanganyika. Leave the Lake. Cross the 
Lambalamfipa range. Immense herds of game. News of East-Coast 
Search Expedition. Confirmation of news. They reach Baula. Avant- 
couriers sent forwards to TJnyanyenibe\ Chumah meets Lieutenant 
Cameron. Start for the coast. Sad death of Dr. Dillon. Clever pre- 
cautions. The body is effectually concealed. Girl killed by a snake. 
Arrival on the coast. Concluding remarks. 

The homeward march was then begun. Throughout its 
length we shall content ourselves with giving the approxi- 
mate number of days occupied in travelling and halting. 
Although the memories of both men are excellent — stand- 
ing the severest test when they are tried by the light of Dr. 
Livingstone's journals, or "set on" at any passage of his 
travels — they kept no precise record of the time spent at 
villages where they were detained by sickness, and so the 
exactness of a diary can no longer be sustained. 

To return to the caravan. They found on this the first 
day's journey that some other precautions were necessary to 
enable the bearers of the mournful burden to keep to their 
task. Sending to Chitambo's village, they brought thence 
the cask of tar which they had deposited with the chief, 
and gave a thick coating to the canvas outside. This 


answered all purposes ; they left the remainder at the 
next village, with orders to send it back to head-quarters, 
and then continued their course through Ilala, led by their 
guides in the direction of the Luapula. 

A moment's inspection of the map will explain the line of 
country to be traversed. Susi and Chumah had travelled 
with Dr. Livingstone in the neighbourhood of the north- 
west shores of Bangweolo in previous years. The last fatal 
road from the north might be struck by a march in a due 
N.E. direction, if they could but hold out so far without any 
serious misfortune ; but in order to do this they must first 
strike northwards so as to reach the Luapula, and then 
crossing it at some part not necessarily far from its exit 
from the Lake, they could at once lay their course for the 
south end of Tanganyika. 

There Avere, however, serious indications amongst them. 
First one and then the other dropped out of the file, and 
by the time they reached a town belonging to Chitambo's 
brother — and on the third day only since they set out — half 
their number were hors cle combat. It was impossible to 
go on. A few hours more and all seemed affected. The 
symptoms Avere intense pain in the limbs and face, great 
prostration, and, in the bad cases, inability to move. The 
men attributed it to the continual Avading through water 
before the Doctor's death. They think that illness had 
been Avaiting for some further slight provocation, and that 
the previous days' tramp, which was almost entirely through 
plashy Bougas or swamps, turned the scale against them. 

Susi Avas suffering very much. The disease settled in one 
leg, and then quickly shifted to the other. Songolo nearly 
died. Kaniki and Bahati, tAvo of the Avomen, expired in a 
feAv days, and all looked at its worst. It took them a good 
month to rally sufficiently to resume their journey. 

Fortunately in this interval the rains entirely ceased, and 
the natives day by day brought an abundance of food to the 

1873.] ALL ARE TAKEN ILL. 321 

sick men. From them they heard that the districts they 
were now in were notoriously unhealthy, and that many an 
Arab had fallen out from the caravan march to leave his 
bones in these wastes. One day five of the party made an 
excursion to the westward, and on their return reported a 
large deep river flowing into the Luapula on the left bank. 
Unfortunately no notice was taken of its name, for it would 
be of considerable geographical interest. 

At last they were ready to start again, and came to one of 
the border villages in Ilala the same night, but the next day 
several fell ill for the second time, Susi being quite unable 
to move. 

Muananiazungu, at whose place these relapses occurred, 
was fully aware of everything that had taken place at 
Chitambo's, and showed the men the greatest kindness. 
^Tot a day passed without his bringing them some present 
or other, but there was a great disinclination amongst the 
people to listen to any details connected with Dr. Living- 
stone's death. Some return for their kindness was made by 
Farijala shooting three buffaloes near the town : meat and 
goodwill go together all over Africa, and the liberal sports- 
man scores points at many a turn. A cow was purchased 
here for some brass bracelets and calico, and on the twen- 
tieth day all were sufficiently strong on their legs to push 

The broad waters of the long-looked for Luapula soon 
hove in sight. Putting themselves under a guide, they 
were conducted to the village of Chisalamalama, who will- 
ingly offered them canoes for the passage across the next 

As one listens to the report that the men give of this 

* The men consider it five days' march " only carrying a gun " from 
the Molilamo to the bank of the Luapula — this in rough reckoning, at the 
rate of native travelling, would give a distance of say 120 to 150 miles. — Ed. 



mighty river, he instinctively bends his eyes on a dark 
burden laid in the canoe ! How ardently would he have 
scanned it whose body thus passes across these waters, and 
whose spirit, in its last hours' sojourn in this world, wandered 
in thought and imagination to its stream ! 

It would seem that the Luapula at this point is double 
the width of the Zambesi at Shupanga. This gives a 
breadth of fully four miles. A man could not be seen 
on the opposite bank : trees looked small : a gun could 
be heard, but no shouting would ever reach a person across 
the river — such is the description given by men who were 
well able to compare the Luapula with the Zambesi. Taking 
to the canoes, they were able to use the " m'phondo," or punt- 
ing pole, for a distance through reeds, then came clear deep 
water for some four hundred yards, again a broad reedy 
expanse, followed by another deep part, succeeded in turn 
by another current not so broad as those previously paddled 
across, and then, as on the starting side, gradually shoal- 
ing water, abounding in reeds. Two islands lay just above 
the crossing-place. Using pole and paddle alternately, the 
passage took them fully two hours across this enormous 
torrent, which carries off the waters of Bangweolo towards 
the north. 

A sad mishap befell the donkey the first night of camp- 
ing beyond the Luapula, and this faithful and sorely-tried 
servant was doomed to end his career at this spot ! 

According to custom, a special stable was built for 
him close to the men. In the middle of the night a 
great disturbance, coupled with the shouting of Amoda. 
aroused the camp. The men rushed out and found the 
stable broken down and the donkey gone. Snatching some 
logs, they set fire to the grass, as it was pitch dark, and by 
the light saw a lion close to the body of the poor animal, 
which was quite dead. Those who had caught up their 
guns on the first alarm fired a volley, and the lion made off. 




It was evident that the donkey had been seized by the nose, 
and instantly killed. At daylight the spoor showed that the 
guns had taken effect. The lion's blood lay in a broad track 
(for he was apparently injured in the back, and could only 
drag himself along) ; but the footprints of a second lion were 
too plain to make it advisable to track him far in the thick 
cover he had reached, and so the search was abandoned. 
The body of the donkey was left behind, but two canoes 
remained near the village, and it is most probable that it 
went to make a feast at Chisalamalama's. 

An old Servant destroyed. 

Travelling through incessant swamp and water, they were 
fain to make their next stopping-place in a spot where an 
enormous ant-hill spread itself out, — a small island in the 
waters. A fire was lit, and by employing hoes, most of 

y 2 


them dug something like a form to sleep in on the hard 

Thankful to leave such a place, their guide led them 
next day to the village of Kawinga, whom they describe as 
a tall man, of singularly light colour, and the owner of a 
gun, a unique weapon in these parts, but one already 
made useless by wear and tear. The next village, N'kossu's, 
was much more important. The people, called Kawende, 
formerly owned plenty of cattle, but now they are reduced : 
the Banyamwesi have put them under the harrow, and but 
few herds remain. We may call attention to the some- 
what singular fact, that the hump quite disappears in the 
Lake breed; the cows would pass for respectable short- 

A present was made to the caravan of a cow ; but it seems 
that the rule, "first catch your hare," is in full force in 
N'kossu's pastures. The animals are exceedingly wild, and 
a hunt has to be set on foot whenever beef is wanted ; it 
was so in this case. Safene and Muanyasere with their 
guns essayed to settle the difficulty. The latter, an old 
hunter as we have seen, was not likely to do much harm ; 
but Safene, firing wildly at the cow, hit one of the villagers, 
and smashed the bone of the poor fellow's thigh. Although 
it was clearly an accident, such things do not readily settle 
themselves down on this assumption in Africa. The chief, 
however, behaved very well. He told them a fine would 
have to be paid on the return of the wounded man's 
father, and it had better be handed to him, for by law the 
blame would fall on him, as the entertainer of the man who 
had brought about the injury. He admitted that he had 

* This comparison was got at from the remarks made by Susi and 
Chuma at an agricultural show ; they pointed out the resemblance borne 
by the short-horns and by the Alderney bulls to several breeds near Lake 
Bemba. — Ed. 




ordered all his people to stand clear of the spot where the 
disaster occurred, but he supposed that iu this instance his 
orders had not been heard. They had not sufficient goods 
in any case to respond to the demand ; the process adopted 
to set the broken limb is a sample of native surgery, which 
must not be passed over. 

Kawende Surgery. 

First of all a hole was dug, say two feet deep and four in 
length, in such a maimer that the patient could sit in it 
with his legs out before him. A large leaf was then bound 
round the fractured thigh, and earth thrown in, so that the 
patient was buried up to the chest. The next act was to 
cover the earth which lay over the man's legs with a thick 


layer of mud ; then plenty of sticks and grass were collected, 
and a fire lit on the top directly over the fracture. To 
prevent the smoke smothering the sufferer, they held a tall 
mat as a screen before his face, and the operation went on. 
After some time the heat reached the limbs underground. 
Bellowing with fear and covered with perspiration, the man 
implored them to let him out. The authorities concluding 
that he had been under treatment a sufficient time, quickly 
burrowed down and lifted him from the hole. He was now 
held perfectly fast, whilst two strong men stretched the 
wounded limb with all their might ! Splints, duly prepared 
were afterwards bound round it, and we must hope that in 
due time benefit accrued, but as the ball had passed through 
the limb, we must have our doubts on the subject. The 
villagers told Chuina that after the Wanyamwesi engage- 
ments they constantly treated bad gunshot-wounds in this 
way with perfect success. 

Leaving N'kossu's, they rested one night at another village 
belonging to him, and then made for the territory of the 
Wa Ussi. Here they met with a surly welcome, and were 
told they must pass on. No doubt the intelligence that 
they were carrying their master's body had a great deal to 
do with it, for the news seemed to spread with the greatest 
rapidity in all directions. Three times they camped in the 
forest, and for a wonder began to find some dry ground. 
The path lay in the direct line of Chawencle's town, parallel 
to the north shore of the Lake, and at no great distance 
from it. 

Some time previously a solitary Unyamwesi had attached 
himself to the party at Chitankooi's, where he had been left 
sick by a passing caravan of traders : this man now assured 
them the country before them was well known to him. 

Approaching Chawende's, according to native etiquette, 
Amoda and Sabouri went on in front to inform the chief, 
and to ask leave to enter his town. As they did not come 

1873.] A FIGHT. 327 

back, Muanyasere and Chimia set off after them to ascertain 
the reason of the delay. No better success seemed to attend 
this second venture, so shouldering their burdens, all went 
forward in the track of the four messengers. 

In the mean time, Chuma and Muanyasere met Amoda 
and Sabouri coming back towards them with five men. They 
reported that they had entered the town, but found it a 
very large stockaded place ; moreover, two other villages of 
equal size were close to it. Much pombe drinking was 
going on. On approaching the chief, Amoda had rested his 
gun against the principal hut innocently enough. Chawende's 
son, drunk and quarrelsome, made this a cause of offence, and 
swaggering up, he insolently asked them how they dared to 
do such a thing. Chawende interfered, and for the moment 
prevented further disagreeables; in fact, he himself seems 
to have been inclined to grant the favour which was 
asked: however, there was danger brewing, and the men 

When the main body met them returning, tired with their 
fruitless errand, a consultation took place. Wood there was 
none. To scatter about and find materials with which to 
build shelter for the night, would only offer a great tempta- 
tion to these drunken excited people to plunder the baggage. 
It was resolved to make for the town. 

When they reached the gate of the stockade they were 
flatly refused admittance, those inside telling them to go 
down to the river and camp on the bank. They replied 
that this was impossible : that they were tired, it was very 
late, and nothing could be found there to give them shelter. 
Meeting with no different answer, Safene said, " Why stand 
talking to them? let us get in somehow or other;" and, 
suiting the action to the word, they pushed the men back 
who stood in the gateway. Safene got through, and Mua- 
nyasere climbed over the top of the stockade, followed by 
<Ckuina, who instantly opened the gate wide and let his 


companions through. Hostilities might still have been 
averted had better counsel prevailed. 

The men began to look about for huts in which to 
deposit their things, when the same drunken fellow drew 
a bow and fired at Muanyasere. The man called out to 
the others to seize him, which was done in an instant. 
A loud cry now burst forth that the chief's son was in 
danger,, and one of the people, hurling a spear, wounded 
Sabouri slightly in the thigh : this was the signal for a 
general scrimmage. 

Chawende's men fled from the town ; the drums beat the 
assembly in all directions, and an immense number flocked to 
the spot from the two neighbouring villages, armed with their 
bows, arrows, and spears. An assault instantly began from 
the outside. N'chise was shot with an arrow in the shoulder 
through the palisade, and N'taru in the finger. Things were 
becoming desperate. Putting the body of Dr. Livingstone 
and all their goods and chattels in one hut, they charged 
out of the town, and fired on the assailants, killing two and 
wounding several others. Fearing that they would only 
gather together in the other remaining villages and renew 
the attack at night, the men carried these quickly one by 
one and subsequently burnt six others which were built 
on the same side of the river, then crossing over, they 
fired on the canoes which were speeding towards the deep 
water of Bangweolo, through the channel of the LopupussL 
with disastrous results to the fugitive people. 

Returning to the town, all was made safe for the night. 
By the fortunes of war, sheep, goats, fowls, and an immense 
quantity of food fell into their hands ; and they remained 
for a week to recruit. Once or twice they found men 
approaching at night to throw fire on the roofs of the huts 
from outside, but with this exception they were not inter- 
fered with. On the last day but one a man approached and 
called to them at the top of his voice not to set fire to the 

1873.] STILL IN THE SWAMPS. 329 

chief's town (it was his that they occupied); for the bad 
son had brought all this upon them ; he added that the old 
man had been overruled, and they were sorry enough for his 
bad conduct. 

Listening to the account given of this occurrence, 
one cannot but lament the loss of life and the whole 
circumstances of the fight. Whilst on the one hand we 
may imagine that the loss of a cool, conciliatory, brave 
leader was here felt in a grave degree, we must also see that 
it was known far and wide that this very loss was now a 
great weakness to his followers. There is no surer sign of 
mischief in Africa than these trumpery charges of bewitch- 
ing houses by placing things on them : some such over- 
strained accusation is generally set in the front rank when 
other difficulties are to come : drunkenness is pretty much 
the same thing in all parts of the world, and gathers misery 
around it as easily in an African village as in an English 
city. Had the cortege submitted to extortion and insult, 
they felt that their night by the river would have been 
a precarious one — even if they had been in a humour to 
sleep in a swamp when a town was at hand. These things 
gave occasion to them to resort to force. The desperate 
nature of their whole enterprise in starting for Zanzibar 
perhaps had accumulated its own stock of determination, 
and now it found vent under evil provocation. If there is 
room for any other feeling than regret, it lies in the fact 
that, on mature consideration and in sober moments, the 
people who suffered, cast the real blame on the right 

For the next three days after leaving Chawende's they 
were still in the same inimdated fringe of Bouga, which 
surrounds the Lake, and on each occasion had to camp 
at nightfall wherever a resting-place could be found in 
the jungle, reaching Chama's village on the fourth day. 
A delay of forty-eight hours was necessary, as Susi's wife 


fell ill ; and for the next few marches she was carried 
in a kitanda. They met an Unyamwesi man here, who 
had come from Kumbakumba's town in the Wa Ussi 
district. He related to them how on two occasions the 
Wanyamwesi had tried to carry Chawende's town by assault, 
but had been repulsed both times. It would seem that, 
with the strong footing these invaders have in the country, 
armed as they are besides with the much-dreaded guns, it 
can only be a matter of time before the whole rule, such 
as it is, passes into the hands of the new-comers. 

The next night was spent in the open, before coming to 
the scattered huts of Ngumbu's, where a motley group of 
stragglers, for the most part Wabisa, were busy felling the 
trees and clearing the land for cultivation. However, the 
little community gave them a welcome, in spite of the wide- 
spread report of the fighting at Chawende's, and dancing 
and drumming were kept up till morning. 

One more night was passed in the plain, and they reached 
a tributary of the Lopupussi River, called the MTamba ; it 
is a considerable stream, and takes one up to the chest in 
crossing. They now drew near to Chiwaie's town, which 
they describe as a very strong place, fortified with a stockade 
and ditch. Shortly before reaching it, some villagers tried 
to pick a quarrel with them for carrying flags. It was their 
invariable custom to make the drummer-boy, Majwara, 
march at their head, whilst the Union Jack and the 
red colours of Zanzibar were carried in a foremost place 
in the line. Fortunately a chief of some importance came 
up and stopped the discussion, or there might have been 
more mischief, for the men were in no temper to lower their 
flag, knowing their own strength pretty well by this time. 
Making their settlement close to Chiwaie's, they met 
with much kindness, and were visited by crowds of the 

Three days' journey brought them to Chiwaie's uncle's 


village ; sleeping two nights in the 'jungle they made Chun- 
gu's, and in another day's march found themselves, to their 
great delight, at Kapesha's. They knew their road from this 
point, for on the southern route with Dr. Livingstone they 
had stopped here, and could therefore take up the path that 
leads to Tanganyika. Hitherto their course had been easterly, 
with a little northing, but now they turned their backs to 
the Lake, which they had held on the right-hand since 
crossing the Luapula, and struck almost north. 

From Kapesha's to Lake Bangweolo is a three days' 
march as the crow flies, for a man carrying a burden. 
They saw a large quantity of iron and copper wire being 
made here by a party of Wanyamwesi. The process is as 
follows :■ — A heavy piece of iron, with a funnel-shaped hole in 
it, is firmly fixed in the fork of a tree. A fine rod is then 
thrust into it, and a line attached to the first few inches 
which can be coaxed through. A number of men haul 
on this line, singing and dancing in time, and thus it 
is draAvn through the' first drill ; it is subsequently passed 
through others to render it still finer, and excellent wire is 
the result. Leaving Kapesha they went through many of 
the villages already enumerated in Dr. Livingstone's Diary. 
Chama's people came to see them as they passed by him, 
and after some mutterings and growlings Casongo gave them 
leave to buy food at his town. Reaching Chama's head- 
quarters they camped outside, and received a civil message, 
telling them to convey his orders to the people on the banks 
of the Kalongwesi that the travellers must be ferried safely 
across. They found great fear and misery prevailing in the 
neighbourhood from the constant raids made by Kumba- 
kumba's men. 

Leaving the Kalangwese behind them they made for 
M'sama's son's town, meeting four men on the way who were 
going from Kumbakumba to Chama to beat up recruits for 
an attack on the Katanga people. The request was sure to 


be met with alarm and refusal, but it served very well to 
act the part taken by the wolf in the fable. A grievance 
would immediately be made of it, and Chama " eaten up " 
in due course for daring to gainsay the stronger man. Such 
is too frequently the course of native oppression. At last 
Kumbakumba's town came in sight. Already the large dis- 
trict of Itawa has tacitly allowed itself to be put under 
the harrow by this ruffianly Zanzibar Arab. Black-mail is 
levied in all directions, and the petty chiefs, although really 
under tribute to Nsama, are sagacious enough to keep in 
with the powers that be. Kumbakumba showed the men a 
storehouse full of elephants' tusks. A small detachment was 
sent off to try and gain tidings of one of the Nassick boys, 
John, who had mysteriously disappeared a day or two pre- 
viously on the march. At the time no great apprehensions 
were felt, but as he did not turn up the grass was set on fire 
in order that he might see the smoke if he had wandered, 
and guns were fired. Some think he purposely went off 
rather than carry a load any further ; whilst others fear he 
may have been killed. Certain it is that after a five days' 
search in all directions no tidings could be gained either 
here or at Chama's, and nothing more was heard of the poor 

Numbers of slaves were collected here. On one occasion 
they saw five gangs bound neck to neck by chains, and 
working in the gardens outside the towns. 

The talk was still about the break up of Casembe's power, 
for it will be recollected that Kumbakumba and Pemba 
Motu had killed him a short time before ; but by far the 
most interesting news that reached them was that a party of 
Englishmen, headed by Dr. Livingstone's son, on their way 
to relieve his father, had been seen at Bagamoio some months 

The chief showed them every kindness during their five 


days' rest, and was most anxious that no mishap should by 
any chance occur to their principal charge. He warned 
them to beware of hyaenas, at night more especially, as the 
quarter in which they had camped had no stockade round 
it as yet. 

Marching was now much easier, and the men quickly 
found they had crossed the watershed. The Lovu ran in 
front of them on its way to Tanganyika. The Kalongwese, 
we have seen, flows to Lake Moero in the opposite direction. 
More to their purpose it was perhaps to find the terror of 
Kumbakumba dying away as they travelled in a north- 
easterly direction, and came amongst the Mwambi. As yet 
no invasion had taken place. A young chief, Chungu, did 
all he could for them, for when the Doctor explored these 
regions before, Chungu had been much impressed with him : 
and now, throwing off all the native superstition, he looked 
on the arrival of the dead body as a cause of real sorrow. 

Asoumani had some luck in hunting, and a fine buffalo 
was killed near the town. According to native game laws 
(which in some respects are exceedingly strict in Africa), 
Chungu had a right to a fore leg — had it been an elephant 
the tusk next the ground would have been his, past all 
doubt — in this instance, however, the men sent in a plea 
that theirs was no ordinary case, and that hunger had laws 
of its own ; they begged to be allowed to keep the whole 
carcase, and Chungu not only listened to their story, but 
willingly waived his claim to the chief's share. 

It is to be hoped that these sons of Tafuna, the head and 
father of the Amambwi a lungu, may hold their own. They 
«eem a superior race, and this man is described as a worthy 
leader. His brothers Kasonso, Chitimbwa, Sombe, and their 
sister Mombo, are all notorious for their reverence for 
Tafuna. In their villages an abundance of coloured home- 
spun cloth speaks for their industry ; whilst from the num- 
bers of dogs and elephant-spears no further testimony is 


needed to show that the character they bear as great 
hunters is well deserved. 

The steep descent to the Lake now lay before them, and 
they came to Kasakalawe's. Here it was that the Doctor 
had passed weary months of illness on his first approach to 
Tanganyika in previous years. The village contained but 
few of its old inhabitants* but those few received them 
hospitably enough and mourned the loss of him who 
had been so well appreciated when alive. So they jour- 
neyed on day by day till the southern end of the Lake 
was rounded. 

The previous experience of the difficult route along the 
heights bordering on Tanganyika made them determine to 
give the Lake a wide berth this time, and for this purpose 
they held well to the eastward, passing a number of small 
deserted villages, in one of which they camped nearly 
every night. It was necessary to go through the Fipa 
country, but they learnt from one man and another that the 
chief, Kafoofi, was very anxious that the body should not be 
brought near to his town — indeed, a guide was purposely 
thrown in their way who led them past it by a considerable 
detour. Kafoofi stands well with the coast Arabs. One. 
Ngombesassi by name, was at the time living with him, 
accompanied by his retinue of slaves. He had collected 
a very large quantity of ivory further in the interior, but 
dared not approach nearer at present to TInyanyembe 
with it to risk the chance of meeting one of Mirambo's 

This road across the plain seems incomparably the best. 
No difficulty whatever was experienced, and one cannot but 
lament the toil and weariness which Dr. Livingstone endured 
whilst holding a course close to Tanganyika, although one 
must bear in mind that by no other means at the time 
could he complete his survey of this great inland sea, or 
acquaint us with its harbours, its bays, and the rivers which 


find their way into it on the east ; these are details which 
will prove of value when small vessels come to navigate i* 
in the future. 

The chief feature after leaving this point was a'three days' 
march over Lambalamfipa, an abrupt mountain range, which 
crosses the country east and west, and attains, it would seem, 
an altitude of some 4000 feet. Looking down on the plain 
from its highest passes a vast lake appears to stretch away 
in front towards the north, but on descending this resolves 
itself into a glittering plain, for the most part covered with 
saline incrustations. The path lay directly across this. The 
difficulties they anticipated had no real existence, for small 
villages were found, and water was not scarce, although 
brackish. The first demand for toll was made near here, 
but the headman allowed them to pass for fourteen strings 
of beads. Susi says that this plain literally swarms with 
herds of game of all kinds : giraffe and zebra were particu- 
larly abundant, and lions revelled in such good quarters. 
The settlements they came to belonged chiefly to elephant 
hunters. Farijala and Muanyasere did well with the buffalo, 
and plenty of beef came into camp. 

They gained some particulars concerning a salt-water lake 
on their right, at no very considerable distance. It was 
reported to them to be smaller than Tanganyika, and goes 
by the name Bahari ya Muarooli — the sea of Muarooli 
— for such is the name of the paramount chief who lives 
on its shore, and if we mistake not the very Merere, or his 
successor, about whom Dr. Livingstone from time to time 
showed such interest. They now approached the Likwa 
Eiver, which flows to this inland sea: they describe it as 
a stream running breast high, with brackish water ; little 
satisfaction was got by drinking from it. 

Just as they came to the Likwa, a long string of men was 
seen on the opposite side filing down to the water, and being 
uncertain of their intentions, precautions were quickly taken 


to ensure the safety of the baggage. Dividing themselves 
into three parties, the first detachment went across to meet 
the strangers, carrying the Arab flag in front. Chuma 
headed another band at a little distance in the rear of these, 
whilst Susi and a few more crouched in the jungle, with the 
body concealed in a roughly-made hut. Their fears, how- 
ever, were needless : it turned out to be a caravan bound for 
Fipa to himt elephants and buy ivory and slaves. The new 
arrivals told them that they had come straight through 
Unyanyembe from Bagamoio, on the coast, and that the 
Doctor's death had already been reported there by natives 
of Fipa. 

As we notice with what rapidity the evil tidings spread 
(for the men found that it had preceded them in all direc- 
tions), one of the great anxieties connected with African 
travel and exploration seems to be rather increased than 
diminished. It shows us that it is never wise to turn an 
entirely deaf ear when the report of a disaster comes to 
hand, because in this instance the main facts were conveyed 
across country, striking the great arterial caravan route at 
Unyanyembe, and getting at once into a channel that would 
ensure the intelligence reaching Zanzibar. On the other 
hand, false reports never lag on their journey : — how often 
has Livingstone been killed in former years ! Nor is one's 
perplexity lessened by past experience, for we find the 
oldest and most sagacious travellers when consulted are, 
as a rule, no more to be depended on than the merest 
tyro in guessing. 

With no small satisfaction, the men learnt from the 
outward-bound caravan that the previous story was a true 
one, and they were assured that Dr. Livingstone's son with 
two Englishmen and a quantity of goods had already reached 

The country here showed all the appearance of a salt- 
pan : indeed a quantity of very good salt was collected by 


one of the men, who thought he could turn an honest bunch 
of beads with it at Unyanyembe. 

Petty tolls were levied on them. Kampama's deputy 
required four dotis, and an additional tax of six was paid 
to the chief of the Kanongo when his town was reached. 

The Lungwa Eiver bowls away here towards Tanganyika. 
It is a quick tumbling stream, leaping amongst the rocks 
and boulders, and in its deeper pools it affords cool delight 
to schools of hippopotami. The men, who had hardly 
tasted good water since crossing Lambalamfipa, are loud in 
its praise. Muanyasere improved relations with the people at 
the next town by opportunely killing another buffalo, and 
all took a three days' rest. Yet another caravan met them, 
bound likewise for the interior, and adding further particu- 
lars about the Englishmen at Unyanyembe. This quickened 
the pace till they found at one stage they were melting two 
days of the previous outward journey into one. 

Arriving at Baula, Jacob Wainwright, the scribe of the 
party, was commissioned to write an account of the dis- 
tressing circumstances of the Doctor's death, and Chuma, 
taking three men with him, pressed on to deliver it to the 
English party in person. The rest of the cortege followed 
them through the jungle to Chilunda's village. On the 
outskirts they came across a number of Wagogo hunting- 
elephants with dogs and spears, but although they were 
well treated by them, and received presents of honey and 
food, they thought it better to keep these men in ignorance 
of the fact that they were in charge of the dead body of 
their master. 

The Manyara Eiver was crossed on its way to Tan- 
ganyika before they got to Chikooloo. Leaving this 
village behind them, they advanced to the Ugunda dis- 
trict, now rulea by Kalimaugombi, the son of Mbereke, the 
former chief, and so on to Kasekera, which, it will be re- 
membered, is not far from Unyanyembe. 

VOL. II. z 


20th October, 1873. — We will here run on ahead with 
Chuma on his way to communicate with the new arrivals.. 
He reached the Arab settlement without let or hindrance- 
Lieut. Cameron was quickly put in possession of the main 
facts of Dr. Livingstone's death by reading Jacob's letter, 
and Chuma was questioned concerning it in the presence of 
Dr. Dillon and Lieut. Murphy. It was a disappointment to 
find that the reported arrival of Mr. Oswell Livingstone was 
entirely erroneous ; but Lieut. Cameron showed the wayworn 
men every kindness. Chuma rested one day before setting- 
out to relieve his comrades to whom he had arranged to 
make his way as soon as possible. Lieut. Cameron expressed 
a fear that it would not be safe for him to carry the cloth 
he was willing to furnish them with if he had not a stronger 
convoy, as he himself had suffered too sorely from terrified 
bearers on his Avay thither ; but the young fellows were 
pretty well acquainted with native marauders by this time, 
and set off without apprehension. 

And now the greater part of their task is over. The 
weather-beaten company wind their way into the old 
well-known settlement of Kwihara. A host of Arabs and 
their attendant slaves meet them as they sorrowfully take 
their charge to the same Tembe in which the " weary wait- 
ing " was endured before, and then they submit to the 
systematic questioning which the native traveller is so well 
able to sustain. 

News in abundance was offered in return. The porters 
of the Livingstone East-Coast Aid Expedition had plenty 
to relate to the porters sent by Mr. Stanley. Mirambo's 
war dragged on its length, and matters had changed very 
little since they were there before, either for better or for 
worse. They found the English officers extremely short 
of goods ; but Lieut. Cameron, no doubt with the object of 
his Expedition full in view, very properly felt it a first duty 
to relieve the wants of the party that had performed this. 


Herculean feat of bringing the body of the traveller he had 
been sent to relieve, together with every article belonging 
to him at the time of his death, as far as this main road to 
the coast. 

In talking to the men about their intentions, Lieut. 
Cameron had serious doubts whether the risk of taking 
the body of Dr. Livingstone through the Ugogo country 
ought to be run. It very naturally occurred to him that 
Dr. Livingstone might have felt a wish during life to be 
buried in the same land in which the remains of his 
wife lay, for it will be remembered that the grave of Mrs. 
Livingstone is at Shupanga, on the Zambesi. All this 
was put before the men, but they steadily adhered to their 
first conviction — that it was right at all risks to attempt to 
bear their master home, and therefore they were no longer 
urged to bury him at Kwihara. 

To the new comers it was of great interest to examine the 
boxes which the men had conveyed from Bangweolo. As 
we have seen, they had carefully packed up everything at 
Chitambo's — books, instruments, clothes, and all which 
would bear special interest in time to come from having 
been associated with Livingstone in his last hours. 

It cannot be conceded for a moment that these poor fellows 
would have been right in forbidding this examination, when 
we consider the relative position in which natives and English 
officers must always stand to each other ; but it is a source 
of regret to relate that the chief part of Livingstone's 
instruments were taken out of the packages and appro- 
priated for future purposes. The instruments with which 
all his observations had been made throughout a series of 
discoveries extending over seven years — aneroid barometers, 
compasses, thermometers, the sextant and other things, have 
gone on a new series of travels, to incur innumerable 
risks of loss, whilst one only of his thermometers comes to 

z 2 


We could well have wished these instruments safe in 
England with the small remnant of Livingstone's personal 
property, which was allowed to be shipped from Zanzibar. 

The Doctor had deposited four bales of cloth as a reserve 
stock with the Arabs, and these were immediately forth- 
coming for the march down. 

The termination here of the ill-fated Expedition need 
not be commented upon. One can only trust that Lieut. 
Cameron may be at liberty to pursue his separate in- 
vestigations in the interior under more favourable auspices. 
The men seemed to anticipate nis success, for he is generous 
and brave in the presence of the natives, and likely to win 
his way where others undoubtedly would have failed. 

Ill-health had stuck persistently to the party, and all 
the officers were suffering from the various forms of fever. 
Lieut. Cameron gave the men to understand that it was 
agreed Lieut. Murphy should return to Zanzibar, and 
asked if they could attach his party to their march ; if so,, 
the men who acted as carriers should receive 6 dollars a 
man for their services. This Avas agreed to. Susi had 
arranged that they should „ avoid the main path of the 
Wagogo; inasmuch, as if difficulty was to be encountered 
anywhere, it would arise amongst these lawless pugnacious 

By making a ten days' detour at "Jua Singa," and 
travelling by a path well known to one of their party 
through the jungle of Poli ya vengi, they hoped to keep 
out of harm's way, and to be able to make the cloth hold 
out with which they were supplied. At length the start 
was effected, and Dr. Dillon likewise quitted the Expedi- 
tion to return to the coast. It was necessary to stop 
after the first day's inarch, for a long halt ; for one of the 
women was unable to travel, they found, and progress 
was delayed till she, the wife of Chowpereh, could resume 
the journey. There seem to have been some serious mis- 


understandings between the leaders of Dr. Livingstone's 
party and Lieut. Murphy soon after setting out, which turned 
mainly on the subject of beginning the day's march. The 
former, trained in the old discipline of their master, laid 
stress on the necessity of very early rising to avoid the heat 
of the day, and perhaps pointed out more bluntly than 
pleasantly that if the Englishmen wanted to improve their 
health, they had better do so too. However, to a certain 
extent, this was avoided by the two companies pleasing 

Making an early start, the body was carried to Kasekera, 
by Susi's party where, from an evident disinclination to 
receive it into the village, an encampment was made out- 
side. A consultation now became necessary. There was 
no disguising the fact that, if they kept along the main 
road, intelligence would precede them concerning that 
in which they were engaged, stirring up certain hostility 
and jeopardising the most precious charge they had. A 
plan was quickly hit upon. Unobserved, the men removed 
the corpse of the deceased explorer from the package in 
which it had hitherto been conveyed, and buried the bark 
case in the hut in the thicket around the village in which 
they had placed it. The object now was to throw the 
villagers off their guard, by making believe that they had 
relinquished the attempt to carry the body to Zanzibar. 
They feigned that they had abandoned their task, having 
changed their minds, and that it must be sent back to 
Unyanyembe to be buried there. In the mean time the 
corpse of necessity had to be concealed in the smallest 
space possible, if they were actually to convey it secretly 
for the future ; this was quickly managed. 

Susi and Chuma went into the wood and stripped off 
a fresh length of bark from an N'gombe tree ; in this 
the remains, conveniently prepared as to length, were 
placed, the whole being surrounded with calico in such 


a manner as to appear like an ordinary travelling bale, 
which, was then deposited with the rest of the goods. 
They next proceeded to gather a faggot of mapira-stalks, 
cutting them in lengths of six feet or so, and swathing 
them round with cloth to imitate a dead body about to 
be buried. This done, a paper, folded so as to represent 
a letter, was duly placed in a cleft stick, according to 
the native letter-carrier's custom, and six trustworthy men 
were told off ostensibly to go with the corpse to Unyan- 
yembe. With due solemnity the men set out ; the 
villagers were only too thankful to see it, and no one 
suspected the ruse. It was near sundown. The bearers 
of the package held on their way, till fairly beyond all 
chance of detection, and then began to dispose of their 
load. The mapira-sticks were thrown one by one far away 
into the jungle, and when all were disposed of, the 
wrappings were cunningly got rid of in the same way. 
Going further on, first one man, and then another, sprung 
clear from the path into the long grass, to leave no trace of 
footsteps, and the whole party returned by different ways to 
their companions, who had been anxiously awaiting them 
during the night. No one could detect the real nature of the 
ordinary-looking bale which, henceforth, was guarded with 
no relaxed vigilance, and eventually disclosed the bark coffin 
and wrappings, containing Dr. Livingstone's body, on ^lie 
arrival at Bagamoio. And now, devoid of fear, the people of 
Kasekera asked them all to come and take up their quarters 
in the town ; a privilege which was denied them so long as 
it was known that they had the remains of the dead with 

But a dreadful event was about to recall to their minds 
how many fall victims to African disease ! 

Dr. Dillon now came on to Kasekera suffering much from 
dysentery — a few hours more, and he shot himself in his 
tent by means of a loaded rifle. 


Those who knew the brave and generous spirit in which 
this hard-working volunteer set out with Lieut. Cameron,, 
fully hoping to relieve Dr. Livingstone, will feel that he 
ended his life by an act alien indeed to his whole nature. 
The malaria imbibed during their stay at Unyanyembe 
laid upon him the severest form of fever, accompanied by 
delirium, under which he at length succumbed in one of its 
violent paroxysms. His remains are interred at Kasekera. 

We must follow Susi's troop through a not altogether 
eventless journey to the sea. Some days afterwards, as- 
they wended their way through a rocky place, a little girl 
in their train, named Losi, met her death in a shocking 
way. It appears that the poor child was carrying a water- 
jar on her head in the file of people, when an enormous 
snake dashed across the path, deliberately struck her in 
the thigh, and made for a hole in the jungle close at hand. 
This work of a moment was sufficient, for the poor girl fell 
mortally wounded. She was carried forward, and all means 
at hand were applied, but in less than ten minutes the last 
symptom (foaming at the mouth) set in, and she ceased to 

Here is a well-authenticated instance which goes far to 
prove the truth of an assertion made to travellers in many 
parts of Africa. The natives protest that one species of snake 
will deliberately chase and overtake his victim with light- 
ning speed, and so dreadfully dangerous is it, both from the 
activity of its poison and its vicious propensities, that it is 
perilous to approach its quarters. Most singular to relate, 
an Arab came to some of the men after their arrival at 
Zanzibar and told them that he had just come by the 
Unyanyembe road, and that, whilst passing the identical spot 
where this disaster occurred, one of the men was attacked by 
the same snake, with precisely the same results ; in fact, when 
looking for a place in which to bury him they saw the grave 
of Losi, and the two lie side by side. 


Natal colonists will probably recognise the Mamba in this 
snake ; it is much to be desired that specimens should be 
procured for purposes of comparison. In Southern Africa so 
great is the dread it inspires that the Kaffirs will break up 
a Kraal and forsake the place if a Mamba takes up his 
quarters in the vicinity, and, from what we have seen above, 
with no undue caution. 

Susi, to whom this snake is known in the Shupanga tongue 
as " Bubu," describes it as about twelve feet long, dark in 
colour, of a dirty blue under the belly, with red markings 
like the wattles of a cock on the head. The Arabs go so far 
as to say that it is known to oppose the passage of a caravan 
at times. Twisting its tail round a branch, it will strike one 
man after another in the head with fatal certainty. Their 
remedy is to fill a pot with boiling water, which is put on 
the head and carried under the tree ! The snake dashes his 
head into this and is killed — the story is given for what it is 

It would seem that at Ujiji the natives, as in other places, 
cannot bear to have snakes killed. The " Chatu," a species of 
python, is common, and, from being highly favoured, becomes 
so tame as to enter houses at night. A little meal is placed 
on the stool, which the uncanny visitor laps up, and then 
takes its departure — the men significantly say they never 
saw it with their own eyes. Another species utters a cry, 
much like the crowing of a young cock ; this is well authen- 
ticated. Yet another black variety has a spine like a black- 
thorn at the end of the tail, and its bite is extremely deadly. 

At the same time it must be added that, considering the 
enormous number of reptiles in Africa, it rarely occurs that 
anyone is bitten, and a few months' residence suffices to dispel 
the dread which most travellers feel at the outset. 

February, 1874. — No further incident occurred worthy of 
special notice. At last the coast town of Bagamoio came in 
sight, and before many hours were over, one of Her Majesty's 

1874.] CONCLUSION. 345 

cruisers conveyed the Acting Consul, Captain Prideaux, 
from Zanzibar to the spot which the cortege had reached. 
Arrangements were quickly made for transporting the 
remains of Dr. Livingstone to the Island some thirty miles 
distant, and then it became perhaps rather too painfully 
plain to the men that their task was finished. 

One word on a subject which will commend itself to most 
before we close this long eventful history. 

We saw what a train of Indian Sepoys, Johanna men, 
Nassick boys, and Shupanga canoemen, accompanied Dr. 
Livingstone when he started from Zanzibar in 1866 to enter 
upon his last discoveries : of all these, five only could answer 
to the roll-call as they handed over the dead body of their 
leader to his countrymen on the shore whither they had 
returned, and this after eight years' desperate service. 

Once more we repeat the names of these men. Susi and 
James Chuma have been sufficiently prominent through- 
out — hardly so perhaps has Amoda, their comrade ever since 
the Zambesi days of 1864 : then we have Abram and Ma- 
bruki, each with service to show from the time he left the 
Nassick College with the Doctor in 1865. Nor must we 
forget Ntoaeka and Halima, the two native girls of whom we 
have heard such a good character: they cast in their lot 
with the wanderers in Manyuema. It does seem strange 
to hear the men say that no sooner did they arrive at their 
journey's end than they were so far frowned out of notice, 
that not so much as a passage to the Island was offered 
them when their burden was borne away. We must hope 
that it is not too late— even for the sake of consistency 
— to put it on record that whoever assisted Livingstone, 
whether white or black, has not been overlooked in Eng- 
land. Surely those with whom he spent his last years must 
not pass away into Africa again unrewarded, and lost to 

Yes, a very great deal is owing to these five men, and 
VOL. II. 2 A 


we say it emphatically. If the nation has gratified a 
reasonable wish in learning all that concerns the last days 
on earth of a truly noble countryman and his wonderful 
enterprise, the means of doing so could never have been 
placed at our disposal but for the ready willingness which 
made Susi and Chuma determine, if possible, to render 
an account to some of those whom they had known as 
their master's old companions. If the Geographer finds 
before him new facts, new discoveries, new theories, as 
Livingstone alone could record them, it is right and proper 
that he should feel the part these men have played in 
furnishing him with such valuable matter. For we repeat 
that nothing but such leadership and staunchness as that 
which organized the march home from Ilala, and dis- 
tinguished it throughout, could have brought Livingstone's 
bones to our land or his last notes and maps to the outer 
world. To none does the feat seem so marvellous as to those 
who know Africa and the difficulties which must have beset 
both the first and the last in the enterprise. Thus in his 
death, not less than in his life, David Livingstone bore 
testimony to that goodwill and kindliness which exists in 
the heart of the African. 



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